Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Apparatus for underground retorting

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3113623A
US3113623A US82810659A US3113623A US 3113623 A US3113623 A US 3113623A US 82810659 A US82810659 A US 82810659A US 3113623 A US3113623 A US 3113623A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
gas
tube
permeable
burner
zone
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Roland F Krueger
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Union Oil Co of California
Original Assignee
Union Oil Co of California
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B36/00Heating, cooling, insulating arrangements for boreholes or wells, e.g. for use in permafrost zones
    • E21B36/02Heating, cooling, insulating arrangements for boreholes or wells, e.g. for use in permafrost zones using burners

Description

Dec. 10, 1963 RF. K RUEGER APPARATUS FOR UNDERGROUND RETORTING 2 Sheets-Sheet l Filed July 20, 1959 INVENTOR. @OLA/'VD AT K/EUEGE/Q Eifer 2 Dec. 10, 1963 R. F. KRUEGER APPARATUS FOR UNDERGROUND RETORTING' 2 sheets-snaai 2 Filed July 20, 1959 .FIG-,5

23? (ffm ATTORNEY UnitedStates Patent O 3,113,623 APPARATUS FOR UNDERGR RETORTING Roland F. Krueger, Placentia, Calif., assignor to Union @il Company of California, Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation of California Filed July 20, 1959, Ser. No. 828,106 3 Claims. (Cl. 166-59) This invention relates to a novel method and apparatus for uniformly heating an elongated region of mineral deposits located beneath the earths surface, and more particularly concerns a method Iand apparatus for the thermal recovery of hydhocarbon values from subterranean deposits comprising the same.

A number of processes have been proposed whereby heat is employed to facilitate the recovery of hydrocarbon values from subterranean deposits such as bituminous sands, oil shale, bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, oil-soaked diatomite, heavy petroleum deposits, etc. ln most of said processes at least part of the heat is supplied from a burner positioned in a bore hole drilled into the deposit. For example, according to one process which has been `applied to the treatment of tar sand deposits, a plurality of relatively closely-spaced holes is drilled into the deposit, and heat is generated in a selected number of these holes by combustion of gas or other fuel in la suitably positioned burner device. The surrounding sand is thereby heated and the volatile petroleum fractions are driven towards a production bore hole from which they are recovered. .'Ilhe heavier ends which fail to vol-atilize are pyrolyzed by continued heating. As previously practiced, a single burner has been positioned at the base of the formation or at a point along the combustion tube. This technique results in localized heating, which is useful with shallow formations but not readily `applicable where the formation is vertically extended. Attempts to use this localized heating to transmit heat to an elongated zone within subterranean deposits have employed ow reversal methods, alone, or with packed annular zones of coarse inert material around the burner zone, or with `an annular fluidized bed of iinely divided inert solids. In the flow reversal method of heating, a combustion tube is concentrically placed Within the bore hole and extended nearly to the base of the hole. Combustible gases and air are mixed in the tube and ignited at a selected point. The flame front is prevented from rising to the top of the burner by flame arrestors positioned Within the burner upstream from the llame. The combustion gases pass down the extended burner tube to the base of the hole Where they reverse their direction and ilow upwardly through the annulus between the burner Itube and bore casing. lI-t has been found that `a high temperature zone within the shale deposit exists immediately adjacent the burner flame, and that the temperature of the shale at points vertically removed from this high 'temperature zone are substantially less. This type of operation is not entirely satisfactory because the heat is not eicicntly distributed and because the localized thigh temperature zone causes thermal failure of the burner tube. While use of a lfluidized bed of solids within the annulus between the burner and casing improves heat transfer to the shale, it does not completely eliminate the uneven heating along the bore hole and is disadvantageous in that it causes a high erosion rate of the metal surf-aces.

lt is a purpose of `this invention to provide an improved method for subterranean heating. It is also a purpose of the invention to provide a unique burner construction which achieves uniform heating over an extended length and has a long service life.

These purposes are achieved by providing a continuous elongated combustion zone extending the length of an ice elongated portion of the mineral deposits. The elongated combustion zone is achieved by use of a porous metallic, glass or ceramic combustion tube and Will be described by reference to the drawings which form a part of this application.

In the drawings, FIGURES l, 2 5 and 6 shovw the placement of the novel burner construction in the mineral deposits. FIGURES 3 and 4 show alternative features of construction of `the burner tubes. Although FIGURES 1, Zand 5 show a vertical disposition of the burner tubes, it is apparent -that a horizontal or inclined placement could also be employed, if desired.

Referring norw to FIGURE l, a mineral deposit, B, is shown located beneath an upper layer, A, which may comprise gravel, earth or stone or `an unheated portion of the mineral deposit. In accordance with this invention, a hole is bored through the 'earths surtiace and into the mineral deposit. A metal casing 1 is positioned Within `the bore hole in the conventional manner. Disposed within casing 1 are concentric tubes 2 and 3. Casing l, land tubes Z and 3 are closed at their upper ends. Conduit 4 connects with casing 1 to provide for removal of flue gases, conduit '5 communicates Iwith tube 2 for the introduction of `air or gas, and conduit 6 cornmunicates with inner tube =3, also for the entrance of air or gas. The unique construction of this invention is in the use of a gas-permeable tube 7 connected to the lower portion of central tube 3. Permeable tube 7 is sealed at its lower end by plate `fi which may be permeable, but is preferably impermeable to gas llow. Any suitable connection between permeable tube 7 and metal tube 3 may be employed, such as by cementing, threading or by use of a collar joint.

In operation, natural gas or other gaseous fuel is introduced Athrough conduit 6 into central tube 3. rllhe gas flows down into tube 7 `and passes through the Walls thereof into a flowing air stream which is introduced into tube 2 through conduit 5. The llow of gas through tube 7 into the air stream is lachieved by maintaining a higher pressure on the gas stream than on the air stream. Combustion is initiated in a conventional manner in the annular zone between tubes 2 and 7, and takes place along the entire length of tube 7, thereby providing an elongated combustion zone which may be of any suitable length corresponding to the ylength chosen for the permeable tube -7. y'Ille flue gases are discharged from the lower open end of tube 2 and reverse their direction of flow to pass upwardly through the annular zone between casing l and tube 2, and are removed through conduit yt. Heat is transmitted from the combustion zone by radiation to this upwardly flowing stre-am of flue gases and to lthe mineral deposits in zone B throughout the entire length of the burning zone, and heat is transmitted by convection from the flue gases to the mineral deposits. By this method a combustion zone with -a uniform temperature is maintained along the length of the mineral deposit. Although casing yl is shown to extend the length of the bore hole, it may be considerably shorter where the mineral matrix is suiciently consolidated so as not to tall into the hole. Suitable consolidation may occur naturally or be achieved by coking the hydrocarbons in the deposit immediately adjacent the bore hole.y This coking may be 'accomplished by introducing high temperature combustion gases into the hole.

Conventional ignition techniques presently employed to ignite gas burners in oil Wells lean be employed in the annulus surrounding fthe burner to ignite the burners of my invention. These techniques themselves constitute no inventive step in my system; they merely serve for the ignition `of the gas stream after it passes through the porous Wall and enters the annular combustion zone surrounding the porous burner. Among the suitable ignition techniques which are employed in the annular zone surrounding the porous burners are the following:

Dynamite and percussion caps;

Electrically actuated -heating coils and spark plugs which are positioned within the annular combustion zone and which are initiated by a supply of electrical energy from above ground; and

Chemical ignition techniques wherein a capsule of sodium or potassium is dropped into the well bore and followed by injection of water. The sodium or potassium is then released by mechanical breaking or dissolution of the capsule to react with Water and release heat to ignite the gas.

Referring now to FIGURE 2, a modified form of the invention is shown. In this embodiment, a single tube 16 is concentrically disposed within casing 9. The gas and air are introduced into tube 1h via inlets 11 and 12, respectively, and the gas-air mixture flows downwardly through tube into permeable tube 13 which is shown to be connected to the lower end of -tube 10 by a collar joint. The gas and air stream diuses through tube 13 into [the combustion zone which surrounds the same. The gas is ignited by any of the aforedescribed techniques and the resultant combustion occurs on the outside of this ltube and is prevented from backing into the permeable tube 13 by proper adjustment of the gas and air flow rates. lIf desired, central tube 1G may be extended downwardly as indicated so as to insure that the gases from the combustion zone flow to the base of the formation before reversal into an upwardly directed ilow to the flue gas outlet conduit 14.

FIGURE 3 shows an alternative method of construction for the gas permeable tube, and can be used to obtain a burner of greater strength than is possible with glass or ceramic tubes, alone. This construction comprises a central metal tube 15 which is perforated at suitable intervals by holes 16 and is sealed at its lower end by cap 20. A sleeve 17, constructed of a permeable ceramic or sintered glass material, surrounds lthe perforated portion of tube 15. The diameters of tube 15 and gas-permeable sleeve 17 are so chosen to insure a tight iit. The permeable sleeve extends a substantial distance, D, above the perforated portion of tube 15 to prevent gas llow from bypassing the permeable sleeve and flowing between the sleeve rand the tube. A Suitable sealing material 18 is placed above and below the permeable sleeve 17 to insure a gas-tight't, and is suitably held in place by coupling 19. If desired, the perforated portion of tube 15 can be on a separate piece of pipe and thereby permit connection to any suitable length of pipe to position fthe burning zone at any depth in the mineral deposit. Also if desired, several of these burning zones may be provided on a single string of vpipe separated by an impermeable portion of pipe, thereby permitting simultaneous `heating of multiple zones of mineral deposits. The thickness, W, of permeable sleeve 17 is selected to maintain suflicient thermal insulation between the `outer burning zone and metal tube 15. This is to eliminate any difficulties encountered due to the differences in thermal expansion of the dissimilar ceramic sleeve and the tube.

FIGURE 4 shows another embodiment of the permeable tube burner. This construction comprises a central tube 21 which is perforated similarly to tube 15 of FIGURE 3, and is similarly closed` at its lower end. Surrounding the perforated portion of tube 21 is a second concentric rtube 22 which is supported by rings 23. Tube 22 Ais also provided with a plurality of perforations. Between tubes 22 and 21 is packed an annular bed of unconsolidated silica, sand or quartz grains, which is permeable to gas ow. These grains fare prevented from falling through 4the perforations in tubes 21 and 22 by outer screen 24 and inner screen 25. Again, these burning zones may be constructed on separate pieces of pipe and connected to any desired length of pipe to permit the proper location within the mineral deposit.

FIGURE 5 illustrates an alternative type of construction. The gas permeable burner 26 in this embodiment is constructed of a gas permeable metal and is connected to a supply of air and `combustible gas. The gas and air ow into this permeable burner and diffuse into the annular lzone between the burner and the casing wall. The gas is ignited by any of the -aforedescribed techniques and the resultant combustion occurs in this annular zone along the entire length of the permeable lburner 26. A second concentric tube 27 may surround the permeable burner to insure that the combustion gases will flow to the base of the formation before reversal to the point of removal above the ground. Use of a permeable metal tube simplies construction and provides a burner which is somewhat easier to install than a glass or ceramic burner.

Another embodiment of the invention is illustrated by FIGURE 6. In this embodiment, a single tube 28 is concentrically positioned within casing 29. A ceramic rod 30, which is of a length corresponding to the depth of the mineral deposit, is supported within inner tube 28. lInlet 32 for the introduction of a combustible gas mixture, and outlet 3l for the removal of ue gas, communicate with tube 28 and casing 29, respectively. Gas and air ilow downwardly (through tube 28 and are Withdrawn through conduit 31. Combustion is initiated by igniting the gas stream flowing out of tube 31. However, any other conventional ignition technique is suitable. This combustion is permitted to back up into the burner until the flame front exists at the lower end of tube 28. The ceramic rod 30 is lowered so that its lower end is within the combustion zone at the base of tube 28. The ceramic rod slowly heats up by conduction, and a red-hot zone progresses up the length of rod 30. As this zone moves up the ceramic rod, the combustion zone follows it until a combustion zone exists within tube 2S along the entire length of the 4ceramic rod. An annular ring 33 may be placed within tube 2S above the ceramic rod to momentarily increase the combustible gas flow rate and thereby prevent the combustion zone from moving up tube 28 to the gas inlets or, if desired, tube 28 may be of a reduced diameter at its upper end to serve the same purpose. Other llame arrestors, such as screens or grids, may also be employed. The ceramic rod 30 is shown to be movable in a vertical direction. However, to simplify construction, particularly where the depth of the mineral formation is known, the ceramic rod may be rigidly supported within tube 28.

Suitable ceramic material for constructing the aforementioned gas-permeable elements may comprise permeable ceramics of alumina, zirconia, sandstone, and aluminum silicates such as sillimanite, or clays. These gas-permeable ceramics are commercially available in a wide rang of permeabilities and in a variety of shapes, including tubular elements.

Gas-permeable glass suitable for use in this invention is made by sintering of glass powders to obtain a shatterproof porous glass permeable to gas flow. This type of glass is also commercially available.

Suitable gas-permeable vmetals for construction of the burners of this invention are made by sintering of metal powders. able in bronze and a wide range of stainless steel alloys, such as 304, 309, 316, 347, nickel, Monel, etc. The permeabilities of these metals may range from a value of cubic feet of air per minute per square foot at 0.01 psi. pressure drop for a one-sixteenth inch thick stock of a highly permeable material to a permeability of 27 cubic feet of air per minute at l0 psi. pressure drop for a oneeighth inch stock of low permeability material.

A typical `example of this Yinvention is as follows: The apparatus shown by FIGURE 5 is employed to supply heat to a tar sand deposit 50 feet below the earths surface. The deposit is 30 feet rthick, and it is desired to supply 31,00() B.t.u.s per hour to the sand. A two and one-half inch bore is drilled -into the deposit and a gaspermeable stainless steel burner made from one-eighth These sintered metals are commercially avail- A one-fourth inch pipe is connected to the top of the metal burner tto supply 310 cubic feet per hour of a combined gas and air stream. In order to insure even diffusion of the combustible mixture into the annulus surrounding the burner, it is necessary to maintain a high pressure drop through the burner walls relative to the gas fiow pressure drop down the porous metal tube. A stainless steel of relatively low permeability is chosen to provide a diffusion pressure drop which is l() to 830 times as great as the gas flow pressure drop within the permeable metal burner. The actual diffusion pressure drop through the tube is 4.15 inches of water. As a result, even distribution of the gas-air mixture is obtained and ya combustion zone surrounds the permeable tube over the entire thickness of the deposit. This example is by way of illustration only and is not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention which is directed to providing an elongated combustion zone throughout the entire depth of thick mineral deposits.

I claim:

1. A burner in combination with a well bore which penetrates an oil sand interval to be heated, a combustible gas and an air supply conduit connected to the upper end of a tubing string, said tubing string extending into said well bore and connected therein to said burner, a casing within the upper extremity of said well bore and -a conduit communicating with said oasing for the removal of ue gases therefrom; said burner comprising an elongated metal tube perforated along its length and connected to said tubing string, a second perforated metal tube concentric with and surrounding said first tube, said second tube being7 of lesser diameter than said well bore to form an annulus therebetween, a first ring laterally positioned between the non-perforated ends of said first and second tubes, and a second ring laterally positioned between the opposite non-perforated ends of said tubes, a cap over the lower end of said first tube, a first metal screen around the outer periphery of said first tube extending from said first ring to said second ring, a second metal screen around the inner periphery of said second tube extending from said first ring to said second ring, and an annular bed of unconsolidated granular material packed between said first and second screens and said first and second rings.

2. The combination of claim 1 wherein said well bore penetrates a plurality of oil sand inten/als to be heated and wherein a plurality of said burners are attached to said tubing string so as to extend substantially the depth of its respective oil sand interval. i

3. The combina/tion of a Well bore penetrating a subterranean oil sand interval which comprises a first tubing string and a second tubing string concentrically disposed within said first tubing string, said first and second tubing strings extending into said well bore, a conduit communieating with the upper end of said well bore for removal of iue gas therefrom, said second tubing string extending to the upper level of said oil sand interval, said first tubing string extending to the lower level of said oil sand interval, a gas permeable tube concentrically disposed within said first tubing string and connected to the lower end of said second tubing string, said gas permeable tube being closed at its lower end and terminating at the lower level of said oil sand interval, said gas permeable tube having an uninterrupted wall of uniform permeability to gases so as to permit diffusion of a gas therethrough, a combustible gas supply conduit connected to the upper end of said second tubing string, an oxidizing gas supply conduit connected to the upper end of said first tubing string, a combustible gas supply means connected to said combustible gas supply conduit and an oxidizing gas supply means connected to said oxidizing supply conduit, said combustible gas supply means being adapted to supply combustible gas lat a pressure greater than the pressure of oxidizing gas supplied by said oxidizing gas supply means so as to cause said combustible gas to diffuse through said gas permeable tube and admix with said oxidizing gas within said first tubing string.

References Cited in the file ot' this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 71,144 Dean Nov. 19, 1867 444,85() Reed Jan. 20, 1891 1,678,592 Garner et ral. July 24, 1928 2,161,865 Hobstetter et al. June 13, 1939 2,890,754 Hoifstrom et al June 16, 1959 2,913,050 lCrawford Nov. 17, 1959 2,981,332 Miller et al Apr. 25, 1961 3,010,516 Schleicher Nov. 28, 1961 3,050,116 Crawford Aug. 21, 1962 FOREIGN PATENTS 123,137 Sweden Nov. 9, 1948

Claims (1)

  1. 3. THE COMBINATION OF A WELL BORE PENETRATING A SUBTERRANEAN OIL SAND INTERVAL WHICH COMPRISES A FIRST TUBING STRING AND A SECOND TUBING STRING CONCENTRICALLY DISPOSED WITHIN SAID FIRST TUBING STRING, SAID FIRST AND SECOND TUBING STRINGS EXTENDING INTO SAID WELL BORE, A CONDUIT COMMUNICATING WITH THE UPPER END OF SAID WELL BORE FOR REMOVAL OF FLUE GAS THEREFROM, SAID SECOND TUBING STRING EXTENDING TO THE UPPER LEVEL OF SAID OIL SAND INTERVAL, SAID FIRST TUBING STRING EXTENDING TO THE LOWER LEVEL OF SAID OIL SAND INTERVAL, A GAS PERMEABLE TUBE CONCENTRICALLY DISPOSED WITHIN SAID FIRST TUBING STRING AND CONNECTED TO THE LOWER END OF SAID SECOND TUBING STRING, SAID GAS PERMEABLE TUBE BEING CLOSED AT ITS LOWER END AND TERMINATING AT THE LOWER LEVEL OF SAID OIL SAND INTERVAL, SAID GAS PERMEABLE TUBE HAVING AN UNINTERRUPTED WALL OF UNIFORM PERMEABILITY TO GASES SO AS TO PERMIT DIFFUSION OF A GAS THERETHROUGH, A COMBUSTIBLE GAS SUPPLY CONDUIT CONNECTED TO THE UPPER END OF SAID SECOND TUBING STRING, AN OXIDIZING GAS SUPPLY CONDUIT CONNECTED TO THE UPPER END OF SAID FIRST TUBING STRING, A COMBUSTIBLE GAS SUPPLY MEANS CONNECTED TO SAID COMBUSTIBLE GAS SUPPLY CONDUIT AND AN OXIDIZING GAS SUPPLY MEANS CONNECTED TO SAID OXIDIZING SUPPLY CONDUIT, SAID COMBUSTIBLE GAS SUPPLY MEANS BEING ADAPTED TO SUPPLY COMBUSTIBLE GAS AT A PRESSURE GREATER THAN THE PRESSURE OF OXIDIZING GAS SUPPLIED BY SAID OXIDIZING GAS SUPPLY MEANS SO AS TO CAUSE SAID COMBUSTIBLE GAS TO DIFFUSE THROUGH SAID GAS PERMEABLE TUBE AND ADMIX WITH SAID OXIDIZING GAS WITHIN SAID FIRST TUBING STRING.
US3113623A 1959-07-20 1959-07-20 Apparatus for underground retorting Expired - Lifetime US3113623A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3113623A US3113623A (en) 1959-07-20 1959-07-20 Apparatus for underground retorting

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3113623A US3113623A (en) 1959-07-20 1959-07-20 Apparatus for underground retorting
US3181613A US3181613A (en) 1959-07-20 1963-04-23 Method and apparatus for subterranean heating

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3113623A true US3113623A (en) 1963-12-10

Family

ID=25250934

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3113623A Expired - Lifetime US3113623A (en) 1959-07-20 1959-07-20 Apparatus for underground retorting

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US3113623A (en)

Cited By (63)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3181613A (en) * 1959-07-20 1965-05-04 Union Oil Co Method and apparatus for subterranean heating
US3244231A (en) * 1963-04-09 1966-04-05 Pan American Petroleum Corp Method for catalytically heating oil bearing formations
US3376932A (en) * 1966-03-04 1968-04-09 Pan American Petroleum Corp Catalytic heater
US3420300A (en) * 1966-10-27 1969-01-07 Sinclair Research Inc Method and apparatus for heating a subsurface formation
US3497000A (en) * 1968-08-19 1970-02-24 Pan American Petroleum Corp Bottom hole catalytic heater
US3680635A (en) * 1969-12-30 1972-08-01 Sun Oil Co Delaware Method and apparatus for igniting well heaters
US3680636A (en) * 1969-12-30 1972-08-01 Sun Oil Co Method and apparatus for ignition and heating of earth formations
US3804163A (en) * 1972-06-08 1974-04-16 Sun Oil Co Catalytic wellbore heater
US4446917A (en) * 1978-10-04 1984-05-08 Todd John C Method and apparatus for producing viscous or waxy crude oils
US4640352A (en) * 1983-03-21 1987-02-03 Shell Oil Company In-situ steam drive oil recovery process
US4886118A (en) * 1983-03-21 1989-12-12 Shell Oil Company Conductively heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil
US5070533A (en) * 1990-11-07 1991-12-03 Uentech Corporation Robust electrical heating systems for mineral wells
US5082055A (en) * 1990-01-24 1992-01-21 Indugas, Inc. Gas fired radiant tube heater
US5224542A (en) * 1990-01-24 1993-07-06 Indugas, Inc. Gas fired radiant tube heater
US5297626A (en) * 1992-06-12 1994-03-29 Shell Oil Company Oil recovery process
US5392854A (en) * 1992-06-12 1995-02-28 Shell Oil Company Oil recovery process
US5404952A (en) * 1993-12-20 1995-04-11 Shell Oil Company Heat injection process and apparatus
USRE35696E (en) * 1992-06-12 1997-12-23 Shell Oil Company Heat injection process
US5862858A (en) * 1996-12-26 1999-01-26 Shell Oil Company Flameless combustor
US20030079877A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation in a reducing environment
WO2003036040A2 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-05-01 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20030080604A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US20030098605A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US6581684B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-06-24 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce sulfur containing formation fluids
US6588504B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US20030173081A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US20030173085A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Upgrading and mining of coal
US6684948B1 (en) 2002-01-15 2004-02-03 Marshall T. Savage Apparatus and method for heating subterranean formations using fuel cells
US6698515B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6715546B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US6715548B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
WO2004059208A2 (en) * 2002-12-20 2004-07-15 Fina Technology, Inc. Method for reducing the formation of nitrogen oxides in steam generation
US20050016729A1 (en) * 2002-01-15 2005-01-27 Savage Marshall T. Linearly scalable geothermic fuel cells
US7011154B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US7051808B1 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7066254B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US7073578B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-07-11 Shell Oil Company Staged and/or patterned heating during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7090013B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US7096953B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
US7104319B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US20060210468A1 (en) * 2005-03-10 2006-09-21 Peter Veenstra Heat transfer system for the combustion of a fuel and heating of a process fluid and a process that uses same
US20060210936A1 (en) * 2005-03-10 2006-09-21 Peter Veenstra Multi-tube heat transfer system for the combustion of a fuel and heating of a process fluid and the use thereof
US20060222578A1 (en) * 2005-03-10 2006-10-05 Peter Veenstra Method of starting up a direct heating system for the flameless combustion of fuel and direct heating of a process fluid
US7121342B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7165615B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-23 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US20070045265A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Mckinzie Billy J Ii Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes
US20070095536A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-05-03 Vinegar Harold J Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US7320364B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-01-22 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting reflux in a heated well of an in situ conversion system
US20080035346A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Vijay Nair Methods of producing transportation fuel
US20080128134A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-05 Ramesh Raju Mudunuri Producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US20090053660A1 (en) * 2007-07-20 2009-02-26 Thomas Mikus Flameless combustion heater
US20090071652A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-03-19 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US20090189617A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-07-30 David Burns Continuous subsurface heater temperature measurement
US20090260824A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 David Booth Burns Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100089586A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-15 John Andrew Stanecki Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20110027739A1 (en) * 2007-02-26 2011-02-03 Institut Francais Du Petrole Premixing-Less Porous Hydrogen Burner
US8327932B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2012-12-11 Shell Oil Company Recovering energy from a subsurface formation
US8631866B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-01-21 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8701768B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations
US8820406B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-02 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore
US9016370B2 (en) 2011-04-08 2015-04-28 Shell Oil Company Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US9033042B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-19 Shell Oil Company Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US9309755B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2016-04-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations

Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US71144A (en) * 1867-11-19 louis
US444850A (en) * 1891-01-20 Burner for natural gas
US1678592A (en) * 1923-02-03 1928-07-24 Standard Oil Dev Co Art of treating oil wells
US2161865A (en) * 1936-05-29 1939-06-13 Wheeling Steel Corp Burner construction
US2890754A (en) * 1953-10-30 1959-06-16 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Apparatus for recovering combustible substances from subterraneous deposits in situ
US2913050A (en) * 1955-05-12 1959-11-17 Phillips Petroleum Co Preventing explosions in bore holes during underground combustion operations for oil recovery
US2981332A (en) * 1957-02-01 1961-04-25 Montgomery K Miller Well screening method and device therefor
US3010516A (en) * 1957-11-18 1961-11-28 Phillips Petroleum Co Burner and process for in situ combustion
US3050116A (en) * 1958-05-26 1962-08-21 Phillips Petroleum Co Multiple zone production by in situ combustion

Patent Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US71144A (en) * 1867-11-19 louis
US444850A (en) * 1891-01-20 Burner for natural gas
US1678592A (en) * 1923-02-03 1928-07-24 Standard Oil Dev Co Art of treating oil wells
US2161865A (en) * 1936-05-29 1939-06-13 Wheeling Steel Corp Burner construction
US2890754A (en) * 1953-10-30 1959-06-16 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Apparatus for recovering combustible substances from subterraneous deposits in situ
US2913050A (en) * 1955-05-12 1959-11-17 Phillips Petroleum Co Preventing explosions in bore holes during underground combustion operations for oil recovery
US2981332A (en) * 1957-02-01 1961-04-25 Montgomery K Miller Well screening method and device therefor
US3010516A (en) * 1957-11-18 1961-11-28 Phillips Petroleum Co Burner and process for in situ combustion
US3050116A (en) * 1958-05-26 1962-08-21 Phillips Petroleum Co Multiple zone production by in situ combustion

Cited By (375)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3181613A (en) * 1959-07-20 1965-05-04 Union Oil Co Method and apparatus for subterranean heating
US3244231A (en) * 1963-04-09 1966-04-05 Pan American Petroleum Corp Method for catalytically heating oil bearing formations
US3376932A (en) * 1966-03-04 1968-04-09 Pan American Petroleum Corp Catalytic heater
US3420300A (en) * 1966-10-27 1969-01-07 Sinclair Research Inc Method and apparatus for heating a subsurface formation
US3497000A (en) * 1968-08-19 1970-02-24 Pan American Petroleum Corp Bottom hole catalytic heater
US3680636A (en) * 1969-12-30 1972-08-01 Sun Oil Co Method and apparatus for ignition and heating of earth formations
US3680635A (en) * 1969-12-30 1972-08-01 Sun Oil Co Delaware Method and apparatus for igniting well heaters
US3804163A (en) * 1972-06-08 1974-04-16 Sun Oil Co Catalytic wellbore heater
US4446917A (en) * 1978-10-04 1984-05-08 Todd John C Method and apparatus for producing viscous or waxy crude oils
US4886118A (en) * 1983-03-21 1989-12-12 Shell Oil Company Conductively heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil
US4640352A (en) * 1983-03-21 1987-02-03 Shell Oil Company In-situ steam drive oil recovery process
US5082055A (en) * 1990-01-24 1992-01-21 Indugas, Inc. Gas fired radiant tube heater
US5224542A (en) * 1990-01-24 1993-07-06 Indugas, Inc. Gas fired radiant tube heater
US5070533A (en) * 1990-11-07 1991-12-03 Uentech Corporation Robust electrical heating systems for mineral wells
US5297626A (en) * 1992-06-12 1994-03-29 Shell Oil Company Oil recovery process
US5392854A (en) * 1992-06-12 1995-02-28 Shell Oil Company Oil recovery process
USRE35696E (en) * 1992-06-12 1997-12-23 Shell Oil Company Heat injection process
US5404952A (en) * 1993-12-20 1995-04-11 Shell Oil Company Heat injection process and apparatus
US5862858A (en) * 1996-12-26 1999-01-26 Shell Oil Company Flameless combustor
US7086468B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US7011154B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US6997255B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a reducing environment
US6994168B2 (en) * 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Scott Lee Wellington In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen to carbon ratio
US6994161B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Kevin Albert Maher In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected moisture content
US6994160B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6991031B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to convert a selected total organic carbon content into hydrocarbon products
US6581684B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-06-24 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce sulfur containing formation fluids
US6973967B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-12-13 Shell Oil Company Situ thermal processing of a coal formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US6588504B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US6591906B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected oxygen content
US6591907B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6966372B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-11-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce oxygen containing formation fluids
US6959761B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-11-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US7798221B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2010-09-21 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6953087B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-10-11 Shell Oil Company Thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a permeability of the formation
US6948563B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-09-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen content
US6715548B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US6913078B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-07-05 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively impermeable formation
US6910536B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US6902003B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation having a selected total organic carbon content
US6902004B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a movable heating element
US6607033B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-08-19 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce a condensate
US6609570B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-08-26 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation and ammonia production
US6896053B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-05-24 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US8225866B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2012-07-24 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8485252B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2013-07-16 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7017661B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-28 Shell Oil Company Production of synthesis gas from a coal formation
US6889769B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-05-10 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected moisture content
US8789586B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2014-07-29 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6688387B1 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-02-10 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a hydrocarbon condensate
US6698515B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6769485B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-08-03 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation through a heat source wellbore
US6702016B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with heat sources located at an edge of a formation layer
US6708758B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US6712135B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation in reducing environment
US6712137B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6712136B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a selected production well spacing
US6715546B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US6880635B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-04-19 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio
US6715549B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected atomic oxygen to carbon ratio
US6715547B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to form a substantially uniform, high permeability formation
US6719047B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-13 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a hydrogen-rich environment
US6722431B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively permeable formation
US6722429B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US6722430B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected oxygen content and/or selected O/C ratio
US6725920B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to convert a selected amount of total organic carbon into hydrocarbon products
US6725921B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6725928B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a distributed combustor
US6729401B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation and ammonia production
US6729397B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6729396B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6729395B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US6732795B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6732796B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio
US6732794B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US6736215B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-18 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation, in situ production of synthesis gas, and carbon dioxide sequestration
US6739394B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-25 Shell Oil Company Production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6739393B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation and tuning production
US6742593B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat transfer from a heat transfer fluid to heat the formation
US6742589B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US6742587B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to form a substantially uniform, relatively high permeable formation
US6742588B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce formation fluids having a relatively low olefin content
US6745831B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6745832B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to control product composition
US6745837B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a controlled heating rate
US6749021B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a controlled heating rate
US6752210B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US6758268B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6761216B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-13 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US6923258B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-08-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processsing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US6763886B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US6769483B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-08-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor in conduit heat sources
US7096941B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with heat sources located at an edge of a coal layer
US6877554B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-04-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US6789625B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-09-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using exposed metal heat sources
US7096953B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
US6805195B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-10-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US6871707B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-03-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US6866097B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-03-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to increase a permeability/porosity of the formation
US6820688B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-11-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of coal formation with a selected hydrogen content and/or selected H/C ratio
US7036583B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-05-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a porosity of the formation
US20040211557A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2004-10-28 Cole Anthony Thomas Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20040211554A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2004-10-28 Vinegar Harold J. Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7096942B1 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation while controlling pressure
US6877555B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-04-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking
US7225866B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2007-06-05 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US6880633B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-04-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product
US7066254B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US8608249B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2013-12-17 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20030164239A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-09-04 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment
US20030146002A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-07 Vinegar Harold J. Removable heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20030141066A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Karanikas John Michael In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking
US20030142964A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate
US20030141067A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Rouffignac Eric Pierre De In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to increase permeability of the formation
US6915850B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections
US6918442B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment
US6918443B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6923257B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-08-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a condensate
US20030136558A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product
US6929067B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-08-16 Shell Oil Company Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7055600B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate
US20030136559A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation
US6948562B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-09-27 Shell Oil Company Production of a blending agent using an in situ thermal process in a relatively permeable formation
US6951247B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-10-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources
US20030131993A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 Etuan Zhang In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property
US7051811B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing through an open wellbore in an oil shale formation
US20030131996A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections
US6964300B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-11-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with backproduction through a heater wellbore
US20030131995A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation to increase permeability of the formation
US6966374B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-11-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US7051807B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control
US20030116315A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-26 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation
US6981548B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US6991033B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation
US7040399B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate
US20030111223A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-19 Rouffignac Eric Pierre De In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources
US6991032B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US6991036B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company Thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation
US20030102126A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Sumnu-Dindoruk Meliha Deniz In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate
US20030098149A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US6994169B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property
US20030098605A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US6997518B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and solution mining of an oil shale formation
US20030080604A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US7004251B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and remediation of an oil shale formation
US7004247B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-28 Shell Oil Company Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7735935B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2010-06-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation containing carbonate minerals
US7040400B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation using an open wellbore
US20030079877A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation in a reducing environment
US7040398B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation in a reducing environment
US7032660B2 (en) * 2001-04-24 2006-04-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US7013972B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-03-21 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20040040715A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2004-03-04 Wellington Scott Lee In situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030173081A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US6991045B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company Forming openings in a hydrocarbon containing formation using magnetic tracking
US6969123B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-11-29 Shell Oil Company Upgrading and mining of coal
US20030173085A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Upgrading and mining of coal
US7051808B1 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6932155B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-08-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well
US7063145B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-06-20 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation in situ with an opening contacting the earth's surface at two locations
US7066257B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-06-27 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from lean and rich zones in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20050092483A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2005-05-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US7104319B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US7077199B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-07-18 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US8627887B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2014-01-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7461691B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2008-12-09 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7086465B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-08 Shell Oil Company In situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7090013B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US7128153B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-10-31 Shell Oil Company Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US7165615B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-23 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US20030196810A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US7100994B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-05 Shell Oil Company Producing hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon containing materials when treating a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7077198B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-07-18 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers
US7156176B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-02 Shell Oil Company Installation and use of removable heaters in a hydrocarbon containing formation
WO2003036040A2 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-05-01 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US7114566B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-10-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20030201098A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-30 Karanikas John Michael In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using one or more simulations
WO2003036040A3 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-07-17 Shell Oil Co In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US6684948B1 (en) 2002-01-15 2004-02-03 Marshall T. Savage Apparatus and method for heating subterranean formations using fuel cells
US7182132B2 (en) 2002-01-15 2007-02-27 Independant Energy Partners, Inc. Linearly scalable geothermic fuel cells
US20050016729A1 (en) * 2002-01-15 2005-01-27 Savage Marshall T. Linearly scalable geothermic fuel cells
US8238730B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-08-07 Shell Oil Company High voltage temperature limited heaters
US7073578B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-07-11 Shell Oil Company Staged and/or patterned heating during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8224164B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Insulated conductor temperature limited heaters
US8224163B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
JP2006511783A (en) * 2002-12-20 2006-04-06 フイナ・テクノロジー・インコーポレーテツド Method of reducing nitrogen oxide formation during steam generation
WO2004059208A2 (en) * 2002-12-20 2004-07-15 Fina Technology, Inc. Method for reducing the formation of nitrogen oxides in steam generation
US20050223643A1 (en) * 2002-12-20 2005-10-13 Fina Technology, Inc. Method for reducing the formation of nitrogen oxides in steam generation
US7503761B2 (en) * 2002-12-20 2009-03-17 Fina Technology Inc. Method for reducing the formation of nitrogen oxides in steam generation
US20040185398A1 (en) * 2002-12-20 2004-09-23 Fina Technology, Inc. Method for reducing the formation of nitrogen oxides in steam generation
WO2004059208A3 (en) * 2002-12-20 2004-09-10 Fina Technology Method for reducing the formation of nitrogen oxides in steam generation
CN1756924B (en) 2002-12-20 2010-06-09 弗纳技术股份有限公司 Method for reducing the formation of nitrogen oxides in steam generation
US7360588B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2008-04-22 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7942203B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2011-05-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US8579031B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2013-11-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7121342B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7510000B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-03-31 Shell Oil Company Reducing viscosity of oil for production from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7357180B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-04-15 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting effects of sloughing in wellbores
US7353872B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-04-08 Shell Oil Company Start-up of temperature limited heaters using direct current (DC)
US7431076B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-10-07 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters using modulated DC power
US7370704B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-05-13 Shell Oil Company Triaxial temperature limited heater
US7424915B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-09-16 Shell Oil Company Vacuum pumping of conductor-in-conduit heaters
US7383877B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-06-10 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with thermally conductive fluid used to heat subsurface formations
US7490665B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-02-17 Shell Oil Company Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US7320364B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-01-22 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting reflux in a heated well of an in situ conversion system
US7481274B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-01-27 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with relatively constant current
US8355623B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2013-01-15 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with high power factors
US20060210468A1 (en) * 2005-03-10 2006-09-21 Peter Veenstra Heat transfer system for the combustion of a fuel and heating of a process fluid and a process that uses same
US20060222578A1 (en) * 2005-03-10 2006-10-05 Peter Veenstra Method of starting up a direct heating system for the flameless combustion of fuel and direct heating of a process fluid
US7651331B2 (en) * 2005-03-10 2010-01-26 Shell Oil Company Multi-tube heat transfer system for the combustion of a fuel and heating of a process fluid and the use thereof
US7704070B2 (en) * 2005-03-10 2010-04-27 Shell Oil Company Heat transfer system for the combustion of a fuel heating of a process fluid and a process that uses same
US20060210936A1 (en) * 2005-03-10 2006-09-21 Peter Veenstra Multi-tube heat transfer system for the combustion of a fuel and heating of a process fluid and the use thereof
US8016589B2 (en) 2005-03-10 2011-09-13 Shell Oil Company Method of starting up a direct heating system for the flameless combustion of fuel and direct heating of a process fluid
US8070840B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-12-06 Shell Oil Company Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process
US8027571B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-09-27 Shell Oil Company In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
US8233782B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-31 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
US8224165B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor
US20070137856A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-21 Mckinzie Billy J Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process
US7435037B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2008-10-14 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes
US7986869B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-07-26 Shell Oil Company Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US7575052B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-08-18 Shell Oil Company In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US7942197B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-05-17 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US7575053B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-08-18 Shell Oil Company Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers
US7831134B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-11-09 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
US20070045265A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Mckinzie Billy J Ii Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes
US7500528B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-03-10 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing
US8230927B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-31 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US7860377B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-12-28 Shell Oil Company Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US20070095536A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-05-03 Vinegar Harold J Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20070127897A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-07 John Randy C Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates
US20070131420A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-14 Weijian Mo Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products
US20070221377A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-09-27 Vinegar Harold J Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US8151880B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2012-04-10 Shell Oil Company Methods of making transportation fuel
US8606091B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2013-12-10 Shell Oil Company Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates
US20080107577A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2008-05-08 Vinegar Harold J Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations
US20070125533A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-07 Minderhoud Johannes K Methods of hydrotreating a liquid stream to remove clogging compounds
US20070131419A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-14 Maria Roes Augustinus W Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US7673786B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-03-09 Shell Oil Company Welding shield for coupling heaters
US8192682B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2012-06-05 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US8857506B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2014-10-14 Shell Oil Company Alternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes
US20080173442A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Vinegar Harold J Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US20080035346A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Vijay Nair Methods of producing transportation fuel
US8083813B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-12-27 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing transportation fuel
US7793722B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-09-14 Shell Oil Company Non-ferromagnetic overburden casing
US20080035348A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Vitek John M Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
US20080035705A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Menotti James L Welding shield for coupling heaters
US7785427B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-08-31 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US20080173444A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Francis Marion Stone Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US7597147B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-10-06 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
US20080038144A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Maziasz Phillip J High strength alloys
US20080173450A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Bernard Goldberg Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7866385B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
US7912358B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-03-22 Shell Oil Company Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US7683296B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-03-23 Shell Oil Company Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters
US20080174115A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Gene Richard Lambirth Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
US7677310B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-16 Shell Oil Company Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations
US7673681B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-09 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones
US20090014181A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2009-01-15 Vinegar Harold J Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations
US7677314B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-16 Shell Oil Company Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations
US7644765B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-01-12 Shell Oil Company Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US7681647B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-23 Shell Oil Company Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US20080277113A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-11-13 George Leo Stegemeier Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US20080135244A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-12 David Scott Miller Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process
US20090014180A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2009-01-15 George Leo Stegemeier Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
US7703513B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-04-27 Shell Oil Company Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US8191630B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2012-06-05 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US8555971B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2013-10-15 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US20080142217A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-19 Roelof Pieterson Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process
US20080142216A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-19 Vinegar Harold J Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US20080128134A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-05 Ramesh Raju Mudunuri Producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US7717171B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-05-18 Shell Oil Company Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
US7730947B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US7730945B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process
US7730946B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US20080135254A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-12 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US20080217015A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 Vinegar Harold J Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence
US20080217004A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a checkerboard pattern staged process
US20080217003A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 Myron Ira Kuhlman Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process
US20080135253A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-12 Vinegar Harold J Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones
US7845411B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-12-07 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US7841401B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process
US20080185147A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-08-07 Vinegar Harold J Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US9739482B2 (en) * 2007-02-26 2017-08-22 Ifpen Premixing-less porous hydrogen burner
US20110027739A1 (en) * 2007-02-26 2011-02-03 Institut Francais Du Petrole Premixing-Less Porous Hydrogen Burner
US7832484B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-16 Shell Oil Company Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US7798220B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-09-21 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US7849922B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-12-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20090078461A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-03-26 Arthur James Mansure Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures
US20090084547A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-02 Walter Farman Farmayan Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations
US20090090509A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-09 Vinegar Harold J In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20090071652A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-03-19 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US7841408B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US20090095479A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 John Michael Karanikas Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation
US7931086B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-04-26 Shell Oil Company Heating systems for heating subsurface formations
US8327681B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2012-12-11 Shell Oil Company Wellbore manufacturing processes for in situ heat treatment processes
US20090095480A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US7950453B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-05-31 Shell Oil Company Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations
US8381815B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-02-26 Shell Oil Company Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation
US8459359B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-06-11 Shell Oil Company Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones
US20090095477A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 Scott Vinh Nguyen Heating systems for heating subsurface formations
US20090095476A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 Scott Vinh Nguyen Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US8042610B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-10-25 Shell Oil Company Parallel heater system for subsurface formations
US8662175B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-03-04 Shell Oil Company Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities
US8791396B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-07-29 Shell Oil Company Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations
US9181780B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2015-11-10 Shell Oil Company Controlling and assessing pressure conditions during treatment of tar sands formations
US20090126929A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-05-21 Vinegar Harold J Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones
US7841425B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures
US20090053660A1 (en) * 2007-07-20 2009-02-26 Thomas Mikus Flameless combustion heater
US20090200025A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-13 Jose Luis Bravo High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel
US8162059B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-24 Shell Oil Company Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations
US20090200031A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-13 David Scott Miller Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090200854A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-13 Vinegar Harold J Solution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds
US8276661B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-10-02 Shell Oil Company Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier
US8113272B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-02-14 Shell Oil Company Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations
US8011451B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-09-06 Shell Oil Company Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US8196658B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-06-12 Shell Oil Company Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US7866386B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company In situ oxidation of subsurface formations
US8536497B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2013-09-17 Shell Oil Company Methods for forming long subsurface heaters
US8272455B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-09-25 Shell Oil Company Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations
US20090189617A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-07-30 David Burns Continuous subsurface heater temperature measurement
US7866388B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel
US20090194524A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Dong Sub Kim Methods for forming long subsurface heaters
US20090194282A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Gary Lee Beer In situ oxidation of subsurface formations
US8146669B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-03 Shell Oil Company Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation
US8240774B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-08-14 Shell Oil Company Solution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds
US20090194269A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Vinegar Harold J Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations
US20090194329A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Rosalvina Ramona Guimerans Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations
US8146661B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-03 Shell Oil Company Cryogenic treatment of gas
US8752904B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2014-06-17 Shell Oil Company Heated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US9528322B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2016-12-27 Shell Oil Company Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US8177305B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-05-15 Shell Oil Company Heater connections in mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8172335B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-05-08 Shell Oil Company Electrical current flow between tunnels for use in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8162405B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-04-24 Shell Oil Company Using tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8151907B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-04-10 Shell Oil Company Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US20090260824A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 David Booth Burns Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090260823A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 Robert George Prince-Wright Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090272535A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-11-05 David Booth Burns Using tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8562078B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2013-10-22 Shell Oil Company Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090272533A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-11-05 David Booth Burns Heated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090272578A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-11-05 Macdonald Duncan Charles Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US8636323B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2014-01-28 Shell Oil Company Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8256512B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-04 Shell Oil Company Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100108379A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-05-06 David Alston Edbury Systems and methods of forming subsurface wellbores
US9051829B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-06-09 Shell Oil Company Perforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
US20100089586A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-15 John Andrew Stanecki Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8353347B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2013-01-15 Shell Oil Company Deployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations
US20100101783A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-29 Vinegar Harold J Using self-regulating nuclear reactors in treating a subsurface formation
US8281861B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-10-09 Shell Oil Company Circulated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8220539B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US20100096137A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-22 Scott Vinh Nguyen Circulated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US20100101784A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-29 Vinegar Harold J Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US9129728B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods of forming subsurface wellbores
US20100108310A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-05-06 Thomas David Fowler Offset barrier wells in subsurface formations
US9022118B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-05-05 Shell Oil Company Double insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations
US8267170B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-18 Shell Oil Company Offset barrier wells in subsurface formations
US8261832B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-11 Shell Oil Company Heating subsurface formations with fluids
US8267185B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-18 Shell Oil Company Circulated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation
US8881806B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2014-11-11 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors
US8327932B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2012-12-11 Shell Oil Company Recovering energy from a subsurface formation
US8434555B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2013-05-07 Shell Oil Company Irregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation
US8851170B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2014-10-07 Shell Oil Company Heater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US8448707B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2013-05-28 Shell Oil Company Non-conducting heater casings
US8833453B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-16 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with tapered copper thickness
US8739874B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-06-03 Shell Oil Company Methods for heating with slots in hydrocarbon formations
US9022109B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-05 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US9033042B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-19 Shell Oil Company Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8701769B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology
US8701768B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations
US9127538B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Methodologies for treatment of hydrocarbon formations using staged pyrolyzation
US9127523B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Barrier methods for use in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8631866B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-01-21 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US9399905B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2016-07-26 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8820406B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-02 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore
US9016370B2 (en) 2011-04-08 2015-04-28 Shell Oil Company Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US9309755B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2016-04-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3366177A (en) Production of petroleum from unconsolidated formations
US3422760A (en) Gas-generating device for stimulating the flow of well fluids
US3454958A (en) Producing oil from nuclear-produced chimneys in oil shale
US3209825A (en) Low temperature in-situ combustion
US3132692A (en) Use of formation heat from in situ combustion
US3593789A (en) Method for producing shale oil from an oil shale formation
US3191679A (en) Melting process for recovering bitumens from the earth
US6871707B2 (en) In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US3208519A (en) Combined in situ combustion-water injection oil recovery process
US6782947B2 (en) In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation to increase permeability of the formation
US6991033B2 (en) In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation
US6698515B2 (en) In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US4448252A (en) Minimizing subsidence effects during production of coal in situ
US7096953B2 (en) In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
US3986556A (en) Hydrocarbon recovery from earth strata
US4463807A (en) Minimizing subsidence effects during production of coal in situ
US3952802A (en) Method and apparatus for in situ gasification of coal and the commercial products derived therefrom
US6412557B1 (en) Oilfield in situ hydrocarbon upgrading process
US3139928A (en) Thermal process for in situ decomposition of oil shale
US4005752A (en) Method of igniting in situ oil shale retort with fuel rich flue gas
US3174545A (en) Method of stimulating well production by explosive-induced hydraulic fracturing of productive formation
US3978920A (en) In situ combustion process for multi-stratum reservoirs
US7331385B2 (en) Methods of treating a subterranean formation to convert organic matter into producible hydrocarbons
US8200072B2 (en) Temperature limited heaters for heating subsurface formations or wellbores
US7048051B2 (en) Recovery of products from oil shale