US3111605A - Gaseous-ion generator for rooms in which there is a danger of explosion - Google Patents

Gaseous-ion generator for rooms in which there is a danger of explosion Download PDF

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US3111605A
US3111605A US82253959A US3111605A US 3111605 A US3111605 A US 3111605A US 82253959 A US82253959 A US 82253959A US 3111605 A US3111605 A US 3111605A
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chamber
outlet opening
discharge
ion
explosion
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Muller Rudolf
Heyl Gerhard
Luttgens Gunter
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Bayer AG
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Bayer AG
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05FSTATIC ELECTRICITY; NATURALLY-OCCURRING ELECTRICITY
    • H05F3/00Carrying-off electrostatic charges
    • H05F3/04Carrying-off electrostatic charges by means of spark gaps or other discharge devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01TSPARK GAPS; OVERVOLTAGE ARRESTERS USING SPARK GAPS; SPARKING PLUGS; CORONA DEVICES; GENERATING IONS TO BE INTRODUCED INTO NON-ENCLOSED GASES
    • H01T23/00Apparatus for generating ions to be introduced into non-enclosed gases, e.g. into the atmosphere

Description

R. MULLER ETAL 3,1 05 GASEOUS-ION GENERATOR FOR ROOMS IN WHICH THERE 1s A DANGER 0F EXPLOSION Filed June 24. 1959 Nov. 19, 1963 FIG. 7b

COMPRESSED HG 2a INYENTORS. GEPHAPD NE YL, GUNTER LU T TGENS.

CURREN 7 S0 RUDOLF MULLER,

BY A j ATTORNEYS;

United States Patent 3,111,605 GASEOUS-ION GENERATOR FOR ROOMS IN WHICH THERE IS A DANGER OF EXPLOSION Rudolf Miiller, Grunwald, near Munich, Gerhard Heyl,

Cologne-Stammheim, and Gunter Luttgens, Bergisch- Neukirchen, Germany, assignors to Farbenfabriken Bayer Aktiengesellschaft, Leverkusen, Germany, a corporation of Germany Filed June 24, 1959, Ser. No. 822,539 Claims priority, application Germany July 2, 1958 3 Claims. (Cl. 317-4) In rooms in which there is danger of explosion, it is frequently necessary to produce ions, for example in order to remove electrostatic charges in the manufacture, processing or use of insulating materials or for purifying gases. In the following, the feature of the invention is described by reference to the example of eliminating electrostatic charges in traveling webs of insulating materials.

The known discharge methods either cannot be used in this case or are inadequate. The increase in the conductivity of the material by high air humidity, or by antistatic preparations, is now usually compatible with the working process. The method using air ionisation is limited in so far as it is based on the use of a low maximum ion stream for radio-active preparations considering the great activities which are necessary. For an ion current of about 2 a which is at least necessary to dissipate the maximum charge of a web with a width of l m. at speeds of only 2 to 4 m./min., normal rat-radiators require an activity of about 3 millicuries and fi-radiators an activity of 50 to 150 millicurics. Thus a considerable means for protection against radiation is needed.

The known high voltage spray-discharge rods operated by a mains frequency or high frequency cannot be used, because of the danger of an explosion. All experiments connected with the production of the ions outside the room in which danger exists, and transporting them in a current of air into the area to be discharged, are a failure because of the rapid recombination of the ions. The transport of air with a unipolar charge is certainly possible over a relatively large distance, but this only yields ion currents which are too small by some orders of magnitude. In addition, it is not possible with air having a unipolar charge to eliminate the charging, the sign of which is constantly changing in many cases.

Rods protected against explosion have not so far become known. In order to carry out the protective method using independent aeration, the ionisation must take place in a conductive grounded housing in which an adequate superatmospheric pressure can be maintained. With an insulated housing, the danger exists that sparks may penetrate out from the tips or wires and slide along the surface. In addition, the outside becomes charged by influence, and thus causes the possibility of ignitable discharges to grounded portions of the surroundings to occur.

As regards spray discharge rods, essentially the types shown in FIGS. la, lb and 1c are already known. With the rods according to FIGS. 1a and 1b, the discharge tips or the discharge wires 1 are disposed in a slotted tube 2 made of metal (see FIG. 1a) or made of insulated material with a built-in metal foil 4 (see FIG. 1b). A superatmospheric pressure in the discharge chamber 3 cannot be maintained, even with considerable quantities of independent gas, since the area of the discharge opening is larger than the tube cross-section. As regards the rods according to FIG. 10, the discharge tip is disposed in an insulating material 5 which is partially surrounded by a conductor 6 serving as counter-electrode.

With rods such as the one shown in FIG. la, providing the discharge openings in the metal tube are made ice sufficiently small in order to reduce the gas consumption and to obtain a superatmospheric pressure, the ion current which can be obtained is much too small. By far the largest proportion of the ions is intercepted by the electrically conducting housing wall by electrostatic forces of attraction (formation forces).

If narrow holes instead of the wide slots are used in the discharge rods according to FIG. lb, then the discharging ion current is also too small. The ions generated are deposited on the insulating ion surface and produce a counteracting field, more especially in the vicinity of the discharge openings. This field is repelled by the ions which follow. For the reasons mentioned above, such a construction is not permissible as regards technical safety.

If discharge rods according to FIG. 10 are surrounded with a conductive housing having small openings, the same objection as that against the separately aerated rod according to FIG. la applies, since the ion stream is much too small.

In the constructional form of the discharge rod according to the invention, the discharge openings are kept very small for reasons of safety and in favour of having a small consumption of independent gas.

By suitable construction of the discharge chamber and of the discharge openings in the manner indicated in FIG. 2, it is nevertheless possible to obtain a sufliciently large ion current. The housing 7, which is necessarily conductive for technical safety reasons, is lined with an insulating layer 8 of sufficient thickness, so that only a narrow collar 9 directly at the outlet opening remains uncovered. With the start of each half wave of the applied high voltage, the interior, with the exception of the collar 9, will consequently be charged in the same way as the tip, and the field and the ion stream will be compressed towards the discharge openings acting as counterelectrode. Therefore, a large proportion of the ions reaches the vicinity of the discharge openings, from which such ions emerge, supported by the stream of independent gas, after allowing for tenable losses by the absorption on the insulating inner wall and on the collar 9'. Without a stream of independent gas, the ion yield falls to about half. Discharge sparks terminate on the inside of the collar and cannot penetrate out through the discharge opening.

FIG. 2a is a schematic partial longitudinal view of FIG. 2 showing an air supply and a current supply for the ionizing chamber.

In one constructional example, the mains-frequency voltage of about 7 kv. usual for such rods was applied to tips which had a spacing of 20 mm. from the discharge openings. The said openings had a diameter of 5 mm. The air consumption with a superatmospheric pressure of 50 mm. water column was about cubic metres per hour and per metre of rod length. Under these conditions, an ion curent of about 10 a. was measured. It is thus considerably higher than with usual radio-active ionisers and in some cases is even greater than with spray discharge rods not protected against explosion, for which currents between 5 1.3. and 100 p.3- were measured under identical conditions.

On account of the high ion current which can be achieved, the ionisation process is also suitable for purifying explosive gases charged with dust. The independent gas stream reaches the gas stream to be purified directly from the rod, which in this instance is operated with direct voltage. The ions are in this case attached to the dust. The deposition thereafter takes place with low field intensities or with the aid of plastic filters, the deposition effect of which can be improved by previous ionisation.

We claim:

1. In an ion spray apparatus for ionizing gases in a room to prevent the build-up of static electric charges, said apparatus having a chamber with an outlet opening, an ion discharge rod connectable to a source of current and said chamber being constructed and arranged for passing a gas into and through said chamber and out said opening, the improvement which comprises said chamber being defined by an imperforate outer wall of grounded conductive material wtih said outlet opening defined therethrough and an imperforate inner lining of insulating material in substantially coextensive abutment with the inner side of said outer wall and substantially covering the entire interior of said chamber, said inner lining terminating at the portion of said outer wall defining said outlet opening leaving only the internal marginal surface of said outlet opening uninsulated.

2. Improvement according to claim 1 wherein a narrow zone which is electrically conductive and grounded is provided as said marginal surface.

3. In the method of producing an ionized gas in a room to prevent static electric charge build-up in which ions are generated from a discharge rod and passed in a gas stream into the room, the improvement which comprises generating the ions in an enclosed zone having a grounded conductive imperforate outer confirming layer, an inner insulating imperforate lining substantially covering the entire interior of said enclosed zone and a discharge opening defined by the outer conductive layer and maintained free, at its inner peripheral edge, of the insulating lining and passing the generated ions out through said discharge openings in a gas stream under superatniospheric pressure.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,333,213 Slayter Nov. 2, 1943 2,484,202 Wintermute Oct. 11, 1949 2,569,116 Roscoe et al Sept. 25, 1951 2,602,910 Stuart July 8, 1952

Claims (1)

1. IN AN ION SPRAY APPARATUS FOR IONIZING GASES IN A ROOM TO PREVENT THE BUILD-UP OF STATIC ELECTRIC CHARGES, SAID APPARATUS HAVING A CHAMBER WITH AN OUTLET OPENING, AN ION DISCHARGE ROD CONNECTABLE TO A SOURCE OF CURRENT AND SAID CHAMBER BEING CONSTRUCTED AND ARRANGED FOR PASSING A GAS INTO AND THROUGH SAID CHAMBER AND CUT SAID OPENING, THE IMPROVEMENT WHICH COMPRISES SAID CHAMBER BEING DEFINED BY AN IMPEROFRATE OUTER WALL OF GROUNDED CONDUCTIVE MATERIAL WITH SAID OUTLET OPENING DEFINED THERETHROUGH AND AN IMPERFORATE INNER LINING OF INSULATING MATERIAL IN SUBSTANTIALLY COEXTENSIVE ABUTMENT WITH THE INNER SIDE OF SAID OUTER WALL AND SUBSTANTIALLY COVERING THE ENTIRE INTERIOR OF SAID CHAMBER, SAID INNER LINING TERMINATING AT THE PORTION OF SAID OUTER WAL DEFINING SAID OUTLET OPENING LEAVING ONLY THE INTEGNAL MARGINAL SURFACE OF SAID OUTLET OPENING UNINSULATED.
US3111605A 1958-07-02 1959-06-24 Gaseous-ion generator for rooms in which there is a danger of explosion Expired - Lifetime US3111605A (en)

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DE1958F0026070 DE1111309B (en) 1958-07-02 1958-07-02 Ionenspruehrohr with Fremdbelueftung
DE3111605X 1958-07-02

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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3179849A (en) * 1964-07-15 1965-04-20 Simco Co Inc Shockless ionizing air nozzle
US3317790A (en) * 1960-08-29 1967-05-02 Univ Minnesota Sonic jet ionizer
US3339069A (en) * 1964-10-14 1967-08-29 Xerox Corp Corona charging device with means to prevent toner dust contamination
US3396308A (en) * 1965-07-02 1968-08-06 Eastman Kodak Co Web treating device
DE1281602B (en) * 1960-04-21 1968-10-31 Simco Co Inc A device for producing an ionised air jet
US3619719A (en) * 1968-06-17 1971-11-09 Ind Electrical Co Ltd Static eliminators
US3643128A (en) * 1969-09-15 1972-02-15 Testone Electrostatics Corp Ionized air projector
US4156266A (en) * 1978-03-03 1979-05-22 Static Inc. Light free static neutralizer
FR2430678A1 (en) * 1978-07-06 1980-02-01 Fleck Carl An apparatus for producing ions
US5592357A (en) * 1992-10-09 1997-01-07 The University Of Tennessee Research Corp. Electrostatic charging apparatus and method
US5686050A (en) * 1992-10-09 1997-11-11 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Method and apparatus for the electrostatic charging of a web or film
US5895558A (en) * 1995-06-19 1999-04-20 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Discharge methods and electrodes for generating plasmas at one atmosphere of pressure, and materials treated therewith
US5955174A (en) * 1995-03-28 1999-09-21 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Composite of pleated and nonwoven webs
US20060176642A1 (en) * 2005-02-04 2006-08-10 George Kent J Static electricity eliminator

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2128135B1 (en) * 1971-03-05 1974-02-22 Prat Daniel Poelman
EP2775575B1 (en) * 2013-03-04 2017-02-01 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Ionization apparatus

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2333213A (en) * 1942-02-02 1943-11-02 Slayter Games Static eliminator
US2484202A (en) * 1946-07-29 1949-10-11 Research Corp Gas testing device
US2569116A (en) * 1950-02-13 1951-09-25 John W Roscoe Static charge removal device
US2602910A (en) * 1948-06-16 1952-07-08 Bendix Aviat Corp Electrode assembly

Family Cites Families (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE556067C (en) * 1931-05-21 1932-09-27 Maschf Augsburg Nuernberg Ag Apparatus for removing static charges from paper webs
DE885450C (en) * 1951-05-03 1953-08-06 Hans Fritz Dr-Ing Schwenkhagen Means for eliminating static charge
DE921342C (en) * 1952-12-19 1954-12-16 Siemens Ag Ionenspruehrohr, in particular to eliminate electrostatic charges on webs
DE959485C (en) * 1953-08-23 1957-03-07 Siemens Ag Device for preferably continuous removal of electrostatic charges of webs and other well with a Ionenspruehrohr, which consists of a preferably grounded, apertured metallic shell and an eccentrically to the openings in the shell arranged towards electrode
DE956791C (en) * 1953-09-05 1957-01-24 Siemens Ag Ion spray pipe for the elimination of electrostatic charges
US3445890A (en) * 1966-12-08 1969-05-27 Nrm Corp Two-stage extruder

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2333213A (en) * 1942-02-02 1943-11-02 Slayter Games Static eliminator
US2484202A (en) * 1946-07-29 1949-10-11 Research Corp Gas testing device
US2602910A (en) * 1948-06-16 1952-07-08 Bendix Aviat Corp Electrode assembly
US2569116A (en) * 1950-02-13 1951-09-25 John W Roscoe Static charge removal device

Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1281602B (en) * 1960-04-21 1968-10-31 Simco Co Inc A device for producing an ionised air jet
US3317790A (en) * 1960-08-29 1967-05-02 Univ Minnesota Sonic jet ionizer
US3179849A (en) * 1964-07-15 1965-04-20 Simco Co Inc Shockless ionizing air nozzle
US3339069A (en) * 1964-10-14 1967-08-29 Xerox Corp Corona charging device with means to prevent toner dust contamination
US3396308A (en) * 1965-07-02 1968-08-06 Eastman Kodak Co Web treating device
US3619719A (en) * 1968-06-17 1971-11-09 Ind Electrical Co Ltd Static eliminators
US3643128A (en) * 1969-09-15 1972-02-15 Testone Electrostatics Corp Ionized air projector
US4156266A (en) * 1978-03-03 1979-05-22 Static Inc. Light free static neutralizer
FR2430678A1 (en) * 1978-07-06 1980-02-01 Fleck Carl An apparatus for producing ions
US5592357A (en) * 1992-10-09 1997-01-07 The University Of Tennessee Research Corp. Electrostatic charging apparatus and method
US5686050A (en) * 1992-10-09 1997-11-11 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Method and apparatus for the electrostatic charging of a web or film
US5955174A (en) * 1995-03-28 1999-09-21 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Composite of pleated and nonwoven webs
US5895558A (en) * 1995-06-19 1999-04-20 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Discharge methods and electrodes for generating plasmas at one atmosphere of pressure, and materials treated therewith
US6059935A (en) * 1995-06-19 2000-05-09 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Discharge method and apparatus for generating plasmas
US6416633B1 (en) 1995-06-19 2002-07-09 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation Resonant excitation method and apparatus for generating plasmas
US20060176642A1 (en) * 2005-02-04 2006-08-10 George Kent J Static electricity eliminator
US7558044B2 (en) 2005-02-04 2009-07-07 George Kent J Static electricity eliminator

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