US3110982A - Precast, reinforced concrete column construction - Google Patents

Precast, reinforced concrete column construction Download PDF

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Publication number
US3110982A
US3110982A US3635160A US3110982A US 3110982 A US3110982 A US 3110982A US 3635160 A US3635160 A US 3635160A US 3110982 A US3110982 A US 3110982A
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Prior art keywords
column
concrete
tube
end
metal
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Ollie L Besinger
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Ollie L Besinger
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B28WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
    • B28BSHAPING CLAY OR OTHER CERAMIC COMPOSITIONS, SLAG, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL, e.g. PLASTER
    • B28B23/00Arrangements specially adapted for the production of shaped articles with elements wholly or partly embedded in the moulding material; Production of reinforced objects
    • B28B23/02Arrangements specially adapted for the production of shaped articles with elements wholly or partly embedded in the moulding material; Production of reinforced objects wherein the elements are reinforcing members
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/185Connections not covered by E04B1/21 and E04B1/2403, e.g. connections between structural parts of different material
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/30Columns; Pillars; Struts
    • E04C3/34Columns; Pillars; Struts of concrete other stone-like material, with or without permanent form elements, with or without internal or external reinforcement, e.g. metal coverings

Description

Nov. 19, 1963 o. L. BEslNGr-:R 3,110,982

PRECAST, REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CONSTRUCTION Filed June l5. 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet l FIG. 1 F562 I l l OZZz'e Z. Bes/nger Nov. 19, 1963 v o. BEslNGER 3,110,982

PRECAST, REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CONSTRUCTION Filed June 15. 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 United States Patent O 3,110,982 PRECAST, REINFORCEB CUNCRETE COLUMN CNSTRUCTION (Ellie L Basinger, 9d@ S. Broadway, Parli Ridge, Ill. Filed .lune 15, 1961i, Ser. No. 36,351 1 Claim. (Cl. 50-191) This invention relates to a new and improved precast concrete column construction, and to the method of making the column.

One object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved precast, reinforced concrete column having metal mesh along or just below the surface thereof, to serve as reinforcement, in addition to metal rods and other members embedded in the column.

A further object is to provide a new and improved method of making a column of the foregoing character, in which the metal mesh is employed as a form to contain the concrete when it is poured in making the column, the use of the metal mesh thus obviating any need for any other forms.

It is another object to provide a new and improved column construction of the foregoing character, in which the metal mesh is secured to members extending between a pair of metal end plates and a plurality of intermediate plates, so that the metal mesh will be able to sustain the weight of the poured concrete.

A further object is to provide such a new and improved column construction in which a metal tube, preferably filled with concrete, is arranged to extend between the metal end plates along the central axis of the column, so as to support and interconnect the end plates and inter- Lediate plates, until the concrete has been poured and has hardened, the metal tube also being effective to reinforce the finished column.

Another object is to provide a new and improved column of the foregoing character, in which a guide tube of reduced diameter is welded or otherwise secured to one end of the central reinforcing tube, and in which the other end of the central reinforcing tube is left open to receive the guide tube on the adjacent column section.

Still another object is to provide a new and improved precast, reinforced concrete column which is easy to malte and erect, yet is low in cost.

Further objects and advantages of the present invention will appear from the following description, taken with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FlG. l is an elevational view, partly in central longitudinal section, showing a precast, reinforced concrete column to be described as an illustrative embodiment of the present invention.

FlG. 2 is an elevational view, partly in section along a line 2 2 in FlG. 1.

FlG. 3 is an end View of one of the column sections, partly in section along a line 3-3 in FiG. l.

FlG. 4 is a horizontal section, taken generally along aline 4-4 in FlG. l.

PEG. 5 is a longitudinal View showing the preliminary assembly of the metal reinforcing members for the column, before the pouring of the concrete.

FIG. 6 is an end View, taken as indicated by the line 6--6 in FlG. 5.

FIG. 7 is an enlarged sectional View through the assembly of FIG. 5, taken generally along a line 7 7 in FlG. 5.

1t will be seen that FGS. 1-4 illustrate a column section lll adapted to be employed in building construction. The column section itself may be of any desired length, but usually corresponds in length to the height of one story of the building. A number of the column sections 1li are connected together, end to end, in building a multi-story building.

3,1.lil,982 Patented Nov. 19, 1963 ICC It will be seen that the column section 1li is provided with upper and lower end plates 12 and 14 which are made of steel or other suitable metal and are employed to transfer loads between adjacent column sections. The end plates 12 and 14 are connected together by a plurality of metal reinforcing rods 1o which are embedded in a mass of concrete l. The surface of the concrete l is covered with metal mesh 2li which is partly embedded in the concrete 13. A layer of plaster 22 may be applied over the mesh 213 to cover the mesh for fireprooing purposes, and to smooth over the outer surface ofthe column 1i).

lt is preferred to provide a large diameter reinforcing tube 24 along the longitudinal axis of the column 1li, so as to interconnect the end plates 12. The tube 24 is preferably filled with a mass of concrete 26.

To provide for and facilitate preliminary alignment of the column sections, the opposite ends of each column section 10 are preferably provided with male and female dowels or guide members 28 and 30. In this case, the female guide member 31B is formed by the open lower end portion of the central reinforcing tube 24. It will be seen that the lower end of the tube 24 is welded or other-A wise secured into an opening 32 in the lower end plate 14. In this case, a wall or partition 34 is mounted in the reinforcing tube, near its lower end, to prevent the concrete 26 from entering the lower end of the tube 24.

In the illustrated construction, the male guide member 2S taltes the form of a guide tube of reduced diameter which is welded or otherwise secured into the upper end of the central reinforcing tube 24. The guide tube 28 extends through an opening 35 in the upper end plate 12. The tube 28 may be welded or otherwise secured to the plate 12. lt will be seen that the upper en-d portion of the guide tube 28 extends above the plate 12 and is adapted to be received in the open guide portion 3@ of the overlying column section.

In the illustrated arrangement, the central reinforcing tube 24 extends through openings 3S in a plurality of intermediate plates 49 which are somewhat smaller than the end plates 12 and 14. The intermediate plates lll may be welded or otherwise secured to the central reinforcing tube 24.

In making the column 10, the end plates 12 and 14, the reinforcing rods 16, the central reinforcing tube 24, the guide tube 28, and the intermediate plates 4t) are referably assembled and welded together, as shown in FlG. 5. The reinforcing rods 16 may be mounted in holes 42 formed in the end plates 12 and 1d. The concrete 26 within the central reinforcing tube 24 is preferably cast and allowed to set before the central reinforcing tube is assembled with the other reinforcing members.

lt will be apparent that the assembly of reinforcing members shown in FIG. 5 forms a rigid structure. The reinforcing rods 16 may extend through openings 415 in the intermediate plates 4l). The metal mesh 2li is secured to the reinforcing structure of FIG. 5 to contain the concrete 13 when it is cast around the rods 16 and the tube 24. The metal mesh 2t? may be made of expanded sheet metal or of wire. Preferably, the metal mesh 2li is supported by angle members 48 which extend between the end plates 12 and 14 and are secured to the corners of the intermediate plates 40. The metal mesh Ztl may 'ce welded or otherwise secured to the angle members 48 and to the end plates 12 and 14 and the intermediate plates riti. Initially, only three sides of the metal mesh 2l) are sen cured to the angle members 43, these sides being designated Zila, 2Gb and 20c in FIG. 7. The column is placed in a horizontal position so that the metal mesh forms a three-sided trough, into which the Wet concrete is poured to embed the reinforcing rods 16 and the central reinforcing tube 24. Thus, the three sides of the metal aliases .3 mesh 20a, 2011 and 29e provide a form which is filled with wet concrete. The metal mesh contains the concrete, except for a small amount which oozes through the mesh and partially embeds the mesh when the concrete has hardened. Thus, the metal mesh obviates any need for a special form to hold the concrete. After the three metal mesh sides 29a, Zlib and 2de have been filled with'concrete, a fourth metal mesh side 29d may be added, if

' desired, so thatall sides of the column will be the same.

Alternatively, the metal mesh may be omitted from the fourth side ofthe column. Y

After the main mass of concrete 1S has hardened and cured sufllciently, the column section maybe erected, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. Anchor bolts 50 may be employed to secure the lower end plate 14 to a concrete footing or other foundation 52. As shown, the bolts Si) extend through holes 53 in the lower end plate 14. A leveling lplate 54 may be provided between the lower mounting plate 14 and the footing S2. If necessary, cement grout may be employed between the leveling plate 54 and the footing 52 to provide a firm bearing between the leveling plate and the footing. After the column l@ has been erected, a concrete lloor 56 may be poured over the footing S2 so as to embed the lower mounting plate 14 and the bolts 50.

As already indicated, two or more of the column sec-V tions 1@ may be stacked end to end. The adjacent upper and lower end plates l2 andll are welded or otherwise secured together to transmit loads between the column sections. ln erecting the column sections l0, the female guide member 39 at the lower end of the upper section is slipped over the male guide member 28 which proiects above the lower column section. These guide members facilitate the preliminary alignment of the column sections. However, a substantial clearance is provided between the guide members 28 and 30 so that the upper column section may be moved relative to the lower section until the upper section is precisely aligned with the lower section and is exactly plumb. In some cases it may be necessary to insert thin shims, made of sheet metal or the like, between the plates 12 and 14, so that the upper column section will be plumb. Once the upper column section has been accurately positioned, the plates 12 and 14 may be Welded together.

It will be seen that the plates 12 and 14 are larger than the rest of the column lll so as to form a ledge upon which girders or beams 6@ may be supported. In this case, metal reinforcing and anchoring members 62 are embedded in the girders dll and are welded to the end plate i4. As shown, joists 64 may be strung between the girders 60. Both the girders 60 and the joists 64 are preferably made of precast, reinforced concrete. The joists 64 may be secured to the girders by means of metal anchors 65 and 63 which are embedded in the joists and the girders and are welded together.

After the column sections have been erected, the layer of plaster 22 may be applied to the outside of the column sections, so as to cover the metal mesh 2t? and the corner supporting members 4S. The metal end plates 12 and 14 may also be covered with plaster or embedded in concrete with the use of simple forms. Thus, the entire outer surface of the column will be covered with freproof material. The metal mesh forms an excellent base for the plaster, because the plaster adheres securely to the metal mesh and to the hardened concrete whichV projects through the openings in the mesh. The plaster on the outside of the column gives the column a smooth surface and a finished appearance,

Cil

Cil

The columns of the present invention are precast and cured before they are erected, so that they are capable of supporting their full normal loads as soon as they are erected. This factor greatly expedites the construction of the building, because there is no need to wait for concrete to cure as the building is erected. The column sections are connected together with a high degree of rigidity by the welded joints between the end plates of the column sections. Thus, buildings made with the column sections of the present invention are particularly resistant to earthquakes.

The use of forms is obviated during the casting of the columns of the present invention. This greatly facilitates and expedites the casting of the columns, so that the cost of the columns is minimized.

Various modifications, alternative constructions and equivalents may be employed without departing from the true spirit and scope of the invention, as exemplilied in the foregoing description and defined in the following claim.

l claim:

A precast, reinforced concrete column, comprising a pair of metal end plates, a central tubular member extending between said end plates and rigidly secured thereto, said tubular member having an open portion at one end forming a female guide member and a reduced portion at the other end extending beyond one of said end plates and forming a male guide member, a plurality of intermediate plates strung on said tubular member at intervals between said end plates, a plurality of reinforcing rods disposed around said tubular member and extending between said end plates, said rods being rigidly secured to said end plates, a mass of concrete disposed between said end` plates and embedding said tubular member and said reinforcing rods, and a tube or metal mesh disposed around said concrete and partly embedded therein, said tube of metal mesh being secured to said end plates and to said intermediate plates and having supporting members extending therealong, said end plates and said intermediate plates maintaining the shape of said tube, said end plates being larger than the cross section of said tube and having edge portions projecting outwardly therefrom, said end plates being effective to transfer stresses to said rods and said central tubular member.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 750,456 Hartman Jan. 26, 1904 754,064 Himmelunight Mar. 8, 1904 791,076 Chenoweth May 30, 1905 835,717 Thorn Nov. 13, 1906 833,474 Crr Mar. 31, 1908 894,090 Williams July 21, 1908 1,045,026 Hicks Nov. 19, 1912 1,097,998 Turner May 26, 1914 1,4l0,453 Butcher Mar. 2l, 1922 '1,653,055 Macomber Dec. 20, 19,27 1,699,736 Hanna Ian. 22, 1929 1,739,883 Wilson et al. Dec. 17, 1929 1,843,853 Underwood Feb. 2, 1932 1,948,691 Bauer Feb. 27, 1934 2,050,256 Bemis Aug. 11, 1936 2,477,930 Hiebert Aug. 2, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS 135,942 Great Britain 1919 576,515 Great Britain 1945

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Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3429092A (en) * 1966-05-26 1969-02-25 Dyna Structures Structural frames and methods and means therefor
US3593532A (en) * 1968-10-02 1971-07-20 Grazel Inc John Concrete pile sections and joints therefor
US3600865A (en) * 1968-03-09 1971-08-24 Vanich F Elevated single column-borne house of precast concrete elements and posttensioned tendons
US3722159A (en) * 1971-10-27 1973-03-27 S Kessler Prefabricated concrete structure
US3918229A (en) * 1974-05-28 1975-11-11 Manfred P Schweinberger Column base assembly
US3965627A (en) * 1974-07-15 1976-06-29 Miroslav Fencl Interconnection of modular structures
US4330970A (en) * 1979-10-23 1982-05-25 Copreal S.A. Building structure and steel parts for same
FR2538294A2 (en) * 1978-11-27 1984-06-29 Martin Rafael Pillar with visible stones
US4646495A (en) * 1984-12-17 1987-03-03 Rachil Chalik Composite load-bearing system for modular buildings
US5359829A (en) * 1992-12-07 1994-11-01 Voita John M Fabrication and installation of steel reinforcement cages for pier foundations
US5386671A (en) * 1991-03-29 1995-02-07 Kansas State University Research Foundation Stiffness decoupler for base isolation of structures
WO1997001683A1 (en) * 1995-06-27 1997-01-16 Elr Building Technologies International, Inc. Bearing wall construction system
US5660007A (en) * 1991-03-29 1997-08-26 Kansas State University Research Foundation Stiffness decoupler for base isolation of structures
US5819487A (en) * 1997-03-13 1998-10-13 Ameron International Corporation Prestressed concrete poles with internal bolting and leveling structures
US5881516A (en) * 1996-06-26 1999-03-16 Elr Building Technologies, Llc Bearing wall construction system wherein axial loads of walls do no pass through the floor construction
US6189286B1 (en) * 1996-02-05 2001-02-20 The Regents Of The University Of California At San Diego Modular fiber-reinforced composite structural member
US20040010991A1 (en) * 2000-06-14 2004-01-22 Ludwig Felser Steel structure system
US20050097844A1 (en) * 2003-11-07 2005-05-12 Walker Crockett J. Multi-story concrete slab construction
DE102004005916A1 (en) * 2004-02-06 2005-09-01 Tue, Nguyen Viet, Prof. Dr.-Ing.habil. Mounting part e.g. for concrete for increasing load under pressure, has special fitting for concrete to be applied with tubular pipe arranged between load introduction surfaces
US20070079567A1 (en) * 2005-09-01 2007-04-12 Leslie Harold C Grid system for building structure and method therefor
US20080172974A1 (en) * 2007-01-19 2008-07-24 Suarez Felix E Interlocking Mesh
US20080190058A1 (en) * 2007-02-08 2008-08-14 Paul Gerald Migliore Foundation for monopole wind turbine tower
US20090188191A1 (en) * 2008-01-24 2009-07-30 Martin Williams Panelization Method and System
WO2013115823A1 (en) * 2012-02-02 2013-08-08 Empire Technology Development Llc Modular concrete reinforcement
US20170101750A1 (en) * 2015-10-08 2017-04-13 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Bollard base

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US750456A (en) * 1904-01-26 Composite building material
US754064A (en) * 1903-07-17 1904-03-08 New Jersey Wire Cloth Co Fireproof covering for columns or the like.
US791076A (en) * 1904-08-18 1905-05-30 John Mcnamee Concrete construction.
US835717A (en) * 1905-12-05 1906-11-13 George F Thorn Material of building construction.
US883474A (en) * 1907-10-11 1908-03-31 Robert S Orr Pole.
US894090A (en) * 1907-01-09 1908-07-21 Harry Lawrence Williams Railway-tie.
US1045026A (en) * 1911-12-07 1912-11-19 William T Hicks Post.
US1097998A (en) * 1904-09-06 1914-05-26 Claude A P Turner Fireproof construction.
GB135942A (en) * 1918-12-04 1919-12-04 Robert Floyd Seward Improvements in and relating to Props, Struts, Columns, or Posts used in Mining or for other purposes.
US1410453A (en) * 1919-06-05 1922-03-21 Hervey E Butcher Reenforced-concrete column
US1653555A (en) * 1925-04-25 1927-12-20 Eilert Adolf Frame for sounding boards of stringed musical instruments
US1699736A (en) * 1924-09-08 1929-01-22 Westinghouse Electric & Mfg Co Pole reenforcement
US1739883A (en) * 1927-11-09 1929-12-17 Robert P Miller Building construction
US1843853A (en) * 1927-12-14 1932-02-02 Lux Mfg Company Insert for molds
US1948691A (en) * 1929-07-20 1934-02-27 Bauer Bruno Steel skeleton for reenforced concrete structures
US2050256A (en) * 1933-04-25 1936-08-11 Bemis Ind Inc Building construction
GB576515A (en) * 1944-06-27 1946-04-08 Orlit Ltd Improvements in reinforced concrete structure
US2477930A (en) * 1945-06-21 1949-08-02 Harold L Hiebert Method of molding reinforced concrete storage structures

Patent Citations (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US750456A (en) * 1904-01-26 Composite building material
US754064A (en) * 1903-07-17 1904-03-08 New Jersey Wire Cloth Co Fireproof covering for columns or the like.
US791076A (en) * 1904-08-18 1905-05-30 John Mcnamee Concrete construction.
US1097998A (en) * 1904-09-06 1914-05-26 Claude A P Turner Fireproof construction.
US835717A (en) * 1905-12-05 1906-11-13 George F Thorn Material of building construction.
US894090A (en) * 1907-01-09 1908-07-21 Harry Lawrence Williams Railway-tie.
US883474A (en) * 1907-10-11 1908-03-31 Robert S Orr Pole.
US1045026A (en) * 1911-12-07 1912-11-19 William T Hicks Post.
GB135942A (en) * 1918-12-04 1919-12-04 Robert Floyd Seward Improvements in and relating to Props, Struts, Columns, or Posts used in Mining or for other purposes.
US1410453A (en) * 1919-06-05 1922-03-21 Hervey E Butcher Reenforced-concrete column
US1699736A (en) * 1924-09-08 1929-01-22 Westinghouse Electric & Mfg Co Pole reenforcement
US1653555A (en) * 1925-04-25 1927-12-20 Eilert Adolf Frame for sounding boards of stringed musical instruments
US1739883A (en) * 1927-11-09 1929-12-17 Robert P Miller Building construction
US1843853A (en) * 1927-12-14 1932-02-02 Lux Mfg Company Insert for molds
US1948691A (en) * 1929-07-20 1934-02-27 Bauer Bruno Steel skeleton for reenforced concrete structures
US2050256A (en) * 1933-04-25 1936-08-11 Bemis Ind Inc Building construction
GB576515A (en) * 1944-06-27 1946-04-08 Orlit Ltd Improvements in reinforced concrete structure
US2477930A (en) * 1945-06-21 1949-08-02 Harold L Hiebert Method of molding reinforced concrete storage structures

Cited By (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3429092A (en) * 1966-05-26 1969-02-25 Dyna Structures Structural frames and methods and means therefor
US3600865A (en) * 1968-03-09 1971-08-24 Vanich F Elevated single column-borne house of precast concrete elements and posttensioned tendons
US3593532A (en) * 1968-10-02 1971-07-20 Grazel Inc John Concrete pile sections and joints therefor
US3722159A (en) * 1971-10-27 1973-03-27 S Kessler Prefabricated concrete structure
US3918229A (en) * 1974-05-28 1975-11-11 Manfred P Schweinberger Column base assembly
US3965627A (en) * 1974-07-15 1976-06-29 Miroslav Fencl Interconnection of modular structures
FR2538294A2 (en) * 1978-11-27 1984-06-29 Martin Rafael Pillar with visible stones
US4330970A (en) * 1979-10-23 1982-05-25 Copreal S.A. Building structure and steel parts for same
US4646495A (en) * 1984-12-17 1987-03-03 Rachil Chalik Composite load-bearing system for modular buildings
US5386671A (en) * 1991-03-29 1995-02-07 Kansas State University Research Foundation Stiffness decoupler for base isolation of structures
US5660007A (en) * 1991-03-29 1997-08-26 Kansas State University Research Foundation Stiffness decoupler for base isolation of structures
US5359829A (en) * 1992-12-07 1994-11-01 Voita John M Fabrication and installation of steel reinforcement cages for pier foundations
WO1997001683A1 (en) * 1995-06-27 1997-01-16 Elr Building Technologies International, Inc. Bearing wall construction system
US6189286B1 (en) * 1996-02-05 2001-02-20 The Regents Of The University Of California At San Diego Modular fiber-reinforced composite structural member
US5881516A (en) * 1996-06-26 1999-03-16 Elr Building Technologies, Llc Bearing wall construction system wherein axial loads of walls do no pass through the floor construction
US5819487A (en) * 1997-03-13 1998-10-13 Ameron International Corporation Prestressed concrete poles with internal bolting and leveling structures
US6874287B2 (en) * 2000-06-14 2005-04-05 Ludwig Felser Steel structure system
US20040010991A1 (en) * 2000-06-14 2004-01-22 Ludwig Felser Steel structure system
US20050097844A1 (en) * 2003-11-07 2005-05-12 Walker Crockett J. Multi-story concrete slab construction
US7028435B2 (en) 2003-11-07 2006-04-18 Climatized Self-Storage Const. Co. Multi-story concrete slab construction
DE102004005916A1 (en) * 2004-02-06 2005-09-01 Tue, Nguyen Viet, Prof. Dr.-Ing.habil. Mounting part e.g. for concrete for increasing load under pressure, has special fitting for concrete to be applied with tubular pipe arranged between load introduction surfaces
US20070079567A1 (en) * 2005-09-01 2007-04-12 Leslie Harold C Grid system for building structure and method therefor
US20080172974A1 (en) * 2007-01-19 2008-07-24 Suarez Felix E Interlocking Mesh
US8079197B2 (en) * 2007-01-19 2011-12-20 Suarez Sr Felix E Interlocking mesh
US20080190058A1 (en) * 2007-02-08 2008-08-14 Paul Gerald Migliore Foundation for monopole wind turbine tower
US8161698B2 (en) * 2007-02-08 2012-04-24 Anemergonics, Llc Foundation for monopole wind turbine tower
US20090188191A1 (en) * 2008-01-24 2009-07-30 Martin Williams Panelization Method and System
US8205412B2 (en) * 2008-01-24 2012-06-26 Consolidated Systems, Inc. Panelization method and system
WO2013115823A1 (en) * 2012-02-02 2013-08-08 Empire Technology Development Llc Modular concrete reinforcement
US9725867B2 (en) 2012-02-02 2017-08-08 Empire Technology Development Llc Modular concrete reinforcement
US20170101750A1 (en) * 2015-10-08 2017-04-13 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Bollard base
US9945082B2 (en) * 2015-10-08 2018-04-17 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Bollard base

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