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Wood building construction

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US3114176A
US3114176A US76719658A US3114176A US 3114176 A US3114176 A US 3114176A US 76719658 A US76719658 A US 76719658A US 3114176 A US3114176 A US 3114176A
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figure
triangles
side
dome
triangle
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Alvin E Miller
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PEASE WOODWORK CO Inc
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PEASE WOODWORK CO Inc
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/26Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of wood
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/32Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures
    • E04B1/3211Structures with a vertical rotation axis or the like, e.g. semi-spherical structures
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/26Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of wood
    • E04B1/2604Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B2001/268Connection to foundations
    • E04B2001/2684Connection to foundations with metal connectors
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/32Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures
    • E04B2001/327Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures comprised of a number of panels or blocs connected together forming a self-supporting structure
    • E04B2001/3276Panel connection details
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/32Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures
    • E04B2001/327Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures comprised of a number of panels or blocs connected together forming a self-supporting structure
    • E04B2001/3288Panel frame details, e.g. flanges of steel sheet panels
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/32Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures
    • E04B2001/3294Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures with a faceted surface
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S52/00Static structures, e.g. buildings
    • Y10S52/10Polyhedron

Description

De c. 17, 1963 MILLER 3,114,176

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WOOD BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 lgm INVENTOR.

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Dec. 17, 1963 A. E. MILLER woon BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 8 Sheets-Sheet 7 Filed Oct. 14, 1958 INVENT OR. 4w 5 Muse, BY

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A. MILLER 3,114,176

woon BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Dec. 17, 1963 Filed Oct. 14, 1958 8 Sheets-Sheet 8 Aw E M445 BY CZQQW CW ATTORNEYS.

United States Patent M 3,114,176 WODD BUILDING CGNS'IRUCIIIIN Alvin E. Miller, Hamilton, (lhio, assignor to The Pease Woodwork Company Inc, Hamilton, Ghio, a corporation of Ohio Filed Get. 14, 1958, Ser. No. 767,196 4 Claims. (Cl. 20-2) My invention resides in a wood frame for enclosing space and more particularly in a plurality of wooden triangles which are assembled together to constitute the frame and in the construction of the individual wood triangles.

An import-ant object of my invention is to provide a shelter comprising a wooden frame which can quickly and easily be mounted and demounted so that the shelter frame may be moved from place to place as required or desired.

Another very important object of my invent-ion is to provide a shelter comprised not only of a wooden frame but also having an outside covering of plywood and in this connection it is a further and specific object of the invention to provide a structure which makes the most eificient and economical use of the plywood commercially available today.

Another important object of the invention is to provide a shelter comprised of a frame so designed that one or more door openings can be included with a minimum of difiicul-ty and without materially lessening the strength of the frame structure.

A further object of this invention is to provide a frame for enclosing space in which the basic frame members correspond to or lie along the chords of great circle arcs so as to define a geodesic dome and to this end it is a specific object of my invention to improve upon the basic disclosures contained in Richard Buckminster Full ers Patent No. 2,682,235 which issued June 29, 1954, and is entitled Building Construction.

A further object of my invention is to provide a framework for enclosing space which, although made of wood, is extremely light and strong while lending itself to quick and easy assembly and at the same time being economical to manufacture and construct.

These and other objects of my invention will appear during the course of the following description and with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which drawings like numerals are employed to designate like parts throughout and which drawings will be described shortly.

In the description to follow certain terms will be employed in the same sense as set forth in the Fuller Patent 2,682,235. Thus the term geodesic means of or pertaining to great circles of a sphere, or of arcs of such circles, or their chords; spherical means having the form of a sphere, including bodies having the form of a portion of a sphere and polygonal bodies whose sides are so numerous that they appear to be substantially spherical; and *icosahedron means a polyhedron of twenty faces.

I have found that by using the basic teachings of the Fuller patent hereinbefore referred to and by amplifying and improving on them as hereinafter taught by me, a dome-shaped framework may be obtained which will achieve all of the objects set forth above and others which will become apparent as the description proceeds.

In the drawings,

FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic perspective view of an icosahedron.

FIGURE 2 is a diagrammatic perspective view of a polyhedron of eighty faces derived from the icosahedron of FIGURE 1 by dividing each of the triangular planes of the icosahedron into four other triangular planes in a manner to be described later.

3,l lii'lh Patented Dec. 17, I953 FIGURE 3 is a diagrammatic illustration of the mannor in which one of the twenty triangular faces of the icosahedron of FIGURE 1 is divided into four triangular faces found among those of the eighty face polyhedron of FIGURE 2.

FIGURE 4 is an enlarged view of the eighty face polyhedron of FIGURE 2, this polyhedron having been rotated to a somewhat different position in FIGURE 4.

FIGURE 5 is a diagrammatic front view of the basic dome of my invention, which dome is derived from dividing the eighty face polyhedron of FIGURE 4 by a hemispherical plane as will be described.

*IGURE 6 is a diagrammatic side view of the dome of FIGURE 5.

FIGURE 7 is a diagrammatic top view of the dome of FIGURE 5.

FIGURE 8 is a plan view of the base on which the dome of FIGURES 5-7 may rest.

FIGURE 9 is an enlarged fragmentary section taken on the line 9-9 of FIGURE 8.

FIGURE 10 is an enlarged fragmentary section taken on the line Itl1l( of FIGURE 6.

FIGURE 11 is a bottom plan view of the upper structure of the dome of FIGURE 10, taken from the line I l-41 of FIGURE 10.

FIGURE 12 is a section taken on the line 12l2 of FIGURE 10.

FIGURE 13 is a section taken on the line 13-13 of FIGURE 10.

FIGURE 14 is a view similar to FIGURE 13 which diagrammatically illustrates a modification of the inventron.

FIGURE 15 is a front elevation of a shelter dome embodying my invention.

FIGURE 16 is a perspective view of the shelter dome of FIGURE 15 FIGURE 17 is a section taken on the line 17-17 of FIGURE 15.

FIGURE 18 is a section taken on the line 18-48 of FIGURE 15.

FIGURE 19 is a front view with parts broken away, of one of the basic triangular frame members of which my shelter dome is comprised.

FIGURE 20 is an enlarged fragmentary rear View of the upper portion of the member of FIGURE 19.

FIGURE 21 is a front view, with parts broken away,

of a pair of triangular frame members each of which cor-' responds to one-half of the triangular frame member of FIGURE 19. 7

FIGURE 22 is a diagrammatic illustration of how a plywood panel may be cut to furnish a suitable covering for the frame members of FIGURES 19, 21, 23, 24 and 27.

FIGURE 23 is a front view, with parts broken away, of another triangular frame member used in constructing the shelter dome of this invention.

FIGURE 24 is a front view, with parts broken away, of a pair of triangular frame members each of which corresponds to one-half of the triangular frame member of FIGURE 23.

FIGURE 25 is a diagrammatic, exploded view illustratin the arrangement of parts in my shelter dome wherein five triangular frame members have a common vertex and illustrating the position of a tension strap which may be employed in the shelter dome of my invention.

FIGURE 26 is a view taken on the line 2s 2s of FIGURE 5.

FIGURE 27 is a front View, with parts broken away, of a pair of triangular wings which may be employed in the shelter dome of my invention to define the door area.

FIGURE 28 is an end elevation of a No. 1 stock section used in the shelter dome of my invention.

FIGURE 29 is an end elevation of a No. 2 stock section used in the shelter dome of my invention.

FIGURE 30 is an end elevation of a No. 3 stock section used in the shelter dome of my invention.

FIGURE 31 is an end elevation of a No. 4 stock section used in the shelter dome of my invention.

FIGURE 32 is an end elevation of a No. S stock section used in the shelter dome of my invention.

FIGURE 33 is an end elevation of a No. 6 stock section used in the shelter dome of my invention.

FIGURE 34 is a diagrammatic top plan view of an elongated or exploded shelter dome which forms a part of my invention.

FIGURE 35 is a diagrammatic side elevation of the dome of FIGURE 34.

FIGURE 36 is a fragmentary diagrammatic top plan view of my exploded shelter dome.

FIGURE 37 is a side elevation of the shelter dome of FIGURE 36.

FIGURE 38 is a plan view of one-half of the additional triangle member used to form the elongated or exploded shelter dome of FIGURES 36 and 37.

FIGURE 39 is a plan view of a whole additional triangle employed in the construction of my exploded shelter dome of FIGURES 36 and 37 and,

FIGURE 40 is a plan view of a special triangle employed adjacent the apex of the elongated or exploded shelter dome of FIGURES 36 and 37.

Referring now to FIGURES l I shall describe how I arrived at the basic shape and design of the shelter dome of my invention.

FIGURE 1, which is a diagrammatic perspective view of an icosahedron, illustrates a polyhedron in which each of the twenty triangular faces is bound by equal lines A-A and all of which lines are the chords of great circle arcs. In FIGURE 3 the triangle A-AA represents one of the twenty equilateral triangles constituting a face of the icosahedron of FIGURE 1. It will be understood that each of the points A of FIGURE 1 lies in the plane of a sphere, the lines joining these points A being straight line chords of great circle arcs of this sphere.

I arrived at the eighty-face polyhedron of FIGURES 2 and 4 as follows. Starting with the icosahedron of FIGURE 1 which is made up of twenty equilateral triangular faces AA-A, I divided each such basic face AA-A into four other triangles by connecting the mid-points B. I connect the mid-points B of each side AA of the basic triangle A-AA and move such midpoints radially of the icosahedron to the face of the sphere in which the points A lie; by radially I mean moving the points B on a line from the center of the sphere in which the points A lie through the particular mid-point E of the chords AA to the face of the sphere. This having been done, the lines AB and BB also represent chords of great circle arcs of the sphere originally described by the points A of the icosahedron of FIGURE 1.

When each of the triangular faces AAA of FIG- URE 1 is divided as explained in connection with FIG- URE 3 there results a division of such face into four smaller triangular faces three of which are identical isosceles triangles and the remainder of which is an equilateral triangle. Each of the three identical isosceles triangles is defined by the lines AB, B-B and B-A while the equilateral triangle is defined by the lines connecting the points 3-3-13. In each of the isosceles triangles the two lines AB are equal and the one line BB is the longest of the three. I have identified the isosceles triangles by the numeral 1 and the equilateral triangle by the numeral 2; this division is repeated for each of the twenty faces A-AA of the icosahedron of FIGURE 1.

In FIGURE 4 I have identified by numerals 1 and 2 each of the various triangles derived by dividing the triangle AAA of FIGURE 1 in the manner taught in connection with FIGURE 3 wherein the mid-points B of the triangle AAA were connected. I have also ap- 4, plied the letters A and B to FIGURE 4 in such a way as to illustrate how the division of a triangle of FIGURE 3 appears in the eighty face polyhedron of FIGURE 4 e as obtained by this division. It will be noted that in the pol hedron of FIGURE 4 each of the points A occurs at a pentagonal vertex, that is, at a point wherein five No. 1 triangles come together. Similarly each of the points B occurs at a hexagonal vertex, that is, wherein six triangles come together, four of these being No. 1 triangles and two of them being No. 2 triangles.

An important part of my invention lies in the choosing of a hemisphere plane by which I obtain a dome (a hemisphere dome) in which I can conveniently locate one or more door openings with a minimum amount of difliculty, with little weakening of the frame structure and in the most economical manner. I realized that if I were to pass the hemisphere plane through the line defined by the points XX of FIGURE 4 I could divide this polyhedron into halves without having to cut through any of the No. 1 or No. 2 triangles. This seemed quite desirable until I realized that if I did this I would obtain a dome or hemisphere in which there would be no side of any of the No. 1 or No. 2 triangles parallel to the base line X-X through which the hemisphere plane was passed. Such an arrangement would make it very difficult to put in a satisfactory door although it would give me a basic dome of forty triangles ten of which would be whole No. 2 triangles and thirty of which would be whole No. 1 triangles.

I discovered that a much better division could be made by passing the hemisphere plane through a line which may be defined as follows. -I start this line on the surface of the polyhedron at any pentagonal vertex, that is, at any of the points A. This line is extended perpendicular to the 'long side of a No. 1 triangle thereby cutting this No. 1 triangle in half. 'From this point on the long side of a No. 1 triangle we extend the line through an adjacent No. 2 triangle to a hexagonal vertex B thereby cutting this No. 2 triangle in half also. The line is continued by extending it from the point B at right angles to the far side of the other No. 2 triangle located in this hexagonal grouping. From this point on the middle of this side of a No. 2 triangle the line is extended through a No. 1 triangle to a pentagonal vertex A thereby cutting this No. 1 triangle in half also. The line is new continued by following the chord which will be found to be in line with the line so far constructed, this chord being a short side of a No. 1 triangle and this chord terminating at a hexagonal vertex 2. The line is continued by following another chord which will be found to be in line with the line so far constructed, this other chord also constituting one of the short sides of a No. 1 triangle, this latter chord terminating at a pentagonal vertex A. The description as so far given takes the line along which I wish to pass the hemisphere plane one-half way around the polyhedron of FIGURE 4. From this latter pentagonal vertex A I continue the line exactly as described in bringing the line one-half way around the polyhedron, that is, I next extend the line from this latter pentagonal vertex A at right angles to the long side of a No. 1 triangle and so forth as before until We reach the original starting point. The hemsiphere resulting from passing the hemisphere plane through this line will have a hexagonal grouping at zenith B consisting of four No. 1 triangles and two No. 2 triangles.

It will be observed that by starting my line at a pentagonal vertex A, I cut through a No. 1 triangle, cut through a No. 2 triangle, cut through a No. 2 triangle, cut through a No. 1 triangle, pass along the edge of a No. 1 triangle, pass along the edge of a No. 1 triangle, cut through a No. 1 triangle, cut through a No. 2 triangle, cut through a No. 2 triangle, cut through a No. 1 triangle, pass along the edge of a No. 1 triangle, and pass along the edge of another No. 1 triangle to reach my starting place. I have found that when I cut the eighty face polyhedron of FIGURE 4 in this manner I not only obtain a hemisphere having the hexagonal grouping at zenith as described but also that it is inherent in this orientation that there will be two long sides of two No. 1 triangles which will occur at 180 to each other and each of which will be parallel to the base plane of the hemisphere. One such line is indicated at 59 in FIGURE 5. This is important.

The hemisphere obtained by cutting the polyheydron of FIGURE 4 in half as described will contain twentyeight whole No. 1 triangles, two No. 1 triangles cut in half (i.e four halves of No. 1 triangles) eight Whole No. 2 triangles and two No. 2 triangles cut in half (i.e. four halves of No. 2 triangles). There will thus be forty-four basic sections defining the dome. A shelter dome with one door located beneath one of the horizontal lines 56 may be obtained by removing three full triangles, one No. 2 triangle and two No. 1 triangles; this is shown in FIGURE 5. Suitable framing elements, as will be described later, may be employed to define the door as actually used in practice.

The Triangular Members My invention has so far been described in general terms and rather diagrammatically in FIGURES 1-4 with reference to the points A and B and to the triangles No. 1 and No. 2 to produce the shelter dome having the horizontal line 59 as illustrated in FIGURE 5. An important feature of my invention lies in that I have discovered that these various triangles may be made from side elements of Wood arranged to form the sides of the triangle as will now be described.

The triangular panels I prefer in the construction of the preferred form of the shelter dome of this invention are best seen in FIGURES 19-24. Reference to FIG- URES 28-33 will also be made.

Referring now to FIGURES l9 and 20 I have illustrated the preferred embodiment of a No. 1 triangle heretofore discussed. This triangle comprises three side elements of wood, the two equal sides being indicated at 51 and the longer side at 52. Each of these side elements 51 and 52 has an end 51a and 52a respectively extending to an apex of the triangle and another end 515 and 52b respectively abutting the end of an adjacent side element. The outer sides of each of the wood side elements 51 and 52 are cut at an angle to the plane of the triangle defined by these members so that when these triangles are used as a part of a geodesic structure, that is, in a shelter dome of the type diagrammatically illustrated in FIGURE 5, the planes of the outer sides of these side elements 51 and 52 will pass through the center of the dome. These beveled outer sides are clearly indicated in FIGURE 20 at 510. The opposite sides of these members 51 are set at the same angle as indicated at 51a in FIGURE 19; a similar side for the member 52 is indicated at 52d. A cross-section through the member 51 will have the same outline as the end elevation of the stock section No. 1 from which the member 51 is constructed, see FIGURE 28. A cross-section through the member 52 will have the same outline as the end elevation of the stock section No. 2 from which it is constructed, see FIGURE 29.

In the preferred form of my invention 1 fix an outside covering 53 of plywood to the members 51 and 52. The widest standard non-premium commercially available plywood, i.e. the most economical to purchase, comes in 48" wide strips. I have made use of this fact in arriving at the preferred form of my invention. As stated earlier the longest side of the isosceles triangles No. l is equal to any side of the equilateral triangle No. 2. By holding the length of the long side of the triangle No. 1 to 96 I am able to make the best use of the non-premium plywood commercially available and this is diagrammatically represented in FIGURE 22. In this figure there is illustrated a strip of 48" wide plywood 53. By cutting this strip on the diagonal I obtain the sections 53a and 53b. These sections may then be applied to the triangle of FIGURE 6 19 by aifixing them to the members 51 and 52 as indicated. It should be noted that the long side element 52 is not, in the preferred embodiment of my invention, 96" long, rather, it is the total distance from the end of the member 531a to the end 52a which should measure 96".

The surfaces of the members 51 and 52 to which the plywood sections are affixed preferably by gluing, are cut or shaved so that these sections lie substantially flat with very little distortion. This holds true for all the triangular members employed in the preferred form of my invention. Although these surf-aces against which the plywood sections lie may deviate slightly from presenting a truly fiat surface, the outer sides of the basic triangular members lie in planes which pass exactly through the center of the dome, e.g., as described in connection with 510.

Also, although I prefer to use plywood as the outside covering material for my basic triangular members, such as that described in connection with FIGURE 19, I may also employ other materials, e.g., plastics and the like.

I have also found it desirable to employ a brace element 54 for the No. 1 triangle of FIGURE 19. In addition I have found it desirable, when the various triangles making up my shelter dome are fastened together, to fasten the triangles by bolts which are located as nearly as possible to the apices of the adjoining triangles. In order that this may be accomplished for all three of the apices of each triangle I employ a cross brace 55 which extends between two adjacent legs of the triangle near one apex. The member 54 eXtends from this brace 55 to the third leg of the triangle. In all cases, with respect to No. 1 triangles only, the brace 54 will extend at right angles from the long side 52 of such No. =1 and isosceles triangle. The brace 55, of course, will therefore extend between the side elements 51. The primary purpose of the brace 54 is to support the edges of the plywood covering 53; the main frame sections of the dome are the members '51 and 52.

The plywood sections 53a and 5% are glued to the members 51, 5'2, 54 and 55 on the outside of the triangle. On the inner side of the triangle, as illustrated in FIG- URE 20, I connect all abutting frame members 51, 52, 54 and 55 by metal straps having holes which receive nails therethrough. These straps are similar for all such connections and are indicated at 56. The cross-section of the brace member 54 will have an outline like that shown for the end elevation of stock No. 3, see FIGURE 30. The brace member 55 is made out of the stock section No. 1 of FIGURE 28. It will also be apparent that the ends of the brace members 54 and "55 will be beveled to coincide with the respective side element or brace element which it abuts.

In FIGURE 21 I have illustrated a pair of halves of a No. 1 triangle. The principal structural difference between one-half of a No. 1 triangle and a whole No. 1 triangle lies in the elimination of the brace members 54 and 55' and substituting for them the side element 54a. Also the member 52 is cut into a pair of halves 52a. It will be apparent that in the preferred embodiment of my invention the width of these half No. 1 triangles will be 48". It is also to be understood that the plywood sections 53a and 53b will be glued on one side of the half triangles while the metal straps 56 and nails will be used on the other side wherever the members 51, 52e and 54-51 abut one another. The members 54a, like the brace members 54, are constructed from stock section No.3 as illustrated in FIGURE 30.

Considering now FIGURES 23 land 24 I have illustrated the makeup of the No. 2 triangles and the halves thereof. Basically these triangles are much the same as the No. 1 triangles already described dilfering only in that all three side elements are of the same size and made of the same stock section, that is stock section No. 1, see FIG- URE 28. I have indicated all the side elements of the No. 2 triangles at 57 and the main brace member at 58 with a cross brace 59. As in the case of the No. 1

triangles the brace 58 is made of No. 3 stock section (FIGURE 30) and the cross brace 59 is made of No. 1 stock section (FIGURE 28). Again all abutting members are beveled for a snug fit. In the No. 1 triangles it is necessary that the brace 54 extend at right angles to the long side 52. In the No. 2 triangles, since all sides are equal, the brace 58 may extend at right angles from the midpoint of any of the side elements 5'7. In constructing a shelter dome made up of the No. 1 land No. 2 triangles the builder may orient the No. 2 triangles however he wishes in order to have the main brace 53 in whatever position is desired with respect to the locating or" windows, vents and the like. There is a definite orientation, however, of the No. 1 triangles in the assembled dome as will be described shortly.

The half No. 2 triangle is shown in FIGURE 24 and is constructed similar to the half No. 1 triangle of FIG- URE 21. One of the side elements 57 is divided in half thus resulting in the members 54a. The member fill replaces the braces 58 and 59.

In the preferred embodiment of my invention the triangles of FIGURES 23 and 24 have sheets of plywood glued to one side and metal straps and nails are employed to join all abutting members on the side opposite the plywood, all as has been described in connection with FIG- URES 19, and 21.

Referring briefly to FIGURES 28, 29 and 30, which figures show the stock section out of which the various side elements and braces are made as has been mentioned, it will be noted that all of these stock sections are cut from the standard two-by-four wood members which, as is understood in the art, are actually one and five-eighths inc es by three and five-eighths inches. FIGURES 28, 29 and 30 illustrate the actual size of the original two-byfour and the actual size of the resulting stock sections after the members are cut at the angles indicated. These angles are what make it possible for the various triangles to be assembled in side by side relationship to form the shelter dome as will be described more fully. As indicated before, the angles for the stock sections from which i In FIGURES 6-14 I have illustrated a dome which is made from the No. 1 and No. 2 triangles above described including also the half triangles. It will be understood that these triangles are oriented in the same manner diagrammatically illustrated in FIGURES 4 and 5. In this dome I have provided a door by eliminating two whole No. 1 triangles and one whole No. 2 triangle from the left side as viewed in FIGURES 6 and 7. Again note the particular member which is the long side of a No. 1 triangle and which is one of two such sides which will occur 180 from each other parallel to the base. In FIGURES 6 and 7 I have illustrated abutting side elements of adjacent triangles in heavy lines and I have illustrated abutting plywood sections of the individual triangles in light lines.

In all cases wherein a pentagonal vertex occurs the brace members for the No. 1 triangles which make up such pentagonal grouping will radiat from the vertex. The No. 2 triangles which abut the No. 1 triangles making up a pentagonal grouping may be oriented in any way desired so as to locate the brace for a desired window or vent position. In the figures I have shown windows at 61 and vents at 62.

The triangles are assembled by bolting abutting side elements of such triangles at three places. It is desired to locate bolts at each end of the side elements as close to the apex of the individual triangle as possible. The third bolt will be located at approximately the center of the side elements. The individual triangles and half triangles may be prefabricated in a factory and the bolt 8 holes, which appear in dotted lines in FIGURES 19, 21, 23 and 24, may be provided at that time.

Earlier I described the individual triangles as having side elements with an end extending to an apex of the triangle and another end abutting the end of an adjacent lde element. In the preferred form or" my invention this arrangement is important. It enables what I term a turbining effect at the pentagonal and hexagonal groupings of the triangles and this is best illustrated in FIG- URES l1 and 25. That end of each side element of each triangle which extends to the apex of its triangle abuts all other similar ends of the side elements so that they meet in the center of the grouping. In the arrangement illustrated in FIGURE 11, the left hand side element of each triangle as viewed in that figure extends to the center of the hexagonal grouping. This enables me to provide a very strong building framework. The particular hexagonal grouping illustrated is that which occurs at the zenith oi the dome, see also FIGURE 10.

In the exploded view of FIGURE 25, which shows a pentagonal grouping, it will be understood that all of the triangles are No. 1 triangles and that all of the side elements illustrated are the short sides 51. Again, the left hand side element of each of the triangles as viewed in FIGURE 25 extends to the center of the pentagonal grouping to produce the turbining effect I have mentioned. FIGURE 25 also illustrates another of the construction features I provide in the preferred form of my invention. Thus it will be noted that I utilize a tension strap 63 which is nailed between the triangles in order to strengthen the pentagonal joint, see also FIGURE 26. I prefer to make the tension strap 63 as straight as possible and I ailix it to the two triangles in the pentagonal grouping which make this possible. It will be understood that I also prefer to employ a tension strap 63 at the hexagonal joint and this can be a substantially straight strap.

In FIGURES 8, 9, 12, 13 and 14 I have illustrated in greater detail how the shelter dome may be constructed. In FIGURES 8 and 9 I have shown a concrete slab 64 to which have been bolted a plurality of standard two-byfour Wood members on which the lowermost of the individual triangles and half triangles may be mounted. These two-by-four base members are indicated at 65. The members 65 will vary in length according to the particular side element of the No. 1 or No. 2 triangle which will rest thereon.

In FIGURE 12 I have shown a side element 522 of a half No. 1 triangle bolted to the base member 65.

FIGURE 12 also illustrates a construction feature wherein I have utilized a side strip 66 for the base member 65 which abuts the plywood 53 to give a smooth exterior. The joint between the plywood 53 and strip 66 is preferably covered by a strip of aluminum tape which is easily applied on the job and which may be pulled off if the dome is to be dernounted.

FIGURE l3 illustrates another feature of construction which may be employed. When the individual triangles and half triangles are bolted together in assembling the shelter dome there will be a slight gap where the plywood sections of adjacent triangles come together. This may be filled by a suitable caulking as indicated at 68. If desired a strip of aluminum tape 67 may be placed over this joint. In some instances the aluminum strip may be placed over the joint without any caulking therebeneath and this is illustrated in FIGURE 14. The aluminum tape 67 is available on the market and lends itself to my shelter dome construction very nicely.

In FIGURE 14 I have'illustrated another feature of my invention. By making the individual triangles of the side elements formed from two-by-fours I end up with a structure to which an inner skin 69 may easily be applied. Between this skin 69 and the outer cover material, which I have indicated is preferred to be plywood, suitable insulation 7th may be placed.

This is a very important I The Door Earlier I have indicated that one of the important features of my invention resides in the determination of how to provide a dome which will present at least one of the basic side elements parallel to the base and sutl'iciently removed therefrom to enable a door to be placed in the structure with a minimum of difiiculty. I have indicated how this is done and have indicated the particular side element at 59. To arrive at the door itself I remove two whole No. 1 triangles and one whole No. 2 triangle and substitute for them two wings 71 and the door structure generally indicated at 75, see FIGURES l5 and 16. The wings 71 are shown in FIGURE 27 and are triangles made or" the side elements 72, 73 and 74 covered by plywood 53. It will again be understood that metal straps and nails are used on the side opposite the plywood wherever ide elements abut one another. These triangular wings 71 are so constructed that when they abut the No. 1 triangles to which they are fastened the wings will turn in towards the center of the dome and terminate in a vertical plane passing through the upper horizontal door member 56. In order to accomplish this I construct the side element 7'2 from stock section No. 4 (see FIGURE 31) which is cut from a piece of two by six (one and five-eighths inches by five and one-half inches). Side element '73 is formed from stock section No. 6 (see FIGURE 33) and side element 74 is cut from stock section No. 5 (see FIGURE 32). I have selected those dimensions and angles, as illustrated in FIGURES 31, 32 and 33, which enable the wings to abut fiush against the triangles to which they are bolted and so that they will terminate in the plane of a vertically located door. These side elements or wings may be varied to accommodate doors of dinerent type and size.

The door structure itself may be of conventional structure. In FIGURES 15-18 I have shown an overhead garage door 75. It will be understood that other types of doors may be used. It will be further understood that the area taken up by the particular door 75,illustrated could easily be framed so as to pre ent a regular door for humans rather than the large vehicle door shown. The important feature is that of having arranged the structural triangles in such a way as to obtain the horizontal member 59 which makes the provision or" a door in the simple manner illustrated possible. i

In FIGURES l5 and 16 I have illustrated another important feature of my invention. The great circle arc in winch the element St lies as a chord terminates at the base at two points 180 rel loved from one another, each point being one quarter away around the dome from the center of the door. I utilize this great circle arc to provide a rain gutter or the like 76 which takes water striking the dome away from the door area. Also I prefer to employ an overhang 77 and side flashing 73 about the door and wings respectively.

A Modification-The Expanded 0r Elongated Shelter Dome In FIGURES 34 through 40 I have illustrated a modification of my invention. This modified shelter dome is diagrammatically illustrated in FIGURES 34- and 35 and in somewhat greater detail in FIGURES 36 and 37. I have discovered that if I take the shelter dome of FIG- URE 7, for example, and cut it in half, I may then insert additional triangular members between the two halves thus giving me an expanded or elongated shelter dome of greatly increased area with a minimum of cost while retaining the rigidity and strength of the dome.

The dome represented in FIGURES 34 and 35 may be thought of as that resulting from dividing the shelter dome of FIGURE 7 along the line MM and inserting a double row of additional triangles 8t including half triangles 3t), therebetween. It will be understood that there may be any even number of rows or" such triangles inserted between the domes resulting from cutting that of FIGURE 7 in half, thus instead of the two rows indicated there may be four, six, eight and so forth.

If I were to cut the shelter dome of FIGURE 7 on the line MM and separate it by a double row of triangles till I would get an elongated dome in which the door member 59 were to the front and the door member 50 to the rear. For purposes of symmetry I prefer that the door members 5% and SIP be to the same side. Accordingly, in actual practice I treat the division of the shelter dome of FIGURE 7 as having been accomplished along the line M-M to provide the left-hand part of the shelter dome of FIGURE 34 and as also having been divided along the line M'-M' to provide the right hand dome structure of FIGURE 34. In this manner I am able to get both of the door members '59 and St) to the same side of the elongated dome. Such a division of the shelter dome of FIGURE 7 is easy to make since the lines MM and M-M define halves of this shelter dome which are identical.

Referring now to FIGURE 39 I have illustrated a triangle 8tl as comprised of the side member 81, equal side members 82, brace 63 and cross-brace 84. It will again be understood that in the preferred form of my invention this triangular member Si) is covered by plywood sections on one side while the abutting side elements and braces are connected by straps and nails at the joints on the side opposite the plywood skin. In the preferred form of this modification of my invention the width of the triangle along that side wherein is the side element 81 is eight feet long so that this triangle will coincide with the long side of the No. 1 triangles and any side of the No. 2 triangles of, for example, the shelter dome of FIGURE 7. The equal sides 82 of the triangles 8% may be of any length within practical limitations. In the preferred form of the invention, however, I prefer that these sides be of such length as to define a triangle till having an altitude of eight feet so that I am able to take the best advantage of the most popular, and most economical, form in which standard plywood sheet is available on the market, namely, a sheet four feet wide and eight feet long.

In FIGURE 38 I have shown one-half of a triangle $0 and have indicated that it has side elements 31a and 82 and also a side element 83a responding to what was the brace element 83 or" the whole triangle 89. This half triangle will also be covered by plywood glued to one side and the side elements will be connected by metal straps and nails on the opposite side.

In constructing the expanded or. elongated dome of FIGURES 34 and 35 by cutting the shelter dome of FIGURE 7 in half and by inserting a double row of the triangles I obtain a structure in which adjacent triangles 8t), wherever they abut along their side elements 81, will produce a structure which is slightly concave with the side elements 81 at the deepest portion. This produces a structure which is quite strong but one which is not desired at the apex of the building for such a depression would make the accumulation of water and snow too probable. Accordingly, while I may employ at least the side elements 81 and 82 of the triangles 80 which occur at the apex for the sake of strength, in the preferred form of my elongated shelter dome I will build up this apex four triangular members 85. As best seen in FIGURE 40 these triangular members 85 have side elements 86, 37 and 88. These triangles also have plywood glued to one side thereof with the abutting side elements joined by metal straps and nails on the opposite side. In FIG- URE 35 I have illustrated the normal position of the triangles 8t) appearing at the apex of the dome in dotted lines While showing also in solid lines the triangles S5 Ti which I employ to define the actual exterior and eliminate the concavity which would otherwise appear at such apex.

In FEGURES 36 and 37 l have shown in somewhat more detail, although still rather diagrammatically, the modified expanded shelter dome of this invention. In this expanded shelter dome i have illustrated the doors made possible by the members 5% and 58' at 75a, showing also the framing members 77a and 78a.

Since the side elements 8d of the triangular members Si) must coincide with either the long sides of the No. 1 triangles or any of the side elements of the No. 2 triangles, and since I have divided the shelter dome of FIGURE 7 along the lines M lvl and B T- M, I obtain an elongated dome in which a pair of the triangular members 8t} have their side elements 81 abut one another and extend vertically from the base. This gives me an elongated dome with the height of these particular abutting side elements being substantially eight feet.- This enables me to frame in a door in the center of the building of the same height as the doors 75 5a which is approximately six and one-half feet. Such a door is illustrated at $9 in the drawings.

Although they have not been shown in all of the PIG- URES 34-37, it will be understood that the whole triangular members iltl will include also the braces 83 and 34. It is to be understood that the side elements of the various triangular members all will be cut at angles to enable them to abut flush with the side elements of either the No. 1 or No. 2 triangles. The side elements of these triangles 81'} will also be out at angles to enable adjacent elements of the triangular members to abut one another in similar fashion. This, of course, is also true for the half triangles S0 and the special triangles 85.

Summary Although it is believed that l have described my invention in considerable detail the following points may be emphasized. I have provided a shelter dome which may be constructed from triangles having wood side elements and a plywood covering, which dome is of sturdy construction and which may be quickly and easily assembled at the desired location for it. The individual triangles and half triangles may be prefabricated and all of these triangles assembled simply by bolting them together in situ. The joints between abutting triangles may be covered by a strip of adhesive backed aluminum tape or, if desired, caulking may be applied and then the tape. Other materials for covering the various joints may be used to rnalre the dome waterproof. The two plywood pieces which cover the individual full triangles may also have a strip of aluminum tape or other material applied over their joint to make them waterproof and this may be done at the factory. By holding the maximum width 05 the triangles to 96" I am able to provide a shelter dome having a diameter of 26 feet and one in which the most eflicient use may be made of the standard size sheets of non-premium plywood presently commercially available. The side elements for the various whole triangles and half triangles may be constructed from two-by-four wood material cut at various angles so that the abutting tri ngles will shape up the dome and have the adjacent side elements of abutting triangles flush with one another. By selecting the particular whole triangles and half triangles herein illustrated, and maintaining the No. 2 equilateral triangles to the width of 96, and the widest part of the No. 1 triangles to a width of 95", I obtain two possible door openings wherein the two long sides 55 of a pair of opposite No. 1 triangles are horizontally disposed at approximately six and one-half feet from the base. By locating the great circle are which includes the member 5% I also obtain a good basis for applying the rain shed or gutter described.

The individual triangles made up of the side elements and iicluding also bracing for the plywood, when covered by the plywood glued to one side and abutting elements joined by metal straps and nails applied on the opposite side of the pl wood, are quite sturdy structural members. By bolting adiacent individual triangles to one another as close to the apex of each triangle as possible, and incluiing also a third bolt at approximately the center of ad a-cent side elements, l obtain an extremely strong dome. It will be observed that l have utilized the teachings of the Fuller Patent 2,682,235 in that the side elements of the main structural triangles lie along the chords of great circle arcs. The specific construction of the triangular members and the manner of groupingthem to form the dome illustrated is my own invention.

it is also possible that domes of other sizes may be constructed from triangles similar in size to those I have described herein and it will be'understood that my invention embraces such modifications, the use of different numbers of triangles requiring only changes in the angularity of the side elements which, as pointed out herein, is determined by considering the plane of the sides of such side elements as passing through the center of the dome, and minor changes in the lengths of the side elemcnts. Specifically l have determined that a dome of twenty-two feet diameter may be constructed of trianguiar members all of which are identical isocelcs triangles and this i refer to as a two frequency triacon to distinguish it from that illustrated throughout the drawings which is a two frequency alternate. In addition I have determined that a four frequency (truncated) division of the icosahedron will produce a dome of forty-nine feet diameter and that in this dome I may leave off the bottom row of triangles to form a three-eighths dome or I may add another row of triangles to form a five-cighths dome. All of these domes are capable of being built by tri oles constructed according to the invention herein illustrated. in the various domes mentioned I have again limited the widest triangular member to eight feet.

Also, i have shown how the basic shelter dome of my invention may be elongated by cutting it in half and inserting between the halves double rows of additional triangles which will conform-on one side to the long side of the No. 1 triangles and to any of the sides of the No. 2 triangles of the basic dome illustrated. The modification which results in this elongated dome enables me to provide a structure which may be adapted to various lots and in which the square feet of area enclosed is greatly increased by the addition of a relatively few triangular members. The elongated dome of FIGURES 36 and 37, for example, encloses almost twice as much base area as does the shelter dome of FIG- URE 7.

The use of Wood two-by-fours in making the basic triangular members of which my geodesic dome-like structures are constructed, makes it possible for an inner skin to be applied with a minimum of difficulty; insulation material may be included between toe outer and inner skins. The case with which these features may be achieved in my structures contributes to the uniqueness of my invention.

It will be understood that further modifications may be made in my invention without departing from its scope and spirit and although i have illustrated my invention as embodied in certain particular constructions I do not intend to be limited to these particular constructions eXc-e t insofar as they are specifically set forth in the subjoined claims.

Having thus described my invention what 1 claim as new and what I desire to protect by United States Letters Patent is:

l. A cluster of triangular panels for use in a geodesic dome-like structure constituted by a plurality of triangular plane surfaces, each said triangular panel being composed of three frame elements of wood forming the sides of a trian le, each frame element havin an end extending to and forming an a ex of the triangle and another end abutting the inside edge of an adjacent frame element which extends to and forms an apex of the triangle; a first brace member of wood disposed on a line extending from the mid-point of one side to the opposite apex, said brace member terminating short of said apex and secured to a second brace member of wood perpendicular to said first brace member; and a covering of ply-Wood secured to one side of said triangle of frame elements; the outside edges of said frame elements being beveled at angles such that when said panel forms part of a geodesic dome, planes containing said beveled edges pass approximately through the center or" said dome-like structure; and said cluster of panels comprises a plurality of said triangular panels, the apices of said panels meeting at a point, said individual panels being disposed in the cluster in the same sense as are the apex forming frame elements and their respective abutting frame elernents in the individual panels, whereby to provide a inwheel-like arrangement about said point.

2. The structure of claim 1 wherein the said point at which the apices of said pane-ls meet is reinforced by a tension strap passing through said point and secured between and to a pair of abutting frame elements on each side of said point.

3. The structure of claim 2 wherein said cluster consists of six panels and said tension strap is a straight strap disposed with three panels on each side thereof.

he structure or" claim 2 wherein said cluster consists of five panels and said tensionstrap has a dihedral angle and is disposed with three panels on one side and two panels on the other side thereof.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 547,585 Lusk Oct. 8, 1895 2,278,956 Wagner Apr. 7, 1942 2,393,676 Fuller Jan. 29, 1946 2,440,449 Raemer Apr. 27, 194-8 2,682,235 Fuller lune 29, 1954 2,705,349 Shaw Apr. 5, 1955 2,711,181 Woods June 21, 1955 2,881,717 Fuller Apr. 14, 1959 2,918,992 Gelsavage Dec. 29, 1959 FOREIGN PATENTS 13,481 Great Britain Ian. 31, 1851 899,373 France Aug. 7, 1944 682,751 Great Britain Nov. 19, 1952 684,494 Great Britain Dec. 17, 1952 OTHER REFERENCES Architectural Forum (Publ), August 1951, pp. 14-4- 151.

Engineering News-Record (Publ), Feb. 14, 1957, pp. 26, 27.

Modern Plastics (PubL), February 1957, p. 86.

Claims (1)

1. A CLUSTER OF TRIANGULAR PANELS FOR USE IN A GEODESIC DOME-LIKE STRUCTURE CONSTITUTED BY A PLURALITY OF TRIANGULAR PLANE SURFACES, EACH SAID TRIANGULAR PANEL BEING COMPOSED OF THREE FRAME ELEMENTS OF WOOD FORMING THE SIDES OF A TRIANGLE, EACH FRAME ELEMENT HAVING AN END EXTENDING TO AND FORMING AN APEX OF THE TRIANGLE AND ANOTHER END ABUTTING THE INSIDE EDGE OF AN ADJACENT FRAME ELEMENT WHICH EXTENDS TO AND FORMS AN APEX OF THE TRIANGLE; A FIRST BRACE MEMBER OF WOOD DISPOSED ON A LINE EXTENDING FROM THE MID-POINT OF ONE SIDE TO THE OPPOSITE APEX, SAID BRACE MEMBER TERMINATING SHORT OF SAID APEX AND SECURED TO A SECOND BRACE MEMBER OF WOOD PERPENDICULAR TO SAID FIRST BRACE MEMBER; AND A COVERING OF PLYWOOD SECURED TO ONE SIDE OF SAID TRIANGLE OF FRAME ELEMENTS; THE OUTSIDE EDGES OF SAID FRAME ELEMENTS BEING BEVELED AT ANGLES SUCH THAT WHEN SAID PANEL FORMS PART OF A GEODESIC DOME, PLANES CONTAINING SAID BEVELED EDGES PASS APPROXIMATELY THROUGH THE CENTER OF SAID DOMELIKE STRUCTURE; AND SAID CLUSTER OF PANELS COMPRISES A PLURALITY OF SAID TRIANGULAR PANELS, THE APICES OF SAID PANELS MEETING AT A POINT, SAID INDIVIDUAL PANELS BEING DISPOSED IN THE CLUSTER IN THE SAME SENSE AS ARE THE APEX FORMING FRAME ELEMENTS AND THEIR RESPECTIVE ABUTTING FRAME ELEMENTS IN THE INDIVIDUAL PANELS, WHEREBY TO PROVIDE A PINWHEEL-LIKE ARRANGEMENT ABOUT SAID POINT.
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USD732694S1 (en) * 2013-03-27 2015-06-23 Cornel Radu Above-ground shelter
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US3230673A (en) * 1963-04-08 1966-01-25 Robert P Gersin Modular building
US3341989A (en) * 1963-05-02 1967-09-19 Emmerich David Georges Construction of stereometric domes
US3343324A (en) * 1964-03-24 1967-09-26 Gordon William Underwater structural unit
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US3468082A (en) * 1966-07-19 1969-09-23 Emerson E Hadley Sphere shaped structure
US3418778A (en) * 1967-04-27 1968-12-31 Ellery A. Foster Building panels
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US3990195A (en) * 1975-02-18 1976-11-09 Robert Reeves Gunther Hub for geodesic dome framework construction
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