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X-ray fluorescent screen

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US3089956A
US3089956A US36716753A US3089956A US 3089956 A US3089956 A US 3089956A US 36716753 A US36716753 A US 36716753A US 3089956 A US3089956 A US 3089956A
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Prior art keywords
member
material
plate
surface
foraminated
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Harper Walter John
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Westinghouse Electric Corp
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Westinghouse Electric Corp
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J29/00Details of cathode-ray tubes or of electron-beam tubes of the types covered by group H01J31/00
    • H01J29/02Electrodes; Screens; Mounting, supporting, spacing or insulating thereof
    • H01J29/10Screens on or from which an image or pattern is formed, picked up, converted or stored
    • H01J29/36Photoelectric screens; Charge-storage screens
    • H01J29/38Photoelectric screens; Charge-storage screens not using charge storage, e.g. photo-emissive screen, extended cathode
    • H01J29/385Photocathodes comprising a layer which modified the wave length of impinging radiation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G21NUCLEAR PHYSICS; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
    • G21KTECHNIQUES FOR HANDLING PARTICLES OR IONISING RADIATION NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; IRRADIATION DEVICES; GAMMA RAY OR X-RAY MICROSCOPES
    • G21K4/00Conversion screens for the conversion of the spatial distribution of X-rays or particle radiation into visible images, e.g. fluoroscopic screens
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J29/00Details of cathode-ray tubes or of electron-beam tubes of the types covered by group H01J31/00
    • H01J29/02Electrodes; Screens; Mounting, supporting, spacing or insulating thereof
    • H01J29/10Screens on or from which an image or pattern is formed, picked up, converted or stored
    • H01J29/18Luminescent screens
    • H01J29/24Supports for luminescent material

Description

May 14, 1963 7 3,089,956

WALTER J. HUSHLEY NOW BY CHANGE OF NAME WALTER JOHN HARPER X-RAY FLUORESCENT SCREEN Filed July 10, 1955 Fig. l.

Photogmissive Conductive (Boating 8 Matenal Material g 2 Photoemissive WITNESSES: INVENTOR Walter J. Hushley.

ATTORNEY United States Patent Ofiice 3,Q89,956 Patented May 14, 1963 3,089,956 X-RAY FLUORESCENT SCREEN Walter J. Hushley, now by change of name Walter John Harper, Pittsburgh, Pa, assignor to Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pittsburgh, Pa, a corporation of Pennsylvania Filed July 10, 1953, Ser. No. 367,167 Claims. (Cl. 25tt80) My invention relates to fluorescent screens and in particular relates to a screen comprising both fluorescent material and photoelectric material which is capable of transforming an X-ray or other radiation image into an electron image which is its replica. Such screens are useful in image intensifiers, of which one typical example is to be found in Coltman and Masons U.S. Patent 2,523,132 issued September 19, 1950 and assigned to the assignee of this application.

In image intensifiers of the type just referred to an X- ray beam after passing through a pictured object is incident upon a screen having a thin layer of zinc sulphide separated from a thin layer of photoelectric material by a thin layer of glass. The light generated by the X-rays in the zinc sulphide causes the closely adjacent areas of the photoelectric material to emit electrons, thus forming an electron image which is accelerated electrically into incidence on an electron-phosphor screen where it produces a bright light image in replica of the X-ray distribution.

To attain a true reproduction of the fluorescent image the separation between the zinc sulphide particles and the photoelectric particles should be as small as possible. In my present invention this is achieved by forming the body of the screen of a chemically machined glass on which the zinc sulphide is mounted.

One object of my invention is, accordingly, to provide a new and improved form of optical screen for converting X-ray or other radiation images into electron images.

Another object is to provide an improved type of image screen for electronic image intensifier tubes.

Still another object is to provide an improved structure for mouting fluorescent materials in close contiguity to photoelectrically emissive material.

Other objects of my invention will become apparent upon reading the following description taken in connection with the drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a mid-cross-sectional view of one form of image screen embodying the principles of my invention;

FIG. 2 is a similar view of another form of image screen in which such principles may be embodied; and

FIG. 3 is a similar view of a modified image screen.

Referring in detail to FIG. 1, the main body of the screen comprises the special glass which is becoming known as chemically machined glass, and is sold by the Corning Glass Company of Corning, New York. For the image screens to be used in X-ray image intensifiers currently marketed by applicants assignee it may have the form of a segment, six inches in diameter, of the surface of an eleven inch radius sphere. A peripheral rim 1 about half an inch wide and 50 mils thick gives strength and rigidity, while a grid of ribs 2 of the same thickness and 2 mils wide, enclosing square sockets 3 which are 63 mils on a side and 48 mils deeps, cross-connects points on this rim. The method I am acquainted with at the moment for making such a foraminated glass structure is by etching the sockets with a chemical reagent such as hydrofluoric acid in a spherical segment of the above-descibed glass 50 mils thick. This etching method is described in detail in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 45, page 115, January 1953 and some previous articles, but any other method of producing a rigid structure having sockets of about the same dimensions each with a transverse septum about 2 mils thick of the aforesaid glass is within the scope of my invention.

The sockets are coated inside on the transvense wall only with a thin layer 4 of aluminum, e.g., by vapor condensation, and the outer face of the glass is coated with a thin layer 5 of a transparent electrical conductor, e.g., by hot-spraying with tin chloride. The sockets are then filled with zinc sulphide-silver or other suitable phosphor 6 such as that known under the trade name of Patterson B (sold by du Pont de Nemours, Wilmington, Delaware). This phosphor may comprise particles of about 45 microns average diameter and an amount of 200 to 250 mg. per square centimeter would fill the abovedescribed sockets. The remaining face of the sockets should be covered by a metal foil 7 such as aluminum about one mil thick. Adjacent the conductive coating 5 is shown a layer 8 of a suitable photoemissive material such as that disclosed in the above-mentioned Coltman and Mason U.S. Patent 2,523,132.

FIG. 2 shows another form of screen in accordance with my invention in which the square sockets of the FIG. 1 screen are replaced by square holes passing completely through the glass frame. The dimensions of the rim, side walls, coatings and openings may be the same as in FIG. 1. A separate thin sheet 11 of glass covers the concave face of the screen openings, and its outer face is coated with a transparent conductive layer 5. The holes are filled as in FIG. 1 with the phosphor 6 abovedescribed and their free face covered with the aluminum foil '7 as before. The use of a thin layer of glass between the aluminum layer 7 and the phosphor is also within the contemplation of my invention. Adjacent the conductive coating 5 is shown a layer 8 of a suitable photoemissive material such as that disclosed in the abovementioned Coltman and Mason U.S. Patent 2,523,132.

The holes need not be square but may be of any shape and their size and number may also be varied. FIG. 3 illustrates a modified structure in which the walls of the holes 3 are tapered.

I claim as my invention:

1. In an image amplifier, an input screen comprising a foraminated plate member of insulating material, said plate member having a foraminated surface and a nonforaminated surface, said plate member including a thin septum of said insulating material transverse to the foraminations therein, a layer of transparent conductive material upon said non foraminated surface of said plate member, fluorescent material filling each of said foraminations and a thin metallic member upon said foraminated surface of said plate member, said thin septum having a thickness of less than 10 percent of the thickness of said plate member.

2. In an image amplifier, an input screen comprising a foraminated plate member of insulating material, said plate member having a foraminated surface and a nonforaminated surface, said plate member including a thin septum of said insulating material transverse to the foraminations therein, a layer of transparent conductive material upon said non-foraminated surface of said plate member, a layer of photoelectric material upon said layer of transparent conductive material, fluorescent material filling each of said foraminations to obtain a fluorescent image therein, said thin septum being of a thickness to provide a true reproduction of said fluorescent image on said photoelectric layer and a thin metallic member upon said foraminated surface of said screen member.

3. In an image amplifier, an input screen comprising a foraminated plate member of insulating material, said plate member having a foraminated surface and a nonforaminated surface, said plate member including a thin septum of said insulating material transverse to the foraminations therein, a layer of transparent conductive ma terial upon said non-foraminated surface of said plate member, a layer of photoelectric material upon said layer of transparent conductive material, fluorescent material filling each of said foraminations, and a thin metallic member upon said foraminated surface of said screen member, said thin septum having a thickness of less than percent of the thickness of said plate member.

4. In an image amplifier, an input screen comprising a foraminated plate member of insulating material, said plate member having a foraminated surface and a nonforaminated surface, said plate member including a thin septum of said insulating material transverse to the forarn inations therein, a layer of transparent conductive material upon said nonforaminated surface of said plate member, fluorescent material filling each of said foraminations, said foraminations having side wall portions, a reflecting surface lining said side wall portions of said foraminations, and a thin metallic member upon said foraminated surface of said plate member.

5. In an image amplifier, an input screen comprising a foraminated plate member of insulating material, said plate member having a foraminated surface and a nonforaminated surface, said plate member including a thin septum of said insulating material transverse to the foraminations therein, a layer of transparent conductive material upon said non-foraminated surface of said plate member, a layer of photoelectric material upon said layer of transparent conductive material, fluorescent material filling each of said foraminations, said foraminations having side wall portions, a reflecting surface lining said side wall portions of said foraminations, and a thin metallic member upon said foraminated surface of said screen member.

6. In an image amplifier, an input screen comprising a foraminated plate member of insulating material, said plate member having a foraminated surface and a nonforaminated surface, said plate member including a thin septum of said insulating material transverse to the foraminations therein, a layer of photoelectric material upon the surface of said fluorescent screen member opposite said foraminated surface of said plate member, fluorescent material filling each of said foraminations, said foraminations having side wall portions, a reflecting surface lining said side wall portions of said foraminations, and a thin metallic member upon said foraminated surface of said plate member.

7. In an image amplifier, an input screen comprising a plate member of insulating material having a plurality of foraminations therein, said plate member including a thin transparent septum transverse to said foraminations so that said plate member has a foraminated surface and a non-foraminated surface, a layer of photoelectric material upon said non-foraminated surface and fluorescent material filling each of said foraminations to obtain a fluorescent image therein, said thin transparent septum being of a thickness to provide a true reproduction of said fluorescent image on said photoelectric layer.

8. In an image amplifier, an input screen comprising a plate member of insulating material having a plurality of foraminations therein, said plate member including a thin transparent septum transverse to said foraminations so that said plate member has a foraminated surface and a non-foraminated surface, a layer of photoelectric material upon said non-foraminated surface and fluorescent material filling each of said foraminations, said thin transparent septum providing a barrier of minimum thickness between said photoelectric mateiral and said fluorescent material, said thin septum having a thickness of about two mils.

9. An intensifying screen for X-ray registrations comprising a honeycomb-shaped grid, the walls of which are light-reflecting and the apertures of which are filled with a luminescent substance, said apertures being formed in a glass plate made of photographically sensitive glass and the partitions are coated with a light-reflecting metal layer.

10. An intensifying screen as claimed in claim 9, in which the partitions are tapered on both sides.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,467,132 Bilstein Sept. 4, 1923 2,029,639 Schlesinger Feb. 4, 1936 2,303,563 Law Dec. 1, 1942 2,324,505 Iams et al July 20, 1943 2,501,376 Breadner et a1 Mar. 21, 1950 2,523,132 Mason et al Sept. 19, 1950 2,555,545 Hunter et al. June 5, 1951 2,567,714 Kaplan Sept. 11, 1951 2,582,822 Evans Jan. 15, 1952 2,583,000 Lytle Jan. 22, 1952 2,606,299 Coltman et al. Aug. 5, 1952 2,660,686 Putnam Nov. 24, 1953 2,689,189 Hushley Sept. 14, 1954 2,705,765 Geer Apr. 5, 1955 2,739,243 Sheldon Mar. 20, 1956 OTHER REFERENCES Fluoroscopic Image Brightening by Electronic Means, Coltman, Radiology, v01. 51, September 1948, pp. 359 366.

Claims (1)

1. IN AN IMAGE AMPLIFIER, AN INPUT SCREEN COMPRISING A FORAMINATED PLATE MEMBER OF INSULATING MATERIAL, SAID PLATE MEMBER HAVING A FORAMINATED SURFACE AND A NONFORAMINATED SURFACE, SAID PLATE MEMBER INCLUDING A THIN SEPTUM OF SAID INSULATING MATERIAL TRANSVERSES TO THE FORAMINATIONS THEREIN, A LAYER OF TRANSPARENT CONDUCTIVE
US3089956A 1953-07-10 1953-07-10 X-ray fluorescent screen Expired - Lifetime US3089956A (en)

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US3089956A US3089956A (en) 1953-07-10 1953-07-10 X-ray fluorescent screen

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US3089956A US3089956A (en) 1953-07-10 1953-07-10 X-ray fluorescent screen
GB1896954A GB752283A (en) 1953-07-10 1954-06-29 Improvements in or relating to fluorescent screens
FR1103951A FR1103951A (en) 1953-07-10 1954-07-09 ray fluorescent screen

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Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3291706A (en) * 1963-10-08 1966-12-13 Radames K H Gebel Method of making an optical fiber phosphor screen
US3344276A (en) * 1964-03-30 1967-09-26 Kaiser Aerospace & Electronics Radiographic screen having channels filled with a material which emits photons when energized by gamma or x-rays
US3482104A (en) * 1965-05-24 1969-12-02 Jack Finkle System for televising radiant energy images employing image transducer device with radiant energy image responsive photocathode
US3717764A (en) * 1969-03-07 1973-02-20 Fuji Photo Film Co Ltd Intensifying screen for radiograph use
US3753714A (en) * 1969-11-21 1973-08-21 Fuji Photo Film Co Ltd Image formation by radiation and intensification
US4096381A (en) * 1975-05-30 1978-06-20 Brown Sr Robert L Electron image detection system
US4208577A (en) * 1977-01-28 1980-06-17 Diagnostic Information, Inc. X-ray tube having scintillator-photocathode segments aligned with phosphor segments of its display screen
US4209705A (en) * 1977-03-14 1980-06-24 Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co, Ltd. Image intensifier whose input screen phosphor layer is divided into light guiding mosaic blocks by metal protrusions
US4317037A (en) * 1978-06-09 1982-02-23 Hitachi, Ltd. Radiation detection apparatus
US4339659A (en) * 1980-10-20 1982-07-13 International Telephone And Telegraph Corporation Image converter having serial arrangement of microchannel plate, input electrode, phosphor, and photocathode
US4415810A (en) * 1979-07-05 1983-11-15 Brown Sr Robert L Device for imaging penetrating radiation
US4778565A (en) * 1986-03-10 1988-10-18 Picker International, Inc. Method of forming panel type radiation image intensifier
US4855589A (en) * 1986-03-10 1989-08-08 Picker International, Inc. Panel type radiation image intensifier
US4935617A (en) * 1988-03-04 1990-06-19 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba X-ray image intensifier and method of manufacturing the same
US5338926A (en) * 1991-05-24 1994-08-16 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba X-ray imaging tube having a light-absorbing property

Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1127469B (en) * 1960-07-28 1962-04-12 Owensi Corning Fiberglasi Corp Phosphor plate
FR2535896B1 (en) * 1982-11-10 1985-01-18 Labo Electronique Physique
US4730107A (en) * 1986-03-10 1988-03-08 Picker International, Inc. Panel type radiation image intensifier
FR2634562B1 (en) * 1988-07-22 1990-09-07 Thomson Csf Method of manufacturing a scintillator and scintillator thus obtained

Citations (15)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1467132A (en) * 1922-01-17 1923-09-04 United States Radium Corp Application of luminous compounds
US2029639A (en) * 1931-12-24 1936-02-04 Schlesinger Kurt Braun tube
US2303563A (en) * 1941-05-09 1942-12-01 Rca Corp Cathode ray tube and luminescent screen
US2324505A (en) * 1940-11-28 1943-07-20 Rca Corp Television transmitting tube and electrode structure
US2501376A (en) * 1944-12-21 1950-03-21 Gen Electric Electric discharge lamp
US2523132A (en) * 1949-08-10 1950-09-19 Westinghouse Electric Corp Photosensitive apparatus
US2555545A (en) * 1947-08-28 1951-06-05 Westinghouse Electric Corp Image intensifier
US2567714A (en) * 1950-12-21 1951-09-11 Sightmaster Corp Cathode-ray tube
US2582822A (en) * 1948-12-04 1952-01-15 Rca Corp Cathode-ray tube with aluminized screen
US2583000A (en) * 1946-05-14 1952-01-22 Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co Transparent conducting films
US2606299A (en) * 1950-03-11 1952-08-05 Westinghouse Electric Corp Image intensifier tube
US2660686A (en) * 1948-06-19 1953-11-24 Westinghouse Electric Corp Fluorescent screen
US2689189A (en) * 1951-12-05 1954-09-14 Westinghouse Electric Corp X-ray fluorescent screen
US2705765A (en) * 1950-04-03 1955-04-05 Geer Charles Willard Single gun color television receiving tube and screen structure
US2739243A (en) * 1953-01-08 1956-03-20 Sheldon Edward Emanuel Composite photosensitive screens

Patent Citations (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1467132A (en) * 1922-01-17 1923-09-04 United States Radium Corp Application of luminous compounds
US2029639A (en) * 1931-12-24 1936-02-04 Schlesinger Kurt Braun tube
US2324505A (en) * 1940-11-28 1943-07-20 Rca Corp Television transmitting tube and electrode structure
US2303563A (en) * 1941-05-09 1942-12-01 Rca Corp Cathode ray tube and luminescent screen
US2501376A (en) * 1944-12-21 1950-03-21 Gen Electric Electric discharge lamp
US2583000A (en) * 1946-05-14 1952-01-22 Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co Transparent conducting films
US2555545A (en) * 1947-08-28 1951-06-05 Westinghouse Electric Corp Image intensifier
US2660686A (en) * 1948-06-19 1953-11-24 Westinghouse Electric Corp Fluorescent screen
US2582822A (en) * 1948-12-04 1952-01-15 Rca Corp Cathode-ray tube with aluminized screen
US2523132A (en) * 1949-08-10 1950-09-19 Westinghouse Electric Corp Photosensitive apparatus
US2606299A (en) * 1950-03-11 1952-08-05 Westinghouse Electric Corp Image intensifier tube
US2705765A (en) * 1950-04-03 1955-04-05 Geer Charles Willard Single gun color television receiving tube and screen structure
US2567714A (en) * 1950-12-21 1951-09-11 Sightmaster Corp Cathode-ray tube
US2689189A (en) * 1951-12-05 1954-09-14 Westinghouse Electric Corp X-ray fluorescent screen
US2739243A (en) * 1953-01-08 1956-03-20 Sheldon Edward Emanuel Composite photosensitive screens

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3291706A (en) * 1963-10-08 1966-12-13 Radames K H Gebel Method of making an optical fiber phosphor screen
US3344276A (en) * 1964-03-30 1967-09-26 Kaiser Aerospace & Electronics Radiographic screen having channels filled with a material which emits photons when energized by gamma or x-rays
US3482104A (en) * 1965-05-24 1969-12-02 Jack Finkle System for televising radiant energy images employing image transducer device with radiant energy image responsive photocathode
US3717764A (en) * 1969-03-07 1973-02-20 Fuji Photo Film Co Ltd Intensifying screen for radiograph use
US3753714A (en) * 1969-11-21 1973-08-21 Fuji Photo Film Co Ltd Image formation by radiation and intensification
US4096381A (en) * 1975-05-30 1978-06-20 Brown Sr Robert L Electron image detection system
US4208577A (en) * 1977-01-28 1980-06-17 Diagnostic Information, Inc. X-ray tube having scintillator-photocathode segments aligned with phosphor segments of its display screen
US4209705A (en) * 1977-03-14 1980-06-24 Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co, Ltd. Image intensifier whose input screen phosphor layer is divided into light guiding mosaic blocks by metal protrusions
US4317037A (en) * 1978-06-09 1982-02-23 Hitachi, Ltd. Radiation detection apparatus
US4415810A (en) * 1979-07-05 1983-11-15 Brown Sr Robert L Device for imaging penetrating radiation
US4339659A (en) * 1980-10-20 1982-07-13 International Telephone And Telegraph Corporation Image converter having serial arrangement of microchannel plate, input electrode, phosphor, and photocathode
US4778565A (en) * 1986-03-10 1988-10-18 Picker International, Inc. Method of forming panel type radiation image intensifier
US4855589A (en) * 1986-03-10 1989-08-08 Picker International, Inc. Panel type radiation image intensifier
US4935617A (en) * 1988-03-04 1990-06-19 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba X-ray image intensifier and method of manufacturing the same
US5338926A (en) * 1991-05-24 1994-08-16 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba X-ray imaging tube having a light-absorbing property
US5445846A (en) * 1991-05-24 1995-08-29 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba X-ray imaging tube

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Publication number Publication date Type
FR1103951A (en) 1955-11-15 grant
GB752283A (en) 1956-07-11 application

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