US3104142A - Self closing drawer slide structure - Google Patents

Self closing drawer slide structure Download PDF

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Publication number
US3104142A
US3104142A US116089A US11608961A US3104142A US 3104142 A US3104142 A US 3104142A US 116089 A US116089 A US 116089A US 11608961 A US11608961 A US 11608961A US 3104142 A US3104142 A US 3104142A
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United States
Prior art keywords
drawer
cabinet
tracks
rollers
slide
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Expired - Lifetime
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US116089A
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Herbert F Knape
Phillip M Geren
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Knape and Vogt Manufacturing Co
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Knape and Vogt Manufacturing Co
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Priority to US116089A priority Critical patent/US3104142A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A47FURNITURE; DOMESTIC ARTICLES OR APPLIANCES; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; SUCTION CLEANERS IN GENERAL
    • A47BTABLES; DESKS; OFFICE FURNITURE; CABINETS; DRAWERS; GENERAL DETAILS OF FURNITURE
    • A47B88/00Drawers for tables, cabinets or like furniture; Guides for drawers
    • A47B88/40Sliding drawers; Slides or guides therefor
    • A47B88/453Actuated drawers
    • A47B88/46Actuated drawers operated by mechanically-stored energy, e.g. by springs
    • A47B88/467Actuated drawers operated by mechanically-stored energy, e.g. by springs self-closing
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A47FURNITURE; DOMESTIC ARTICLES OR APPLIANCES; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; SUCTION CLEANERS IN GENERAL
    • A47BTABLES; DESKS; OFFICE FURNITURE; CABINETS; DRAWERS; GENERAL DETAILS OF FURNITURE
    • A47B2210/00General construction of drawers, guides and guide devices
    • A47B2210/0002Guide construction for drawers
    • A47B2210/0029Guide bearing means
    • A47B2210/0043Wheels
    • A47B2210/0045Wheels whereof only one per slide

Description

p 1963 H. F. KNAPE ET AL SELF CLOSING DRAWER SLIDE STRUCTURE Filed June 9, 1961 INVENTOR. #555577 i A A/APF BY 79/44? M. 6677f United States Patent 3,104,142 SELF CLOSING DRAWER SLIDE STRUCTURE Herbert F. Knape, Grand Rapids, and Phillip M. Geren, Cornstock Park, Mich., assignors to Knape & Vogt Manufacturing Company, Grand Rapids, Mich, a corporation of Michigan Filed June 9, 1961, Ser. No. 116,089 2 Claims. (Cl. 312-333) This invention relates to a drawer slide structure, and more particularly to a self-closing drawer slide structure.
There are presently in existence several types of selfclosing drawer slide structures. Many of these structures operate satisfactorily; however, they have many disadvantages. One such disadvantage is that they require the slide components to have a large height dimension. This increases the amount of material necessary and thus the total cost of a drawer slide. Also, the cabinet opening must be substantially larger than that of the drawer to allow the slide structure tofibe used, resulting in an increase of cabinet material .and a decrease of actual drawer space utilized. These self-closing drawer slides also require a complicated manufiacturing process. This results in increased rnanufiacturing costs which prohibit a competitive article of manufiacture.
The present invention overcomes these disadvantages by providing an interfitting drawer slide structure which results in an article having a minimum height dimension. Inclined surfaces are formed from'the slide structure itself by stamping to provide the self-closing aspect of the drawer slide. This process can be accomplished by a simple operation which greatly reduces the manufacturing cost of the slide over existing methods utilized to form self-closing slide structures.
It is therefore an object of this invention to provide a self-closing drawer slide structure which has a minimum height dimension.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a self-closing drawer slide structure which is composed of a minimum number of component parts which can be manufactured and assembled economically.
Yet another object of this invention is to provide a selfclosing drawer slide structure which will result in the drawer closing automatically after being closed a certain degree, regardless of the position of the weight in the drawer.
Still another object of this invention is to provide a self-closing drawer slide structure which has rollers of the proper size and in the proper position to facilitate smooth and quiet drawer action.
These and other objects and advantages of this invention will become more apparent upon reading the specification in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing the drawer slide structure of this invention connected to a conventional cabinet and drawer;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged, end elevational view of the self-closing drawer slide structure showing its relationship to a fragment of the drawer and cabinet;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the drawer track; and
FIG. 4 is a perspective view of tthe cabinet track.
Basically, this invention relates to a self-closing drawer slide structure. The structure includes fixed channelshaped cabinet tracks which are adapted to be secured to each side of the cabinet and aligned with a drawer opening formed therein. Drawer tracks are adapted to be secured to the sides of the drawer which is received by the cabinet. The drawer tracks are positioned so as to be aligned with the cabinet tracks when the drawer is inserted into the cabinet. First rollers are fixed to the "ice cabinet tracks adjacent the drawer opening. These rollers support runners formed on the drawer tracks. Second rollers are journaled on the drawer tracks adjacent the back of the drawer and are supported by and movable on flanges formed along the bottom of the cabinet tracks. Inclined protrusions are formed upwardly from the runners near the front end of the drawer and downwardly from the flanges near the rear end of the cabinet. These protrusions are encountered by the rollers during the process of drawer closure and are so arranged as to cause the drawer to be drawn into the fully closed position by gravity.
In the drawings, the self-closing drawer slide structure is designated generally as 10. The structure 10 includes slide units 25 and 250 which have similar components. The slide unit 25 is further composed of a cabinet track 26, an inclined protrusion 33, a recess 34, and roller 36. A drawer track 44 also forms a part of the unit 25 and has an inclined protrusion 47 and roller 49. The slide uni-ts are associated with the cabinet 12 and drawer 15.
Referring now more specifically to the details of the invention, FIG. 1 shows .a portion of a conventional cabinet with which the slide units may be associated. The cabinet 12 has a rectangular drawer opening 13' which receives the drawer 15. The depth ofthe cabinet is somewhat greater than the length of the drawer for purposes which will be explained more fully hereinafter.
The drawer is of conventional design, having a front 16, sides 17 and 18, a back 19 and bottom 2d, all interconnected in a conventional manner. The height of the drawer sides 17, 1'8 and back 15 is somewhat less than the height of the drawer opening 13 to facilitate the selfclosing aspect of the drawer as will be explained more fully subsequently. Sufficient clearance is also provided between the drawer sides and the cabinet opening 13 to allow for installation of the slide units.
The self-closing drawer slide assembly 10 includes the slide units 25 and 25a, which are positioned on opposite sides of the drawer. Since one unit is substantially a mirror image of the other unit, only the unit 25 will be explained in detail.
The unit 25 has a U-shaped channel member 26 which forms the cabinet track. The channel member 26 has an offset portion 27 (FIG. 2) which extends throughout the longitudinal extent of the channel. Due to the offset 27, bosses 28 and 29 are formed above and below the oifset respectively. The channel 26 is made of suflicient length to extend between the drawer opening and the rear of the cabinet as shown in FIG. 1.
The channel 26 is provided with a transversely extending lower flange 39 and upper flange 31 which project toward the interior of the cabinet. The upper flange is provided with a normally directed shoulder 32 which is parallel to the channel 26 but spaced therefrom. The lower flange is provided with an inclined protrusion 33 located adjacent the end of the channel which connects to the rear of the cabinet (FIG. 1). The inclined protrusion 33 projects downwardly and toward the rear of the cabinet. The inclined protrusion 33; is formed from the lower flange itself by a stamping process. The upper flangefil is provided with a recess 34 directly above the inclined protrusion 33. The purpose for'this is to prevent sidewiseor transverse movement of the roller 49 when it drops into the inclined protrusion 33.
At the forward end of the channel 26 is a roller 36. As shown in FIG. 1, the roller 36 is located adjacent the cabinet drawer opening 13. The roller 36 has a hub 36a and is journaled on a rivet shaft 35 which is riveted to the channel 26 (FIG. 2). Theroller 36 is made of a self- -lubr-icating material such as nylon or Teflon which provides quiet and smooth rolling action. It is also of sufficient size so as to provide easy operation of the slide unit. The diameter of the roller 36 is great enough so that it projects above the upper flange 31 for purposes which will be explained more fully hereinafter. A portion of the upper flange 31 and shoulder 32 is removed adjacent the roller 36 to facilitate removal of the drawer and to enable the roller 36 to project above the upper flange.
The drawer track 40 is generally Z-shaped in cross-sectional configuration as best shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. It is of substantially the same length as the cabinet track 26 (except for the additional length used on 26 to reach the mounting plate 37) and has an offset portion 41 which extends throughout the length of the track. The offset portion 41 forms bosses 42 and 43 in the track above and below the offset, respectively. Formed from the bottom of the bar is a transversely projecting lip 44. The lip 44 is adapted to underlie the drawer as best shown in FIG. 2. Formed from the top of the bar is a runner 45 which projects in the opposite direction from the lip 44, thus forming the Z-shape. The runner 45 has a normally directed shoulder 46 which is in a plane parallel to that of the portion 41, but spaced therefrom. There is no shoulder 46 on the runner 45 of the slide unit a.
The runner 45 has an inclined protrusion 47 located adjacent the front end of the track which is located at the front of the drawer. The inclined protrusion is directed upwardl and toward the front of the drawer. It is formed from the runner 45 by a stamping or similar process. Theinclined protrusion 47 is of substantially the same size and degree of inclination as the protrusion 33.
Located at the rear end of the drawer track 40 is a roller 49. The roller 49 is journaled on a rivet shaft 48 which is riveted to the track 40. The diameter of roller 49 is similar to the dimension between the lower and upper flanges and 31, respectively, of the cabinet track 26. The roller 49 is designed to be supported and moved between the upper and lower flanges of the track 26. It is located on the portion of the track which projects beyond the back 19 of the drawer 15 as illustrated in FIG. 1. The purpose for this is to facilitate removal of the drawer. With this arrangement the drawer 15 is completely outside the cabinet 12 before it is necessary to move the roller 49 up and over the roller 36 to remove the drawer. This eliminates the need for any special clearance bet-ween the top edges of the drawer sides and the top of the cabinet drawer opening 13.
The offsets 27 and 41 formed in the tracks serve as means for recessing the heads of fasteners from the rollers 36 and 49. The bosses 28 and 29 on track 26, and 42 and 43 on track 40, provide means for spacing the rollers as well as providing clearance for the heads of the mounting screws. They also provide a small bearing surface area of engagement for the rollers 36 and 49. This reduces friction, resulting in a drawer slide which operates smoothly and easily.
The slide unit 25a differs slightly from the slide unit 25 in that the upper flange of the cabinet track and the runner of the drawer track are not provided with shoulders, nor the upper flange of the cabinet track with a recess. These elements which form a part of the slide unit 25 are utilized to prevent excessive relative sidewise movement of the tracks. Since the slide unit, when installed, function together, this structure is not necessary on both units. The unit 25a is otherwise a mirror image replica of the unit 25.
Assembly and Operation The unit 25 is fixed to the cabinet and the drawer by conventional fasteners. The channel 26 has the rearmost part thereof supported by the bracket 37 which is fixed to the rear post of the cabinet. The front end of the channel 26 is fixed to the front of the cabinet by conventional fasteners which pass through the channel and engage the cabinet. The fasteners are placed in the ofiset portion of the channel so that the head of the fasteners do not interfere with the operation of the rollers. The channel is placed against the bottom and side members of the drawer opening as best illustrated in FIG. 2.
The drawer track 40 is fixed to the drawer side 18 by conventional fasteners. The front of the track abuts the drawer front 16 and the lip 44 underlies the drawer sides 18. Conventional fasteners are located in the offset area 41 of the track and pass through the track to engage the drawer side 18. The slide unit 25a is fixed in position in a similar manner on the opposite side of the cabinet and drawer.
The drawer is inserted in the drawer cabinet opening 13 by rolling the rollers journaled on the drawer track over the rollers journaled on the cabinet track. The runner 45 is then supported b the roller 36, and the roller 49 rolls along either the flange 30 or the flange 31, depending, in any given position of the drawer 15, upon whether the center of gravity of the drawer 15 and its contents is rearwardly or forwardly of roller 36.
When the drawer is closed to within its last 2 to 4 inches of travel, the roller 49 comes into engagement with the inclined protrusion 33 and the roller 36 simultaneously into engagement with the inclined protrusion 47. The weight of the drawer will cause the roller 49 to roll down the incline 33 'and cause the incline 47 to move over the roller 36. The drawer 15 thus moves downwardly and toward the rear of the cabinet, providing for self-closing. Self-closing takes place regardless of the position of the weight in the drawer due to the gravitational force which causes the rollers to move on the inclined protrusions.
From the above disclosure it can be seen that the drawer slide of this invention is simply constructed. By forming protrusions from the channels and bar by the stamping process, the overall height dimension of the slide unit is held to a minimum. The slide unit provides a device having a self-closing feature which can be constructed from a minimum amount of material. Also, a minimum number of component parts are necessary, providing an economical and competitive article of manufacture. The offset portions of the channels and bar provide means for recessing the heads of the fasteners, and simultaneously form bosses which provide a minimum bearing surface contact area with the rollers. The rollers are made out of a material which provides for silent and smooth operation. The rollers are also sufliciently large to permit easy opening and closing of the drawer.
While a preferred embodiment of this invention has been described, it will be understood that modifications and improvements may be made thereto. Such of these modifications and improvements as incorporate the principles of this invention are to be considered as included in the hereinafter appended claims unless these claims by their language expressly state otherwise.
We claim:
1. A self-closing drawer slide assembly comprising; cabinet tracks adapted to be secured to each side of a cabinet and aligned with a drawer opening formed therein, said cabinet tracks having upper and lower flanges, said lower flanges being horizontal throughout their lengths but having downwardly inclined protrusions formed therein intermediate the ends thereof near the ends disposed most remotely from said drawer opening, first rollers journaled on said cabinet tracks adjacent said drawer opening, drawer tracks adapted to be secured to the sides of a drawer received by said cabinet and engaging said cabinet tracks, said drawer tracks having runners overlying said upper flanges and moving on saidfirst rollers, said runners being horizontal throughout their entire lengths but having upwardly inclined protrusions formed therein adjacent the front of saiddrawer, the lateral edges of each of said protrusions being detached from said tracks, second rollers journaled on said drawer tracks and movable ion the flanges of said cabinet tracks, said second rollers encountering said downwardly inclined protrusion and said first rollers encountering said upwardly inclined protrusion upon said drawer being closed a certain degree whereupon said drawer is selfclosing under the influence of gravitational force.
2. A self-closing drawer slide assembly as in claim 1 wherein at least one of said upper flanges is horizontal and has a shoulder of sufficient vertical extent to retain said second rollers against transverse movement except at said downwardly inclined protrusions, and is bent in the vicinity of and toward said downwardly inclined protrusions to prevent transverse movement of said second rollers when located on said downwardly inclined protrusions.
Motter Sept. 7,
Nielsen Feb. 7,
Niedringhaus Feb. 3,
Wenger Sept. 11, 196 2 FOREIGN PATENTS Germany June 1,
Great Britain May 28,

Claims (1)

1. A SELF-CLOSING DRAWER SLIDE ASSEMBLY COMPRISING; CABINET TRACKS ADAPTED TO BE SECURED TO EACH SIDE OF A CABINET AND ALIGNED WITH A DRAWER OPENING FORMED THEREIN, SAID CABINET TRACKS HAVING UPPER AND LOWER FLANGES, SAID LOWER FLANGES BEING HORIZONTAL THROUGHOUT THEIR LENGTHS BUT HAVING DOWNWARDLY INCLINED PROTRUSIONS FORMED THEREIN INTERMEDIATE THE ENDS THEREOF NEAR THE ENDS DISPOSED MOST REMOTELY FROM SAID DRAWER OPENING, FIRST ROLLERS JOURNALED ON SAID CABINET TRACKS ADJACENT SAID DRAWER OPENING, DRAWER TRACKS ADAPTED TO BE SECURED TO THE SIDES OF A DRAWER RECEIVED BY SAID CABINET AND ENGAGING SAID CABINET TRACKS, SAID DRAWER TRACKS HAVING RUNNERS OVERLYING SAID UPPER FLANGES AND MOVING ON SAID FIRST ROLLERS, SAID RUNNERS BEING HORIZONTAL THROUGHOUT THEIR ENTIRE LENGTHS BUT HAVING UPWARDLY INCLINED PROTRUSIONS FORMED THEREIN ADJACENT THE FRONT OF SAID DRAWER, THE LATERAL EDGES OF EACH OF SAID PROTRUSIONS BEING DETACHED FROM SAID TRACKS, SECOND ROLLERS JOURNALED ON SAID DRAWER TRACKS AND MOVABLE ON THE FLANGES OF SAID CABINET TRACKS, SAID SECOND ROLLERS ENCOUNTERING SAID DOWNWARDLY INCLINED PROTRUSION AND SAID FIRST ROLLERS ENCOUNTERING SAID UPWARDLY INCLINED PROTRUSION UPON SAID DRAWER BEING CLOSED A CERTAIN DEGREE WHEREUPON SAID DRAWER IS SELFCLOSING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF GRAVITATIONAL FORCE.
US116089A 1961-06-09 1961-06-09 Self closing drawer slide structure Expired - Lifetime US3104142A (en)

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Cited By (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3243247A (en) * 1964-02-24 1966-03-29 Knape & Vogt Mfg Co Self-closing drawer slide
US3489474A (en) * 1967-08-08 1970-01-13 Patriarca Mfg Inc Display cabinet
US3680941A (en) * 1971-02-17 1972-08-01 Sears Roebuck & Co Food storage compartment for refrigerator
US4564248A (en) * 1983-03-25 1986-01-14 Alfred Grass Pull-out guide for drawers
US4615095A (en) * 1984-02-03 1986-10-07 Knape & Vogt Manufacturing Company Inclined drawer slide incorporating scale
AT392403B (en) * 1987-05-04 1991-03-25 Blum Gmbh Julius Extension guide set for drawers or the like.
AT399986B (en) * 1988-09-27 1995-08-25 Lautenschlaeger Kg Karl Fastening arrangement for the extension guide rail
US6712435B2 (en) 2000-05-01 2004-03-30 Accuride International, Inc. Self-closing slide
US20050025400A1 (en) * 2003-07-31 2005-02-03 Quinn Chi Self-moving slide, mechanism for self-moving slide and method for self-moving a slide
US6971729B1 (en) 2000-05-01 2005-12-06 Accuride International, Inc. Self-closing slide
US20060076862A1 (en) * 2004-10-13 2006-04-13 Lowe Mark J Stay-closed drawer slide with socket
US20060082266A1 (en) * 2000-05-01 2006-04-20 Le Hai D Self-moving slides and self-moving mechanisms
US20060113169A1 (en) * 2004-11-05 2006-06-01 Leon Ricardo A Dampened movement mechanism and slide incorporating the same
US20060175946A1 (en) * 2004-11-05 2006-08-10 Le Baoloc T Self-moving mechanism and slide incorporating the same
US20070046158A1 (en) * 2005-08-25 2007-03-01 Knape & Vogt Manufacturing Company Closing device for drawers
US20100086244A1 (en) * 2008-10-07 2010-04-08 Fulterer Gesellschaft M.B.H. Roller extraction guide
US8231188B1 (en) * 2011-07-15 2012-07-31 King Slide Works Co., Ltd. Support mechanism for slide assembly
US20120273504A1 (en) * 2011-04-29 2012-11-01 Electrolux Home Products, Inc. Crisper drawers with rollers and ramp
US10040385B2 (en) 2016-09-26 2018-08-07 Errol Keith Stevens Vehicle access ramp

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE314420C (en) *
GB429300A (en) * 1934-02-08 1935-05-28 Eric Francis Kay Means for supporting and facilitating the movement of drawers or trays in furniture
US2328835A (en) * 1942-02-02 1943-09-07 Morton Mfg Company Drawer construction
US2496673A (en) * 1946-04-05 1950-02-07 Poster Products Inc Drawer construction
US2872271A (en) * 1955-03-28 1959-02-03 Knoll Drake Products Inc Drawer guide
US3053582A (en) * 1960-03-30 1962-09-11 Quaker Maid Kitchens Inc Drawer guide

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE314420C (en) *
GB429300A (en) * 1934-02-08 1935-05-28 Eric Francis Kay Means for supporting and facilitating the movement of drawers or trays in furniture
US2328835A (en) * 1942-02-02 1943-09-07 Morton Mfg Company Drawer construction
US2496673A (en) * 1946-04-05 1950-02-07 Poster Products Inc Drawer construction
US2872271A (en) * 1955-03-28 1959-02-03 Knoll Drake Products Inc Drawer guide
US3053582A (en) * 1960-03-30 1962-09-11 Quaker Maid Kitchens Inc Drawer guide

Cited By (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3243247A (en) * 1964-02-24 1966-03-29 Knape & Vogt Mfg Co Self-closing drawer slide
US3489474A (en) * 1967-08-08 1970-01-13 Patriarca Mfg Inc Display cabinet
US3680941A (en) * 1971-02-17 1972-08-01 Sears Roebuck & Co Food storage compartment for refrigerator
US4564248A (en) * 1983-03-25 1986-01-14 Alfred Grass Pull-out guide for drawers
USRE34108E (en) * 1983-03-25 1992-10-20 Grass America, Inc. Pull-out guide for drawers
US4615095A (en) * 1984-02-03 1986-10-07 Knape & Vogt Manufacturing Company Inclined drawer slide incorporating scale
AT392403B (en) * 1987-05-04 1991-03-25 Blum Gmbh Julius Extension guide set for drawers or the like.
AT399986B (en) * 1988-09-27 1995-08-25 Lautenschlaeger Kg Karl Fastening arrangement for the extension guide rail
US6712435B2 (en) 2000-05-01 2004-03-30 Accuride International, Inc. Self-closing slide
US6733097B2 (en) 2000-05-01 2004-05-11 Accuride International, Inc. Self-closing slide and mechanism for a self-closing slide
US6971729B1 (en) 2000-05-01 2005-12-06 Accuride International, Inc. Self-closing slide
US20060082266A1 (en) * 2000-05-01 2006-04-20 Le Hai D Self-moving slides and self-moving mechanisms
US20050025400A1 (en) * 2003-07-31 2005-02-03 Quinn Chi Self-moving slide, mechanism for self-moving slide and method for self-moving a slide
US7104691B2 (en) 2003-07-31 2006-09-12 Accuride International, Inc. Self-moving slide, mechanism for self-moving slide and method for self-moving a slide
US7331644B2 (en) * 2004-10-13 2008-02-19 Mark Jeffrey Lowe Stay-closed drawer slide with socket
US20060076862A1 (en) * 2004-10-13 2006-04-13 Lowe Mark J Stay-closed drawer slide with socket
US20060175946A1 (en) * 2004-11-05 2006-08-10 Le Baoloc T Self-moving mechanism and slide incorporating the same
US7641296B2 (en) 2004-11-05 2010-01-05 Accuride International, Inc. Self-moving mechanism and slide incorporating the same
US7537296B2 (en) 2004-11-05 2009-05-26 Accuride International, Inc. Dampened movement mechanism and slide incorporating the same
US20060113169A1 (en) * 2004-11-05 2006-06-01 Leon Ricardo A Dampened movement mechanism and slide incorporating the same
US7533946B2 (en) 2005-08-25 2009-05-19 Knape & Vogt Manufacturing Company Closing device for drawers
US20070046158A1 (en) * 2005-08-25 2007-03-01 Knape & Vogt Manufacturing Company Closing device for drawers
US20100086244A1 (en) * 2008-10-07 2010-04-08 Fulterer Gesellschaft M.B.H. Roller extraction guide
US8353563B2 (en) * 2008-10-07 2013-01-15 Fulterer Gesellschaft M.B.H. Roller extraction guide
US20120273504A1 (en) * 2011-04-29 2012-11-01 Electrolux Home Products, Inc. Crisper drawers with rollers and ramp
US9115927B2 (en) * 2011-04-29 2015-08-25 Electrolux Home Products, Inc. Crisper drawers with rollers and ramp
US8231188B1 (en) * 2011-07-15 2012-07-31 King Slide Works Co., Ltd. Support mechanism for slide assembly
US10040385B2 (en) 2016-09-26 2018-08-07 Errol Keith Stevens Vehicle access ramp

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