US3080688A - Scouring device - Google Patents

Scouring device Download PDF

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Publication number
US3080688A
US3080688A US20582862A US3080688A US 3080688 A US3080688 A US 3080688A US 20582862 A US20582862 A US 20582862A US 3080688 A US3080688 A US 3080688A
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
web
sponge
abrasive
body member
scouring
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Inventor
Politzer Alfred
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Nylonge Corp
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Nylonge Corp
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A47FURNITURE; DOMESTIC ARTICLES OR APPLIANCES; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; SUCTION CLEANERS IN GENERAL
    • A47LDOMESTIC WASHING OR CLEANING; SUCTION CLEANERS IN GENERAL
    • A47L13/00Implements for cleaning floors, carpets, furniture, walls, or wall coverings
    • A47L13/10Scrubbing; Scouring; Cleaning; Polishing
    • A47L13/16Cloths; Pads; Sponges
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/249921Web or sheet containing structurally defined element or component
    • Y10T428/249953Composite having voids in a component [e.g., porous, cellular, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24996With internal element bridging layers, nonplanar interface between layers, or intermediate layer of commingled adjacent foam layers

Description

March 12, 1963 A. POLITZER 3,080,688

SCOURING DEVICE Filed June 26, 1962 INVENTOR 44:45.2: P04 rz ATTORNEY Patented Mar. 12, 1963 3,080,688 SCOURIWG DEVICE Alfred Politzer, Cleveland, Ghio, assignor to Nylonge Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of Ghio Filed June 26, 1962, Ser. No. 205,828 7 Claims. (Cl. 51-485) The present invention relates in general to devices of an abrasive quality for use in cleaning, scouring, polishing or similar applications of both an industrial and domestic nature and it relates more particularly to an improved sponge type cleaning, scouring and polishing device which is capable of retaining and dispensing large quantitles of water and detergents. This application is a continuation-in-part of my copending application Serial No. 832,027, filed August 6, 1959, now abandoned.

The conventional cleaning and scouring devices range in character from the relatively soft highly water absorbent natural or synthetic sponge to the highly-abrasive steel wool pads. These devices are particularly suited for certain limited uses but when employed for other purposes they possess numerous drawbacks and disadvan tages and at best represent an unsatisfactory compromise. The sponge type device is characterized by being capable of retaining and dispensing large quantities of water and detergent solution but has a low abrasive quality. As a consequence, it is frequently necessary to employ a powdered abrasive or grit with the sponge, thus necessitating the subsequent rinsing of the scoured surface and cleaning of the sponge to remove the powdered abrasive from the surface and sponge.

It has been proposed to incorporate a powdered abrasive in a synthetic sponge, but this is of little value since any abrasive that is available at the sponge surface is very shortly dissipated or masked. The common steel wool pad, on the other hand, while possessing suitable abrasive qualities, is of low water retention and rapidly deteriorates by reason of its rusting and physical disintegration. By substituting a rustproof material, such as bronze or stainless steel for the steel wool, the rusting is eliminated but the other disadvantages remain while the cost is greatly increased. Soap impregnated steel pads are likewise short-lived and the soap rapidly dissipated. All have the drawbacks of being rough on hands and fiber pads frequently prick the skin and cause festering sores. Sponges formed of foamed synthetic organic thermoplastic materials have also been provided with abrasive carrying layers, but these too leave much to be desired. In US. Patent No. 2,804,728, granted Sept. 3, 1959, to Alfred Politzer and Lawrence J. Stoll, there is described an abrasive device which includes a sponge body member having embedded in a face thereof a knitted fabric of plastic bands. While the device described therein is satisfactory for certain uses, it possesses numerous drawbacks and disadvantages.

It is thus a principal object of the present invention to provide an improved tool for use in cleaning, scouring, polishing and similar applications of a domestic and industrial nature.

Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved abrasive type scouring and cleaning device.

Still another object of the present invention is to provide an improved abrasive type scouring and cleansing device capable of long and repeated employment.

A further object of the present invention is to provide an improved abrasive type scouring and cleansing device capable of holding and dispensing large quantities of water and soap of detergent solutions.

Still a further object of the present invention is to provide a sponge type scouring and abrasive device.

The above and further objects of the present invention will become apparent from a reading of the following dedescribed comprising an artificial sponge body member,

and a self supporting abrasive member formed of a nonwoven web structure of organic fibers of greater hard-, ness than said sponge body member, said abrasive memher being directly atfixed to a face of said sponge body member. According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the sponge body is a hydrophilic regenerated cellulose sponge material in sheet or slab form and the abrasive member is a lofty, open, nonwoven compressible resilient fibrous abrasive article of the type described in Hoover et al. US. Patent No. 2,958,593, granted Novem-. her 1, 1960, e.g., as described in connection with Example II thereof. Such abrasive articles sold by the assignee of said Hoover et al. patent under the trade designation. Scotch-Brite, are formed from a uniform lofty open nonwoven lightweight web of many interlaced randomly disposed flexible durable tough organic fibrous members (e.g., nylon fibers). The lofty fibrous web is unified preferably by an organic binder which bonds web fibers firmly together at points where they intersect and contact one another. Distributed within the web and firmly bonded to the fibrous members thereof are abrasive particles, the many interstices between adjacent fibers remaining substantially unfilled by adhesive and abrasive particles so that at least about of the total volumeof the abrasive article is made up of a tridimensionally extending network of intercomrnunicated voids.

Other nonwoven fibrous web structures may also be employed, it being generally desirable for the web to have a bulk density between 0.05 and 0.2 gram per cubic centimeter and that the Web fibers have a thick- The web is superim at least part of the fibers of the web along the interface being embedded in the sponge material to form a strong bond between the web structure and the sponge without impeding the passage of water or other fluids therebetween. The shape and thickness of the sponge body and the abrasive web may be varied as desired to suit the particular purpose. For example, the sponge body member may be between /2 inch and 2 inches preferably between /2 inch and 1 inch thick and the abrasive structure may be between inch and A2 inch, preferably about 4 inch thick. It is important to note that in employing the improved device of the present invention, that although free and substantially unimpeded fluid access is afforded between the sponge body membet and the working face of the abrasive component, substantially none of the sponge body member is exposed at, or reaches the level of, the abrasive web working face. As a consequence, full advantage is taken of the webs abrasive qualities and the sponge bodys storage and dispensing properties. Furthermore, by reason of the resilient compressibility inherent in the synthetic fiber web of the above specified bulk density, the porosity and abrasive degree of the web structure are easily regulated by varying the pressure applied thereto. The web structure serves the additional function of reinforcing I the strength of the sponge body member and hence. the.

complete scouring device.

In producing the present device, a sponge forming mass in a fluid unset state, is extruded or otherwise formed into a continuously moving sheet. The web structure is continuously superimposed upon the top surface of the moving fluid sponge mass and sufficient pressure applied thereto to wet and at least partially embed the fibers of the web structure underface in the fluid mass. The mass is then coagulated or permited to set in order to effect a strong bond between the web structure and the sponge body member without impeding the fluid communication therebetween. The resulting com posite sheet is then washed and bleached if necessary and cut to the desired sizes and shapes. Furthermore, he sponge body member may be impregnated in any conventional manner with a soap or detergent.

Referring now to FIGURE 1 of the drawing, which illustrates a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the reference numeral generally designates the improved scouring device which includes a resilient water absorbent sponge base member 11 of relatively shallow rectangular prismatic configuration. A web 12 comprising a resin bonded web structure of synthetic organic thermoplastic fibers and of the nature described above is superimposed upon and coextensive with the top face of the sponge body member 11. The fibers lying along and projecting below the underface of the web 12 are embedded in the sponge body member 11 to effect a strong bond between the body member 11 and the web structure 12 without impeding fluid communication therebetween. Moreover, the face of the body member 11 cannot extend above the upper or working face of web 12. The body member 11 is preferably formed of artificial regenerated cellulose sponge and the web structure 12 of a synthetic thermoplastic fiber, harder than the sponge material, for example, nylon, polyester (Dacron) fibers, or the like.

In FIGURE 2 of the drawing, there is illustrated an apparatus which may be advantageously employed in producing the subject improved scouring device in a continuous manner. The apparatus is described in detail in the copending patent application Serial No. 810,474, filed May 1, 1959 now Patent No. 2,989,775, in the name of Frank Pekarek, and includes a forwardly upwardly inclined table 13 having depending front and rear curved lips. An endless driven conveyor belt 14, preferably having a honeycombed face, has an upper run which advances upwardly along the top face of the table 13, thence over an idler roll and downwardly and forwardly over an idler drum 16 and through a coagulating zone, which may be in the form of a heating device, or means for applying an electric current through the sponge mass or an acid, or hot sodium sulfate bath and the belt then follows a return run. Following the forward discharge end of the belt are a series of web liquid treating stations and intervening squeeze rolls for effecting the washing, bleaching, and plasticizing of the produced sponge body.

Located above the belt 14 as it traverses the table 13 is an open bottomed hopper 17 into which is delivered, by way of a conduit 18, a flowable sponge forming viscose mass 19. The hopper 17 has a forwardly directed planar opening formed in its front wall and extending diagonally across the top face of the conveyor belt 14 and being rearwardly upwardly inclined thereto. A band 20 has a rear run registering with the hopper front opening and a lower edge spaced above and parallel to the top face of the belt 14 to define therewith a diagonally extending extrusion opening of adjustable height. The band 20 is mounted on and advanced by a pair of drums 21 at least one of which is driven, the drums 21 having peripheral guide grooves 22 formed therein which engage a corresponding ridge on the inner face of the band 20. A grooved plate 23 backs the band 20 along its rear run in registry with the hopper front opening. The band 20 is driven in synchronism 4 with the belt 14 so that the forward component of movement thereof along its rear run is substantially equal to the rate of advance of the belt 14, as set forth in detail in the above identified Pekarek patent application.

A roll 24 of the abrasive web structure 12 is rotatably supported by a spindle 26 above the belt 14 forward of the band 26 and the apex of the belt forward run. The web 12 travels across an idler roll 27 and under a second pressure applying roller 28 which extends transversely across the belt 14 below the roll 2'] and is so spaced and supported in any well known manner as to urge the underface of the mat 12 into the stream or layer 29 of the sponge forming mass as the latter is carried by the conveyor 14. It should be noted that the moving stream 14 will draw the web 12 from the roll 24 at the proper synchronized rate. In order to apply a suitable tension to the web 12, there is provided an arm 31 pivotally supported at 32 and carrying at its free end a longitudinally extending weighted element which rests upon the top surface of the roll 24.

In accordance with an example of producing abrasive devices of the present invention, employing the above described apparatus, a fiber reinforced viscose sponge forming mass is produced by steeping sheets of cellulose containing between 20 and 50 pounds of alpha cellulose, for example, 45 pounds of alpha cellulose, in an approximately 13 /2 sodium hydroxide solution for a time suflicient to convert the cellulose into an alkali cellulose. The excess sodium hydroxide solution is then expressed from the resulting alkali cellulose in the conventional manner and the unaged alkali cellulose admixed with between 15 and 35 ponds of carbon bisufide, for example, approximately 27 pounds of carbon bisulfide, and the resulting mixture is tumbled in a suitable drum until cellulose xanthate is produced in accordance with the general practice. The resulting cellulose xanthate is dissolved in a weak sodium hydroxide solution in an amount to produce approximately 600 pounds of viscose having an analysis of between 6% and 9% cellulose, for example, 7.6% cellulose, 5% to 7% of total alkalinity, for example, 7%, and between 3.3% and 5% total sulfur, for example 3.5%.

To the 600 pounds of viscose in a green unripened condition is then added from 15 to 30 pounds, for example, 20 pounds of thoroughly opened hemp fibers having an average staple length of approximately A; inch to 1 inch and thorough mixing is effected, preferably by means of double delta blade mixing machine maintaining the mass at a temperature not exceeding 15 C. This initial mixing period is approximately 20 minutes. To the resulting mass is added between 1500 and 2500 pounds, for example, 2000 pounds sodium sulfate decahydrate crystals having an average particle size of between 1 and 10 millimeters in accordance with the desired sponge pore size. The mixing is continued for approximately 10 minutes while maintaining the temperature at about 15 C. or less. It should be noted that any other suitable methods may be employed, for producing viscose having the tie sired properties. An example of such a method is the so-called one step method which is set forth in the literature.

The above viscose sponge forming mass is continuously introduced into the hopper 17 to maintain the level therein at about the level of the upper edge of band 20. The conveyor belt 14 is driven at approximately 15 inches per minute and the band 20, which extends at an angle of about 60 to the longitudinal direction of the conveyor belt, is driven at a linear speed of about 30 inches per minute, the extrusion opening under the lower edge of the belt 26 being about /4 inches high. Thus, a sheet of sponge forming mass about inches deep is carried by the conveyor 14 and as it travels under the pressure roll 28, the underface of the web 12 is impressed or embedded therein so that the bottom fibers thereof are wetted by the viscose and extend below the stream top surface. The web 12 is of the nature previously described, for example a /1 inch thick resin bonded web structure of nylon fibers having a bulk density of about 0.1 gram per cubic centimeter. The traveling sponge mass 29 withdraws the web 12 from the roll 24 and carries the web therewith in the above association through a coagulating Zone, such as a coagulating liquid at an elevated temperature Where the viscose is coagulated, the cellulose regenerated, the pore forming crystals substantially leached out, and a firm bond established between the web 12 and the resulting sponge sheet. The com posite sheet is then separated from the belt 14 and transported through washing, bleaching and plasticizing baths and a series of squeeze rolls to produce a continuous sheet of the improved scouring material which may be cut to the desired sizes.

While there have been described and illustrated preferred embodiments of the present invention, many alterations, additions and omissions may be made without departing from the spirit thereof as set forth in the claims. For example, other types of sponge body members may be employed such as the foamed synthetic thermoplastics as typified by the polyurethane forms.

I claim:

1. A scouring device comprising an artificial, hydrophilic, regenerated cellulose sponge body member having a substantially flat forwardmost front face and a compressible resilient non-woven web composed of synthetic organic fibers harder than said regenerated cellulose sponge body member and superimposed upon and substantially masking said sponge body member front face, the web fibers at the interface of said sponge body member and said web being embedded in said sponge body member, said interface being substantially porous, and said web and said sponge body member being in substandaily free liquid communication through said interface.

2. A scouring device according to claim 1 wherein said web has a bulk density not exceeding 0.2 gram per cubic centimeter.

3. A scouring device according to claim 2 wherein said web has a bulk density exceeding .05 gram per cubic centimeter.

4. A scouring device according to claim 1 wherein said web is between inch and /2 inch thick.

5. A scouring device according to claim 4 wherein said sponge body member is between /2 and 2 inches thick.

6. A scouring device according to claim 1 wherein said fibers have a thickness between 5 and denier.

7. A scouring device comprising an artificial, hydrophilic regenerated cellulose sponge body member having a substantially fiat forwardmost front face and, superimposed upon and substantially masking said sponge 'body member front face, a lofty, open, nonwoven, compressible, resilient, fibrous abrasive article, said article comprising a uniform lightweight web of many interlaced randomly disposed flexible tough organic fibers unified by an organic binder which bonds web fibers together at points where they intersect and contact one another, abrasive particles being distributed within said web and firmly bonded to web fibers, Web fibers at the interface of said sponge body member and said web being embedded in said sponge body member, said interface being substantially porous, and said web and said sponge body member being in substantially free liquid communication through said interface.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,958,593 Hoover Nov. 1, 1960

Claims (1)

1. A SCOURING DEVICE COMPRISING AN ARTIFICIAL, HYDROPHILIC, REGENERATED CELLULOSE SPONGE BODY MEMBER HAVING A SUBSTANTIALLY FLAT FORWARDMOST FRONT FACE AND A COM-
US3080688A 1962-06-26 1962-06-26 Scouring device Expired - Lifetime US3080688A (en)

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Cited By (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3112219A (en) * 1961-12-11 1963-11-26 Nylonge Corp Method of producing a detergent impregnated cleaning device
US3182346A (en) * 1963-04-29 1965-05-11 Gen Foods Corp Cleaning article and method of manufacture
US3317367A (en) * 1963-04-12 1967-05-02 Du Pont Hydrophobic fiber structure with interconnected non-fibrous hydrophilic network
US3377151A (en) * 1964-03-26 1968-04-09 Gen Foods Corp Method for making a cleansing aid
US3377643A (en) * 1965-05-25 1968-04-16 Nylonge Corp Wiping device
US3387956A (en) * 1965-06-16 1968-06-11 Reeves Bros Inc Abrasive scouring materials
US3401490A (en) * 1965-03-24 1968-09-17 Mora Alcide Process for manufacturing resiliently yielding bases provided with abrasive surfaces and product thus obtained
US3428405A (en) * 1965-12-03 1969-02-18 Howard Larry Posner Cleansing structure
US3484888A (en) * 1968-04-22 1969-12-23 Mack C Davis Combined floor wiper and scourer apparatus
FR2133632A1 (en) * 1971-04-14 1972-12-01 Colgate Palmolive Co
US3862522A (en) * 1973-08-10 1975-01-28 Fiber Bond Corp Needled scouring pad
US4130683A (en) * 1977-03-17 1978-12-19 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Sponge-like material having improved scrubbing and cleaning ability
US4159883A (en) * 1976-07-22 1979-07-03 I.W.S. Nominee Company Limited Cleaning pad
US4324482A (en) * 1980-11-28 1982-04-13 Xerox Corporation Pressure roll cleaning device
US4515466A (en) * 1982-05-27 1985-05-07 Xerox Corporation Sheet delivery station for copying apparatus
US5213588A (en) * 1992-02-04 1993-05-25 The Procter & Gamble Company Abrasive wiping articles and a process for preparing such articles
US5407439A (en) * 1991-05-20 1995-04-18 The Procter & Gamble Company Multi-layer female component for refastenable fastening device and method of making the same
US5482756A (en) * 1990-03-29 1996-01-09 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Nonwoven surface finishing articles reinforcing with a polymer backing
US5573844A (en) * 1995-01-06 1996-11-12 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Conformable surface finishing article and method for manufacture of same
US5814388A (en) * 1995-09-22 1998-09-29 The Clorox Company Scrubbing device comprises a woven scrim and absorbent body
US5858140A (en) * 1994-07-22 1999-01-12 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Nonwoven surface finishing articles reinforced with a polymer backing layer and method of making same
US6017561A (en) * 1997-04-04 2000-01-25 The Clorox Company Antimicrobial cleaning composition
US20010017141A1 (en) * 1996-03-01 2001-08-30 L'oreal Product applicator and packaging unit comprising such applicator
US20040143273A1 (en) * 2000-12-29 2004-07-22 Winitsky Kathleen M. Microdermabrasive exfoliator
USRE38652E1 (en) 1992-08-20 2004-11-16 Velcro Industries B.V. Hook for hook and loop fasteners
US6857159B1 (en) * 2003-09-30 2005-02-22 Tracy Strine Renewable sponge
WO2012019657A1 (en) * 2010-08-12 2012-02-16 Carl Freudenberg Kg Cleaning sponge made of viscose
EP2586526A1 (en) * 2011-01-27 2013-05-01 Papier in Form und Farbe GmbH Absorption material that indicates the saturation level

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2958593A (en) * 1960-01-11 1960-11-01 Minnesota Mining & Mfg Low density open non-woven fibrous abrasive article

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2958593A (en) * 1960-01-11 1960-11-01 Minnesota Mining & Mfg Low density open non-woven fibrous abrasive article

Cited By (31)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3112219A (en) * 1961-12-11 1963-11-26 Nylonge Corp Method of producing a detergent impregnated cleaning device
US3317367A (en) * 1963-04-12 1967-05-02 Du Pont Hydrophobic fiber structure with interconnected non-fibrous hydrophilic network
US3182346A (en) * 1963-04-29 1965-05-11 Gen Foods Corp Cleaning article and method of manufacture
US3377151A (en) * 1964-03-26 1968-04-09 Gen Foods Corp Method for making a cleansing aid
US3401490A (en) * 1965-03-24 1968-09-17 Mora Alcide Process for manufacturing resiliently yielding bases provided with abrasive surfaces and product thus obtained
US3377643A (en) * 1965-05-25 1968-04-16 Nylonge Corp Wiping device
US3387956A (en) * 1965-06-16 1968-06-11 Reeves Bros Inc Abrasive scouring materials
US3428405A (en) * 1965-12-03 1969-02-18 Howard Larry Posner Cleansing structure
US3484888A (en) * 1968-04-22 1969-12-23 Mack C Davis Combined floor wiper and scourer apparatus
FR2133632A1 (en) * 1971-04-14 1972-12-01 Colgate Palmolive Co
US3732652A (en) * 1971-04-14 1973-05-15 Colgate Palmolive Co Non-woven, sponge laminated cloth
US3862522A (en) * 1973-08-10 1975-01-28 Fiber Bond Corp Needled scouring pad
US4159883A (en) * 1976-07-22 1979-07-03 I.W.S. Nominee Company Limited Cleaning pad
US4130683A (en) * 1977-03-17 1978-12-19 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Sponge-like material having improved scrubbing and cleaning ability
US4324482A (en) * 1980-11-28 1982-04-13 Xerox Corporation Pressure roll cleaning device
US4515466A (en) * 1982-05-27 1985-05-07 Xerox Corporation Sheet delivery station for copying apparatus
US6637079B1 (en) 1989-01-31 2003-10-28 The Procter & Gamble Company Multi-layer female component for refastenable fastening device and method of making the same
US5482756A (en) * 1990-03-29 1996-01-09 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Nonwoven surface finishing articles reinforcing with a polymer backing
US5407439A (en) * 1991-05-20 1995-04-18 The Procter & Gamble Company Multi-layer female component for refastenable fastening device and method of making the same
US5213588A (en) * 1992-02-04 1993-05-25 The Procter & Gamble Company Abrasive wiping articles and a process for preparing such articles
USRE38652E1 (en) 1992-08-20 2004-11-16 Velcro Industries B.V. Hook for hook and loop fasteners
US5858140A (en) * 1994-07-22 1999-01-12 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Nonwoven surface finishing articles reinforced with a polymer backing layer and method of making same
US5573844A (en) * 1995-01-06 1996-11-12 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Conformable surface finishing article and method for manufacture of same
US5814388A (en) * 1995-09-22 1998-09-29 The Clorox Company Scrubbing device comprises a woven scrim and absorbent body
US20010017141A1 (en) * 1996-03-01 2001-08-30 L'oreal Product applicator and packaging unit comprising such applicator
US6270754B1 (en) 1997-04-04 2001-08-07 The Clorox Company Antimicrobial cleaning composition
US6017561A (en) * 1997-04-04 2000-01-25 The Clorox Company Antimicrobial cleaning composition
US20040143273A1 (en) * 2000-12-29 2004-07-22 Winitsky Kathleen M. Microdermabrasive exfoliator
US6857159B1 (en) * 2003-09-30 2005-02-22 Tracy Strine Renewable sponge
WO2012019657A1 (en) * 2010-08-12 2012-02-16 Carl Freudenberg Kg Cleaning sponge made of viscose
EP2586526A1 (en) * 2011-01-27 2013-05-01 Papier in Form und Farbe GmbH Absorption material that indicates the saturation level

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