US3084919A - Recovery of oil from oil shale by underground hydrogenation - Google Patents

Recovery of oil from oil shale by underground hydrogenation Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3084919A
US3084919A US4726060A US3084919A US 3084919 A US3084919 A US 3084919A US 4726060 A US4726060 A US 4726060A US 3084919 A US3084919 A US 3084919A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
oil
shale
oil shale
well bore
formation
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
William L Slater
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Texaco Inc
Original Assignee
Texaco Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/16Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons
    • E21B43/24Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons using heat, e.g. steam injection
    • E21B43/243Combustion in situ

Description

W. L. SLATER April 9, 1963 RECOVERY OF OIL FROM OIL SHALE BY UNDERGROUND HYDROGENATION Filed Aug. s, 1960 SEH This invention relates to a method for in situ recovery of oil from naturally occurring deposits of oil shale. The process is particularly applicable to recovery of oil from subterranean deposits of oil shale. In accordance with the process of this invention, oil shale is hydrogenated in situ to liberate shale oil yand the hydrogen treated shale oil is then produced like crude petroleum.

A number of proposals have been made for the recovery of oil from underground deposits of oil shale by heating the oil shale in place. The oil shale may be heated by burning a portion of the shale oil or by burning an auxiliary fuel. By means of these in situ opera* tions, part of the potential Ioil content of the oil shale may `be recovered in the form of heavy hydrocarbon oil. Oil so recovered is extremely viscous and of very poor quality as compared with crude petroleum. When in situ combustion is employed for retorting the oil shale,

tent

a portion of the fuel value yof the shale, e.g. l0 to 30 percent, is consumed as fuel in the burning operation.

The process of this invention provides for improved yields of shale oil of improved quality as compared with the retorting of oil shale. In accordance with the present hydrogenated in situ by contact with hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The hydrogenation reaction which takes place in the oil shale form-ation produces a liquid product which is readily recoverable as a liquid hydrocarbon oil. The crude liquid product has a higher u API Gravity than oil produced from the same oil shale by conventional retorting operations. Heat required to raise the temperature of the oil shale formation to hydrogenation temperature may be supplied by combustion of shale oil within the oil shale formation.

The accompanying ligure illustrates diagrammatically the method of oil recovery from oil shale by in situ hydrogenation in accordance with the present invention.

The FIGURE, which illustrates a specific embodiment of this process, represents a vertical cross-section through a subterranean oil shale formation.

With reference to the figure, an oil shale formation 2 is overlain by substantially impervious cap rock 3 and is underlain by substantially impervious seam of bedrock 4. A plurality yof Wells are drilled from the surface of the earth into the oil shale formation. As illustrated, well bores 6 and 7 extend through the overburden to a point Iwithin the oil shale formation, preferably to a point near the lowermost portion of the oil shale formation. These Well bores are cased in the usual manner and provided with tubing extending from the surface to la point within the oil shale formation near the bottom of the Well bore. The tubing strings 8 and 9 are set in the well bores 6 and 7, respectively, in conformity with good practice in the art of petroleum production.

To initiate the oil recovery operation, fuel and air are injected through pipes 11 and 12 into well bore 6, Heavy hydrocarbon liquid is suitable as fuel, although some light liquid hydrocarbons, for example, gasoline, is desirable initially. Fuel may be introduced through pipe 11 and tubing 8, or through pipe 12 and the annular passageway surrounding the tubing in the well bore. Air is introduced to the well bore through tubing 8. Initially, a charge of fuel is fed through tubing 8 to the bottom of the well bore Within the yoil shale formation. Then a ice flow of air is started through line 11 and tubing S. The fuel and air mix at the lower end of tubing 8 forming a combustible mixture. Combustion is initiated in the lower part of the well bore at the end of the tubing string by suitable ignit-ing means, heating that portion of the oil shale formation surrounding the Well bore 6. Resulting products of combustion are discharged through annular space between the -wall of the well bore and the tubing string to the surface of the earth. Outflow of gas and pressure in the burning and producing zone are controlled by valve 13. Additional fuel may be charged to the well through line 12. Gas discharged from the well bore may be combustible and can be used as fuel for preheating the hydrogen.

During the initial period of tiring, using an auxiliary fuel, the temperature of the shale bed is raised to the desired temperature for subsequent hydrogenation. Combustion is continued until the desired temperature has been reached, for example, 500 F. to 1500 F., in the shale surrounding the well bore. In some cases, after initial tiring with auxiliary fuel, suicient oil from the oil shale will collect in the Well bore to permit combustion in the absence of the auxiliary fuel. In this case, the introduction of auxiliary fuel may be discontinued while the combustion-supporting gas, suitably air, is continuously supplied to the well bore, burning a portion of the retorted oil and further heating the shale formation.

When the desired temperature, eg. 900 F., in the shale formation is reached, the introduction of air is disprocess, shale in an underground oil shale formation is '3: Continued At this time# 'air is Vented from the tubing and from the well bore through valve 14. Hydrogen from a suitable source is then supplied through line 15 and tubing 8 to the oil shale formation. Hydrogen is introduced into the formation, under pressure from compressor 16, until a pressure is reached within the range of about 1,000 to 5,000 pounds per square inch gauge, depending upon the depth of the formation below the surface of the earth. The hydrogen may be supplied directly to the well at pump discharge temperature or may be preheated to a suitable temperature, e.g. 500 to 1000* F., in heater 17. The -hydrogen is permitted to remain in contact with the formation for a period of from about six hours to about two weeks or longer. Additional hydrogen is furnished as necessary during this period to maintain the desired pressure. During the reaction period oil is released from the oil shale and partially hydrogenated. The resulting hydroretorted oil has improved properties, e.g. lower viscosity and lower sulfur content, than conventionally retorted shale oil. This oil accumulates in the Well bore. The oil may be periodically produced through tubing string 8 by discontinuing the flow of hydrogen and permitting the oil to ow from the pressurized well bore through line 18 to a suitable gas-oil separator 19. Gas separated from the oil may be passed through line 21 to a gas holder 22 where it -is available for further use in the hydrogenation of the oil shale.

While retorting of oil shale and hydrotreating of the liberated shale oil is taking place in Well bore 6, preheating of the oil shale formation about well bore 7 is carried out by introduction of fuel and air to the well bore and initiating combustion therein as described above in connection with well bore 6. When sufficiently preheated, hydrogen separated from oil produced from well bore 6 may be introduced into well bore 7 for -hydrotreating the subsurface oil shale formation surrounding well bore 7.

When the rate of reaction between hydrogen and oil shale drops to an impractical low value, as indicated by the rate of pressure decline or rate at which hydrogen must be introduced into the formation to maintain reaction pressure (either of which may be determined at the surface), the introduction of hydrogen is stopped and the well depressured by permitting gas and oil to flow from the well through tubing 8 (or 9), and through line 13 to separator 19. Following depressuring, the formation surrounding the. well `bore may be reheated by again introducing air and fuel to. the well as described above. When reheated to the desired temperature, for example, 500 to 1500 F., and purged of air, hydrogen may Vbe again introduced through the well bore to the formation to effect further hydrogenation Iand recovery of oil therefrom.

By providing a plurality of well bores, as illustrated in the ligure, the gas holder requirements may -be minimized or eliminated. With a multiplicity of wells, some wells may be in the preheat stage while others are in the pressuring, processing, or depressuring stages. Leakage or migration of oil and gas from one well to another is not detrimental and is generally beneficial. When such leakage progresses to the point where flow of gas is established from one well to the next, oil may be produced through the tubing string of one well at the same time as hydrogen is introduced to the other. Also, when this condition exists, the formation may be heated during the heating period by in situ combustion within the formation with either concurrent or countercurrent movement of the ame front and the combustion air through the formation between communicating well bores. In situ combustion techniques are well known in the art.

Although only one set of well bores is illustrated in the drawing for the purpose of illustration of the process of this invention, it is to be understood that multiples may be employed in a suitable pattern, for example, the iive spot or seven spot patterns well known in the art of secondary recovery from petroleum reservoirs.

Means other than direct combustion may be employed for supplying -heat to the oil shale formation, for example, by means of an electrical heater.

I claim: Y

1. A process for obtaining shale oil from a subterranean oil shale stratum penetrated by a well bore provided Ywith tubing extending from the surface of the earth into the oil shale formation, which comprises supplying liquid hydrocarbon fuel to the bottom of said well bore within the oil shale formation, thereafter supplying air through said tubing into contact with said liquid hydrocarbon fuel in the oil shale formation and initiating combustion therein, withdrawing products of combustion from said oil shale formation through the annular space between the wall of the well bore and the tubing while continuing the supply of air thereto through said tubing effecting heating of said oil shale to a temperature within the range of about 500 to 1500 F., discontinuing the introduction of air to said well bore, venting air from said tubing, introducing hydrogen through said tubing to the oil shale formation until a pressure is reached within the range of about 1,000 to 5,000 pounds lper square inch gauge, permitting the hydrogen to remain in contact with the oil shale formation while maintaining said pressure within said range for a period of at least 6 hours effecting release of shale oil from said oil shale and reaction between said shale oil and hydrogen, and withdrawing liberated oil from said well bore.

2. A process according to claim 1 wherein hydrogen is introduced into the well bore at a temperature within the range yof 500 to 1000" F.

3. A processk according to claim 1 wherein a plurality of spaced well bores extending into said formation are employed and wherein preheating of'oil shale formation surround-ing a first of said well bores is carriedout simultaneously with hydrogen treatment of oil shale formation surrounding a second of said well bores, the steps,y of discontinuing preheating of oil shale formation surrounding said rst well bore, depressuring said second well bore by withdrawing hydrogen therefrom and simultaneously supplying said withdrawn hydrogen to said preheated -rst well bore. 'Y

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,595,979 Pevere et al. May 6, 1952 2,847,306 Stewart et al Aug. 12, 1958 2,970,826 Woodruif l Feb. 7, 1961

Claims (1)

1. A PROCESS FOR OBTAINING SHALE OIL FROM A SUBTERRANEAN OIL SHALE STRATUM PENETRATED BY A WELL BORE PROVIDED WITH TUBING EXTENDING FROM THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH INTO THE OIL SHALE FORMATION, WHICH COMPRISES SUPPLYING LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL TO THE BOTTOM OF SAID
US3084919A 1960-08-03 1960-08-03 Recovery of oil from oil shale by underground hydrogenation Expired - Lifetime US3084919A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3084919A US3084919A (en) 1960-08-03 1960-08-03 Recovery of oil from oil shale by underground hydrogenation

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3084919A US3084919A (en) 1960-08-03 1960-08-03 Recovery of oil from oil shale by underground hydrogenation

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3084919A true US3084919A (en) 1963-04-09

Family

ID=21947949

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3084919A Expired - Lifetime US3084919A (en) 1960-08-03 1960-08-03 Recovery of oil from oil shale by underground hydrogenation

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US3084919A (en)

Cited By (48)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3362471A (en) * 1965-09-08 1968-01-09 Mobil Oil Corp In situ retorting of oil shale by transient state fluid flows
US3474863A (en) * 1967-07-28 1969-10-28 Shell Oil Co Shale oil extraction process
US3598182A (en) * 1967-04-25 1971-08-10 Justheim Petroleum Co Method and apparatus for in situ distillation and hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials
US3692110A (en) * 1969-12-31 1972-09-19 Cities Service Oil Co In situ retorting and hydrogenation of oil shale
US3766982A (en) * 1971-12-27 1973-10-23 Justheim Petrol Co Method for the in-situ treatment of hydrocarbonaceous materials
US4050515A (en) * 1975-09-08 1977-09-27 World Energy Systems Insitu hydrogenation of hydrocarbons in underground formations
US4141417A (en) * 1977-09-09 1979-02-27 Institute Of Gas Technology Enhanced oil recovery
US4379591A (en) * 1976-12-21 1983-04-12 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Two-stage oil shale retorting process and disposal of spent oil shale
US4448251A (en) * 1981-01-08 1984-05-15 Uop Inc. In situ conversion of hydrocarbonaceous oil
US4597441A (en) * 1984-05-25 1986-07-01 World Energy Systems, Inc. Recovery of oil by in situ hydrogenation
US4691771A (en) * 1984-09-25 1987-09-08 Worldenergy Systems, Inc. Recovery of oil by in-situ combustion followed by in-situ hydrogenation
US5105887A (en) * 1991-02-28 1992-04-21 Union Oil Company Of California Enhanced oil recovery technique using hydrogen precursors
US5950728A (en) * 1997-07-24 1999-09-14 Bingham; Clarke S. Method and apparatus for enhancing oil recovery
US6016867A (en) * 1998-06-24 2000-01-25 World Energy Systems, Incorporated Upgrading and recovery of heavy crude oils and natural bitumens by in situ hydrovisbreaking
US6016868A (en) * 1998-06-24 2000-01-25 World Energy Systems, Incorporated Production of synthetic crude oil from heavy hydrocarbons recovered by in situ hydrovisbreaking
US6026902A (en) * 1997-07-24 2000-02-22 Bingham; Clarke S. Method and apparatus for enhancing oil recovery
WO2001081239A2 (en) * 2000-04-24 2001-11-01 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030066642A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2003-04-10 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a coal formation producing a mixture with oxygenated hydrocarbons
WO2003036040A2 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-05-01 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20030080604A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US20030079877A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation in a reducing environment
US20030098605A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US6588504B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US20030173081A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US20030173085A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Upgrading and mining of coal
US6698515B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6715548B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US6715546B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US20040144541A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2004-07-29 Picha Mark Gregory Forming wellbores using acoustic methods
US7011154B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US7051808B1 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7066254B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US7090013B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US7096953B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
US7104319B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US7121342B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7165615B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-23 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US20070278344A1 (en) * 2006-06-06 2007-12-06 Pioneer Invention, Inc. D/B/A Pioneer Astronautics Apparatus and Method for Producing Lift Gas and Uses Thereof
US20080283249A1 (en) * 2007-05-19 2008-11-20 Zubrin Robert M Apparatus, methods, and systems for extracting petroleum using a portable coal reformer
US20080283247A1 (en) * 2007-05-20 2008-11-20 Zubrin Robert M Portable and modular system for extracting petroleum and generating power
US20090236093A1 (en) * 2006-03-29 2009-09-24 Pioneer Energy, Inc. Apparatus and Method for Extracting Petroleum from Underground Sites Using Reformed Gases
US20100078172A1 (en) * 2008-09-30 2010-04-01 Stine Laurence O Oil Recovery by In-Situ Cracking and Hydrogenation
US20100088951A1 (en) * 2008-07-17 2010-04-15 Pioneer Astronautics Novel Methods of Higher Alcohol Synthesis
US20100314136A1 (en) * 2007-05-20 2010-12-16 Zubrin Robert M Systems and methods for generating in-situ carbon dioxide driver gas for use in enhanced oil recovery
US20110203292A1 (en) * 2009-09-23 2011-08-25 Pioneer Energy Inc. Methods for generating electricity from carbonaceous material with substantially no carbon dioxide emissions
US8233782B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-31 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
US8602095B2 (en) 2006-03-29 2013-12-10 Pioneer Energy, Inc. Apparatus and method for extracting petroleum from underground sites using reformed gases
US10047594B2 (en) 2012-01-23 2018-08-14 Genie Ip B.V. Heater pattern for in situ thermal processing of a subsurface hydrocarbon containing formation

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2595979A (en) * 1949-01-25 1952-05-06 Texas Co Underground liquefaction of coal
US2847306A (en) * 1953-07-01 1958-08-12 Exxon Research Engineering Co Process for recovery of oil from shale
US2970826A (en) * 1958-11-21 1961-02-07 Texaco Inc Recovery of oil from oil shale

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2595979A (en) * 1949-01-25 1952-05-06 Texas Co Underground liquefaction of coal
US2847306A (en) * 1953-07-01 1958-08-12 Exxon Research Engineering Co Process for recovery of oil from shale
US2970826A (en) * 1958-11-21 1961-02-07 Texaco Inc Recovery of oil from oil shale

Cited By (215)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3362471A (en) * 1965-09-08 1968-01-09 Mobil Oil Corp In situ retorting of oil shale by transient state fluid flows
US3598182A (en) * 1967-04-25 1971-08-10 Justheim Petroleum Co Method and apparatus for in situ distillation and hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials
US3474863A (en) * 1967-07-28 1969-10-28 Shell Oil Co Shale oil extraction process
US3692110A (en) * 1969-12-31 1972-09-19 Cities Service Oil Co In situ retorting and hydrogenation of oil shale
US3766982A (en) * 1971-12-27 1973-10-23 Justheim Petrol Co Method for the in-situ treatment of hydrocarbonaceous materials
US4050515A (en) * 1975-09-08 1977-09-27 World Energy Systems Insitu hydrogenation of hydrocarbons in underground formations
US4379591A (en) * 1976-12-21 1983-04-12 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Two-stage oil shale retorting process and disposal of spent oil shale
US4141417A (en) * 1977-09-09 1979-02-27 Institute Of Gas Technology Enhanced oil recovery
US4448251A (en) * 1981-01-08 1984-05-15 Uop Inc. In situ conversion of hydrocarbonaceous oil
US4597441A (en) * 1984-05-25 1986-07-01 World Energy Systems, Inc. Recovery of oil by in situ hydrogenation
US4691771A (en) * 1984-09-25 1987-09-08 Worldenergy Systems, Inc. Recovery of oil by in-situ combustion followed by in-situ hydrogenation
US5105887A (en) * 1991-02-28 1992-04-21 Union Oil Company Of California Enhanced oil recovery technique using hydrogen precursors
US5950728A (en) * 1997-07-24 1999-09-14 Bingham; Clarke S. Method and apparatus for enhancing oil recovery
US6026902A (en) * 1997-07-24 2000-02-22 Bingham; Clarke S. Method and apparatus for enhancing oil recovery
US6328104B1 (en) 1998-06-24 2001-12-11 World Energy Systems Incorporated Upgrading and recovery of heavy crude oils and natural bitumens by in situ hydrovisbreaking
US6016868A (en) * 1998-06-24 2000-01-25 World Energy Systems, Incorporated Production of synthetic crude oil from heavy hydrocarbons recovered by in situ hydrovisbreaking
US6016867A (en) * 1998-06-24 2000-01-25 World Energy Systems, Incorporated Upgrading and recovery of heavy crude oils and natural bitumens by in situ hydrovisbreaking
US6889769B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-05-10 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected moisture content
US20020040778A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-04-11 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen content
US20020053431A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-05-09 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a selected ratio of components in a gas
WO2001081239A3 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-05-23 Shell Oil Co In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
GB2379469A (en) * 2000-04-24 2003-03-12 Shell Int Research In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030066642A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2003-04-10 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a coal formation producing a mixture with oxygenated hydrocarbons
US8789586B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2014-07-29 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7036583B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-05-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a porosity of the formation
US7017661B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-28 Shell Oil Company Production of synthesis gas from a coal formation
US6866097B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-03-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to increase a permeability/porosity of the formation
US7011154B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US6997255B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a reducing environment
US6994160B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6581684B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-06-24 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce sulfur containing formation fluids
US6994168B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Scott Lee Wellington In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen to carbon ratio
US6588504B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US6588503B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a coal formation to control product composition
US6591907B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6591906B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected oxygen content
US6994161B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Kevin Albert Maher In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected moisture content
US6991031B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to convert a selected total organic carbon content into hydrocarbon products
US6913078B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-07-05 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively impermeable formation
US6973967B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-12-13 Shell Oil Company Situ thermal processing of a coal formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US6966372B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-11-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce oxygen containing formation fluids
US6959761B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-11-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US6953087B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-10-11 Shell Oil Company Thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a permeability of the formation
US6948563B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-09-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen content
US6923258B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-08-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processsing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US6910536B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US6902004B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a movable heating element
US6607033B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-08-19 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce a condensate
US6609570B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-08-26 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation and ammonia production
US6902003B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation having a selected total organic carbon content
US8225866B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2012-07-24 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6896053B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-05-24 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
WO2001081239A2 (en) * 2000-04-24 2001-11-01 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7086468B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US7096941B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with heat sources located at an edge of a coal layer
US6688387B1 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-02-10 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a hydrocarbon condensate
US6698515B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6880635B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-04-19 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio
US6702016B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with heat sources located at an edge of a formation layer
US6708758B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US6712137B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6712135B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation in reducing environment
US6712136B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a selected production well spacing
US6715548B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US6715546B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US6715549B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected atomic oxygen to carbon ratio
US6715547B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to form a substantially uniform, high permeability formation
US6719047B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-13 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a hydrogen-rich environment
US6722430B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected oxygen content and/or selected O/C ratio
US6722431B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively permeable formation
US6722429B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US6725921B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6725920B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to convert a selected amount of total organic carbon into hydrocarbon products
US6725928B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a distributed combustor
US6729401B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation and ammonia production
US6729396B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6729395B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US6729397B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6732796B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio
US6732794B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US6732795B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6736215B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-18 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation, in situ production of synthesis gas, and carbon dioxide sequestration
US6739394B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-25 Shell Oil Company Production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6739393B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation and tuning production
US6742587B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to form a substantially uniform, relatively high permeable formation
US6742593B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat transfer from a heat transfer fluid to heat the formation
US6742589B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US6742588B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce formation fluids having a relatively low olefin content
US6745832B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to control product composition
US6745837B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a controlled heating rate
US6745831B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6749021B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a controlled heating rate
US6752210B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US6758268B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6761216B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-13 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US6763886B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US7096953B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
US6769485B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-08-03 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation through a heat source wellbore
US6769483B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-08-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor in conduit heat sources
US6789625B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-09-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using exposed metal heat sources
GB2379469B (en) * 2000-04-24 2004-09-29 Shell Int Research In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6805195B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-10-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US6877554B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-04-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US6871707B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-03-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US6820688B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-11-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of coal formation with a selected hydrogen content and/or selected H/C ratio
US8485252B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2013-07-16 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20040211557A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2004-10-28 Cole Anthony Thomas Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US6877555B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-04-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking
US20040211554A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2004-10-28 Vinegar Harold J. Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7096942B1 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation while controlling pressure
US6880633B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-04-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product
US7225866B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2007-06-05 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US7066254B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US7735935B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2010-06-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation containing carbonate minerals
US20030164239A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-09-04 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment
US20030148894A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-07 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20030146002A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-07 Vinegar Harold J. Removable heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7040399B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate
US6915850B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections
US6918443B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6918442B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment
US6923257B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-08-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a condensate
US20030141067A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Rouffignac Eric Pierre De In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to increase permeability of the formation
US6929067B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-08-16 Shell Oil Company Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7055600B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate
US6948562B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-09-27 Shell Oil Company Production of a blending agent using an in situ thermal process in a relatively permeable formation
US20030141066A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Karanikas John Michael In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking
US6951247B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-10-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources
US20030141068A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Pierre De Rouffignac Eric In situ thermal processing through an open wellbore in an oil shale formation
US20030142964A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate
US6964300B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-11-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with backproduction through a heater wellbore
US20030136559A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation
US6966374B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-11-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US7051811B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing through an open wellbore in an oil shale formation
US20030136558A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product
US6981548B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US7040400B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation using an open wellbore
US6991036B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company Thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation
US6991033B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation
US6991032B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US20030131993A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 Etuan Zhang In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property
US6994169B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property
US20030131996A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections
US20030116315A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-26 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation
US20030111223A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-19 Rouffignac Eric Pierre De In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources
US20030102126A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Sumnu-Dindoruk Meliha Deniz In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate
US6997518B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and solution mining of an oil shale formation
US7004247B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-28 Shell Oil Company Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7004251B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and remediation of an oil shale formation
US20030098149A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US7013972B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-03-21 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20030079877A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation in a reducing environment
US7032660B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-04-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US20030080604A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US7040398B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation in a reducing environment
US7051807B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control
US20030098605A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US20030196810A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US7051808B1 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6969123B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-11-29 Shell Oil Company Upgrading and mining of coal
US6932155B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-08-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well
US7063145B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-06-20 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation in situ with an opening contacting the earth's surface at two locations
WO2003036040A2 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-05-01 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US7066257B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-06-27 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from lean and rich zones in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6991045B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company Forming openings in a hydrocarbon containing formation using magnetic tracking
US7077198B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-07-18 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers
US7077199B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-07-18 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US20050092483A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2005-05-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US7086465B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-08 Shell Oil Company In situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7090013B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
WO2003036040A3 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-07-17 Shell Oil Co In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20030173081A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US20030201098A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-30 Karanikas John Michael In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using one or more simulations
US7100994B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-05 Shell Oil Company Producing hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon containing materials when treating a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7104319B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US7114566B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-10-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20030196801A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well
US20030173085A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Upgrading and mining of coal
US7128153B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-10-31 Shell Oil Company Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US7156176B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-02 Shell Oil Company Installation and use of removable heaters in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7165615B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-23 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US20040040715A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2004-03-04 Wellington Scott Lee In situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8224164B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Insulated conductor temperature limited heaters
US8224163B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US20040144541A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2004-07-29 Picha Mark Gregory Forming wellbores using acoustic methods
US7121341B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Conductor-in-conduit temperature limited heaters
US8238730B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-08-07 Shell Oil Company High voltage temperature limited heaters
US7073578B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-07-11 Shell Oil Company Staged and/or patterned heating during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7219734B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2007-05-22 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting wellbore deformation during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7942203B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2011-05-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7121342B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7360588B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2008-04-22 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US8579031B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2013-11-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US8233782B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-31 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
US8602095B2 (en) 2006-03-29 2013-12-10 Pioneer Energy, Inc. Apparatus and method for extracting petroleum from underground sites using reformed gases
US20090236093A1 (en) * 2006-03-29 2009-09-24 Pioneer Energy, Inc. Apparatus and Method for Extracting Petroleum from Underground Sites Using Reformed Gases
US9605522B2 (en) 2006-03-29 2017-03-28 Pioneer Energy, Inc. Apparatus and method for extracting petroleum from underground sites using reformed gases
US7871036B2 (en) 2006-06-06 2011-01-18 Pioneer Astronautics Apparatus for generation and use of lift gas
US7735777B2 (en) 2006-06-06 2010-06-15 Pioneer Astronautics Apparatus for generation and use of lift gas
US20070278344A1 (en) * 2006-06-06 2007-12-06 Pioneer Invention, Inc. D/B/A Pioneer Astronautics Apparatus and Method for Producing Lift Gas and Uses Thereof
US20080283249A1 (en) * 2007-05-19 2008-11-20 Zubrin Robert M Apparatus, methods, and systems for extracting petroleum using a portable coal reformer
US7654330B2 (en) 2007-05-19 2010-02-02 Pioneer Energy, Inc. Apparatus, methods, and systems for extracting petroleum using a portable coal reformer
US7650939B2 (en) 2007-05-20 2010-01-26 Pioneer Energy, Inc. Portable and modular system for extracting petroleum and generating power
US9605523B2 (en) 2007-05-20 2017-03-28 Pioneer Energy, Inc. Systems and methods for generating in-situ carbon dioxide driver gas for use in enhanced oil recovery
US20100314136A1 (en) * 2007-05-20 2010-12-16 Zubrin Robert M Systems and methods for generating in-situ carbon dioxide driver gas for use in enhanced oil recovery
US8616294B2 (en) 2007-05-20 2013-12-31 Pioneer Energy, Inc. Systems and methods for generating in-situ carbon dioxide driver gas for use in enhanced oil recovery
US20080283247A1 (en) * 2007-05-20 2008-11-20 Zubrin Robert M Portable and modular system for extracting petroleum and generating power
US8450536B2 (en) 2008-07-17 2013-05-28 Pioneer Energy, Inc. Methods of higher alcohol synthesis
US8785699B2 (en) 2008-07-17 2014-07-22 Pioneer Energy, Inc. Methods of higher alcohol synthesis
US20100088951A1 (en) * 2008-07-17 2010-04-15 Pioneer Astronautics Novel Methods of Higher Alcohol Synthesis
US8230921B2 (en) 2008-09-30 2012-07-31 Uop Llc Oil recovery by in-situ cracking and hydrogenation
US20100078172A1 (en) * 2008-09-30 2010-04-01 Stine Laurence O Oil Recovery by In-Situ Cracking and Hydrogenation
US20110203292A1 (en) * 2009-09-23 2011-08-25 Pioneer Energy Inc. Methods for generating electricity from carbonaceous material with substantially no carbon dioxide emissions
US8047007B2 (en) 2009-09-23 2011-11-01 Pioneer Energy Inc. Methods for generating electricity from carbonaceous material with substantially no carbon dioxide emissions
US10047594B2 (en) 2012-01-23 2018-08-14 Genie Ip B.V. Heater pattern for in situ thermal processing of a subsurface hydrocarbon containing formation

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3593789A (en) Method for producing shale oil from an oil shale formation
US3272261A (en) Process for recovery of oil
US3599714A (en) Method of recovering hydrocarbons by in situ combustion
US3586377A (en) Method of retorting oil shale in situ
US3250327A (en) Recovering nonflowing hydrocarbons
US3241611A (en) Recovery of petroleum products from oil shale
US3349845A (en) Method of establishing communication between wells
US3438439A (en) Method for plugging formations by production of sulfur therein
US3149670A (en) In-situ heating process
US3358756A (en) Method for in situ recovery of solid or semi-solid petroleum deposits
US3379248A (en) In situ combustion process utilizing waste heat
US3170517A (en) Fracturing formation and stimulation of wells
US3400762A (en) In situ thermal recovery of oil from an oil shale
US3465819A (en) Use of nuclear detonations in producing hydrocarbons from an underground formation
US3414055A (en) Formation consolidation using a combustible liner
US3434541A (en) In situ combustion process
US3061009A (en) Method of recovery from fossil fuel bearing strata
US3598182A (en) Method and apparatus for in situ distillation and hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials
US3951457A (en) Hydraulic mining technique for recovering bitumen from tar sand deposit
US3454958A (en) Producing oil from nuclear-produced chimneys in oil shale
US4434849A (en) Method and apparatus for recovering high viscosity oils
US5289881A (en) Horizontal well completion
US2630306A (en) Subterranean retorting of shales
US3924680A (en) Method of pyrolysis of coal in situ
US3062282A (en) Initiation of in situ combustion in a carbonaceous stratum