US3076206A - Survival-apparel and related survival-gear - Google Patents

Survival-apparel and related survival-gear Download PDF

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US3076206A
US3076206A US5248A US524860A US3076206A US 3076206 A US3076206 A US 3076206A US 5248 A US5248 A US 5248A US 524860 A US524860 A US 524860A US 3076206 A US3076206 A US 3076206A
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water
foam
lining
survival
apparel
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Shaw Hubert Kinney
Hubert K Shaw
Helen S Craig
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Internat Applied Res Corp
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63CLAUNCHING, HAULING-OUT, OR DRY-DOCKING OF VESSELS; LIFE-SAVING IN WATER; EQUIPMENT FOR DWELLING OR WORKING UNDER WATER; MEANS FOR SALVAGING OR SEARCHING FOR UNDERWATER OBJECTS
    • B63C9/00Life-saving in water
    • B63C9/08Life-buoys, e.g. rings; Life-belts, jackets, suits, or the like
    • B63C9/087Body suits, i.e. substantially covering the user's body Immersion suits, i.e. substantially completely covering the user
    • B63C9/093Body suits, i.e. substantially covering the user's body Immersion suits, i.e. substantially completely covering the user using solid buoyant material

Description

Feb. 5, 1963 H. K. SHAW EIAL I SURVIVAL-APPAREL AND RELATED SURVIVAL-GEAR Filed Jan. 28. 1960 EXPANDED CLOSED-CELLULAR FOAM INVENTORS. HUBERT KINNEY SHAW EDWARD C. CRAIG United States Patent 3,076,206 SURVIVAL-APPAREL AND RELATED SURVIVAL-GEAR Hubert Kinney Shaw, Springfield, Mass., and Edward C. Craig, Stone Ridge, N.Y.; said Hubert K. Shaw and Helen S. Craig, executrix of the estate of said Edward C. Craig, deceased, assignors to International Applied- Research Corporation, Wilbraham, Mass., a corporation of Massachusetts Filed Jan. 28, 1960, Ser. No. 5,248 Claims. (Cl. 9-330) This invention relates to amphibian survival-apparel and survival-gear for which flexibility, buoyancy, insulation, and comfort are necessary characteristics. The invention also adapts itself for use in other units than apparel-gear, e.g., in combination with inflatable buoyancy in rafts, boats, pontoons, and the like. Extensive tests have proved that the interdependent survival features claimed in the present invention are especially valuable in anti-exposure immersion-suits, flotation-coveralls, and in amphibian sports-jackets and sports-shirts.

Our invention is useful for operators and occupants of waterborne or airborne craft of all types, as well as for sportsmen, fishermen, dock personnel, bridge repairmen, search-and-rescue personnel, flood rescue-workers, firemen, policemen, campers, water-skiers, snow-skiers, skaters, and other outdoorsmen, women and children whose activities expose them to wind, water, and a wide variation of temperatures.

Preparedness is of vital importance in matters of survival. If an item of survival apparel-gear is too heavy, too bulky, too rigid, too costly to manufacture, its usefulness is accordingly limited. In fact, the history of survival apparel-gear indicates that the use and purposes of such equipment may be delayed for generations unless the objections are removed. The object of this invention is to combine the inter-dependent elements of multipurpose survival-appear and related survival-gear.

It seems that the greater the range of utility, the greater the chances that such apparel-gear will be used by the persons who may later become involve in an emergency situation but who neglect to use apparel or gear designed solely for emergency-protection. Our invention, therefore, is designed to meet the interrelated needs of survival apparel-gear.

Experience has shown that a simple construction is needed for reducing vapor-tension, (i.e., the pressure of a confined body of vapor) isolating condensation-moisture, and increasing air-circulation within amphibian apparel. A simple construction is also needed for horizontally self-righting a person who is wearing a flotationcoverall, especially in the event that he is a non-swimmer and falls into the water in a face-downward position. Leg-coverings of amphibian-co'verall units need initially to be of ample circumference for easy donning, but also need to become reasonably close-fitting later when the wearer enters the water. Furthermore, there is need for a practical means of reducing cargo of water from a Coverall-unit which may have leaked due to damage in an accident, etc. It is likewise important, when the seams of amphibian apparel are electronically welded, that the area adjacent to the seams be adequately reinforced 3,076,206 Patented Feb. 5., 19,63

The Present Invention The present invention is the result of extensive experimentmg with segments of soft, closed-cellular foam of various dimensions and shapes, from A" to 1%" in thickness We have utilized neoprene closed-cellular foam weighing approximately 4 pounds per cubic foot; vinyl closed-cellular foam, 5 pounds per cubic foot; polyethylene closed'cellular foam, 2 pounds per cubic foot; and other synthetic compounds, all of which can be joined to fabrics by the use of special adhesives or by the use of sewing equipment. Certain types of thermoplastic foam, moreover, can be joined to thermoplastic sheeting, coated or uncoated fabrics by means of electronic sealing.

The buoyant and insulating characteristics of expanded, closed-cellular foam have been comparatively well-known to manufacturing specialists, engineers, and the like, during the past generation. As Mr. Kienitz pointed out In his Patent No. 2,226,564, the material was recommended for life preservers in the report of the Committee on Commerce relating to the investigations of the 8.8. Morro Castle and Mohawk disasters. During the past quarter-century since then, the combined resiliency and strength of cell-structure of gas-expanded, closed-cellular foam have successfully withstood the rigorous tests of time and usage. (On May 2, 1958, the Department of Transport, Ottawa, Canada, officially approved buoyant plastic foam for life-preserver use, CGSB Specification '4 1-GP-8; 6-5-GP-1; and on June 25, 1958, the United States Coast Guard did likewise, Life-preserver Specifica tion Supbart 160.052.)

The primary objectives of our research and experimentation in the development of the present invention have been maximum comfort and adaptability to numerous types of activity, in order to provide a maximum of preparedness for unexpected emergency situations.

The advantages of buoyancy and insulation are the result of the unique non-connectingcell structure of gasexpanded, solidified rubber or plastic foam; hundredsof thousands of separate cells (containing nitrogen or other gas) per cubic inch of foam.

The comfort and adaptability advantages of the present invention are the result of combining modern materials in a unique manner, to provide, along with buoyancy, flexibility, etc., adequate means of air-circulation and ventilation, to aid in evaporating the vapor which is constantly excreted from the human body in the form of insensible perspiration. A further accomplishment, of special importance in flotation-coverall or immersion-suit units, is the isolation of condensation-moisture between the inner and outer layers of sheeting.

Especially in areas such as under the arms and adjacent areas, between, or/and adjacent to, the knees, or other locations where ventilation and air-circulation are particularly desirable, apertures or perforations? may be cut or stamped, in various sizes (for example, /2 or 1"), in various shapes (such as square, oblong, circular, triangular, etc.) through the solidified foam. In addition to providing ventilation, the perforation method retains structural strength with increased flexibility. In apparel-gear units designed solely for warm-weather use, perforations may, if desired, extend not only through the solidified-foam interlining but also through the' outside layer and/or inside layer of covering material. For units designed solely for cold-water use, optional perforations extend only through solidified-foam interlining or semi-interlining (segments); but in both types of construction, the perforations serve to provide added circulation of air concurrently with body-motion of the wearer.

The walls of the stamped perforations may be perpendicular, or at an oblique angle if preferred, with relation to the outside and inside coverings of sheet material.

The use of strips or segments of solidified foam, as well as the perforated areas, permits a siphoning action along the channels and spaces which separate the segments, and back and forth through the apertures (when the solidified foam is perforated).

Any desired apparel-pattern may be cut from sheets of solidified foam, or from laminated sheeting and solidified foam, perforated or otherwise. Whenever practical, precut segments of rubber or plastic solidified foam may be used, being joined to either or to both outside-covering and inside-covering layers by means of adhesives, sewing, quilting, radio-frequency sealing, etc.

The concurrent bellows-action or siphoning-motion of air with each motion of the wearers body, due to the channels and other air-spaces, is an important means of increasing the wearers comfort and efiiciency. Even the motion of the diaphragm in respiration serves to produce the analogous reaction in the multipurpose apparel-gear. To fulfill their basic purposes, survival-apparel and gear must be comfortable; otherwise, people often tend to feel embarrassed or self-conscious in wearing it.

Isolation of Condensation In the present invention, we have also shown that condensation moisture, heretofore one of the primary difliculties encountered in water-impermeable survival-apparel, can be isolated in the following manner; (this is even more important and noticeable in anti-exposure flotation-coveralls than in amphibian coats or jackets). The outer layer of the amphibian apparel is, for this purpose, constructed of water-impermeable material, and the inside or lining-layer is constructed of vapor-permeable material which has been treated with a suitable waterrepellent solution, such as Aridex or Zelan.

The vapor from the wearers body readily penetrates the vapor-permeable lining-layer, then goes through the channels and spaces which separate the solidified-foam segments, and finally condenses into drops of water against the inner surface of the outside (water impermeable) layer of material. (In the case of previous types of immersion-coverall, this moisture would then cause the wearers ordinary clothing to become wet, resulting in general discomfort.) In the present invention, however, the condensation-moisture does not return through the water-repellent lining-layer. It penetrates one way, in the form of vapor, but does not return after it has condensed into water. After the coverall-unit is removed, the condensation-moisture gradually evaporates; but meanwhile, the water-repellent lining-layer has served effectively as a moisture-barrier. Such a combination is especially useful for extremely cold and/or extremely windy weather conditions, when it may be desirable to reduce the evaporative heat-loss from the body but where comfort and efficiency are, as always, important, too.

For weather that is both warm and wet, the outside layer of material may be constructed of material which is not only water-impermeable but to a considerable degree, vapor-permeable; and the lining-layer may be of ordinary vapor'permeable fabric. In warm weather, it is generally desirable to expedite (rather than to retard) evaporative heat-loss; and for warm-weather use, the following construction is especially useful.

Both the outside and inside layers of sheet material may be constructed of air-porous fabric, either or both of which may be water-repellent-treated with a solution such as Aridex or Zelan. The strips of buoyant material are, in this instance, joined to the fabric of an ordinary shirt or jacket, as well as being adaptable for coat and coverall types of apparel. The amphibian garments constructed in this manner can be comfortably worn even on hot days, times when the largest number of boating accidents occur.

To provide both physiological and psychological mo,-

tivation for Wearing a cool-air amphibian garment in warm weather, one of the modifications of the present invention is as follows: removable sacs containing beads of adsorbent desiccant, e.g., the material commercially known as Sovabead, may be inserted in the channels or spaces of the amphibian apparel, as, for example, near the armpits, in order to expedite the evaporation of body vapor. Further, it becomes psychologically useful to the youngster (or older person, as the case may be) to be able to find additional reason for wearing the survivalapparel; it helps to keep him comfortable, cooler than he might be without it. Then, if he becomes too preoccupied in combatting a record-size fish, or if his boat capsizes or hits a rock, he may luckily find himself wearing a multipurpose survival-garment even on a hot, humid day.

The same construction which helps to keep the wearer cool in summer helps to keep him comfortable if he is exercising vigorously in cool or cold weather; for example, when skating or skiing. If, despite warnings, he falls through ice, he will find that his sports-garment has instantly transformed itself into a survival-garment. The same principles and logic apply in the case of multipurpose buoyant snowsuits for children and little tots. If they venture too near the edge of a brook or river and fall into it, they will be able to clamber out or to shout and attract the attention of rescuers.

The channels and spaces between the buoyant segments afford. further usefulness in the tropics or in the extremely hot boiler-rooms of steamships, etc. Both layers of sheet material may, for such purposes, be constructed of waterimpermeable material; and sacs of Dry Ice or other types of refrigerant may be inserted (and removed and refilled when necessary).

Reinforced Electronic Construction In electronic sealing, two thermoplastic films, pieces of unsupported thermoplastic sheets, or thermoplasticcoated fabric or an outer layer of thermoplastic sheeting and a lining layer of vapor-porous, woven-filament fabric are placed against each other, and the superposed plies are subjected to high-frequency electronic welding, which fuses the two plies, the fusion beginning in the midthickness of the material and proceeding outward.

A weld of that type causes a weakening of the materials just outside the area of high-frequency sealing. (The same is true in the welding of metals.) Another feature of the present invention is the application of a strengthening-tape which extends across the joint and onto the main body of the fabric, film, or sheeting, in the neighborhood of the joint and covers the weaker area which is adjacent to the seam itself. There are numerous examples in prior art where seams are reinforced; but it is significant in the present invention that the area requiring reinforcement is not actually a part of the seam, but adjacent to the seam. In plastic rainwcar, umbrellas, and the like, it has not been deemed necessary to resort to means of reinforcing the weakened area, due to the very low cost of such items and the customary repeat sales. In survival-apparel and gear, however, efiicient performance and durability are of paramount importance. Accordingly, the adequate re inforcement of the weakened area adjacent to electronically-welded seams is important when amphibian apparel is constructed by this method. The tapes or strapping used for reinforcement may be attached to the outside, inside or to both sides, of the adjacent weakened area, depending on the types of material used.

In cannot be emphasized too strongly that numerous structural features are interrelated and interdependent for optimum and proper functioning of multipurpose survival apparel-gear. Concerning anti-exposure coverall-units, if too many different sizes are required, it is proportionately difficult for owners of passenger-craft to furnish 'teners, or buttons.

adequate survival apparel-gear for everyone on board (at different times). In prior art, horizontal take-up straps are well known. In the present invention, however, are optional pairs of -vertical take-up straps, which serve to reduce extra slack lengthwise; e.g., when immersioncoverall units are worn by individuals who are shorter in stature than the units would otherwise accommodate; hence, fewer diiferent-size units adapt themselves to fit a greater number of persons, as needed.

Similarly, more persons will protect themselves with insulated anti-exposure and swim-coverall-units in cold water if the leg-covering portions are constructed as follows: adequately voluminous for convenience in donning the coverall-unit easily, but also adaptable to fit the legs snugly before the wearer enters the water. The present invention, therefore, includes means of reducing excess fullness by gussets or goring, plus lacing, drawcords, or slide-closures, etc., below the kneeand, optionally, above the knee-portions. -In like manner, circumferential fullness may be reduced, if desired, in the sleeves and/or at each side of the body-portion between the leg-coverings and underarm area.

For the purpose of vertical self-righting, Mr. Stoners coverall-units in 1868 (U.S. Patent No. 74,168) had metal weights. He explained that his invention had for its object to furnish an improved apparatus by means of which persons when compelled to commit themselves to the water in case of accident on steamboat or shipboard may sustain themselves for days or until they are rescued. K are metal shoes or weights fitting upon the feet, the greater part of the weight (about five pounds) being collected upon the instep i In the present invention, both horizontal and slantingposition self-righting become possible by means of two co-acting -features: (1) the provision of means for reducing the fullness in the leg-coverings, assummarized in the preceding description of take-up straps, plus means for drawing together snugly the gusset-like front or/ and side portions'of the leg coverings, particularly from the instep to the knee; closure means may be for example, conventional boot-lacing method, spiral, around-the-leg lacing, drawcords, slide-closures, spring-clasps, stud-fas- Especially important is the provi sion of feature. (2): buoyancy (preferably in the form of very light, closed-cellular solidified foam, such as neoprene, polyvinyl, polyethylene, or (in sealed compartments) polyurethane, up to /2 cubic foot in volume, said buoyancy being located across the upper-front portion .of the coverall-unit (between. the neck and the thighs,

coverall-unit and the wearer, or occupan were seen to be analogous (in their combined superstructure and ballast) to theconstruction of a ship, the spine of the wearer representing the keel, and the weight of shinand knee-bones being counteracted as much as practicable by the anterior-buoyancy units at the shin- 1 ,boneand knee-bone areas. The simplest form of the unique self-righting feature is achievable by utilizing inflatable compartments which also contain segments of solidified foam,, which may be of either closed-cellular or interconnecting-cellular type.

Concerning the buoyancy required in the self-righting features of construction, it is'pointed out that it is customary to test volumes of buoyancy by use of iron Weights in the water. In confirming the effectiveness of self-righting coverall units, however, tests were conducted 6. in a sea-water harbor by individuals wearing flotationcoverall units.

Studies of the evolution of flotation-coveralls during the past century indicate that another problem has been that of leakage, although the problem has been sometimes misinterpreted. It should be pointed out that, as far as survival is concerned, a leaky coverall-unit of water-impermeable material affords far more protection than no coverall at all. Body-heat gradually warms the enclosed leakage-water. One person made the thoughtful observation that he would much prefer to have some lukewarm or cool water within a windproof, protective coverall-unit of substantially water-impermeable material (if he also had suflicient buoyancy provided to support himself and his clothing) than the alternative of using his own body-warmth to increase the temperatjurcel: of the ocean (or lake, river, etc.) adjacent to his If a coverall unit has developed leakage, it is nevertheless desirable to have a means of removing the leakage-water; e.g., at such times as when survivors are being picked up by a rescue lifeboat and will need to continue to wear the coverall as anti-exposure apparel in the boat or raft; or when the rescue is performed by a helicopter. A flexible plastic or rubber syringe and tubing may be included as an integral part of the flotationcoverall unit and the accumulation of leakage-water can thus be reduced to a minimum, the syringe functioning in the manner of a boats bilge-pump.

If adequate buoyancy (from 16 to 32 ounces of closed-cellular foam of approximately 4-pounds-percubic-foot density) is provided to support the wearer of the flotation-coverall unit, plus his regular clothing and the ordinary contents of his pockets, the flotation-coverall unit itself could be completely flooded without danger of sinking. Water which might leak into a coverall-unit as a result of damage, etc., simply displaces an equal volume of outside water.

For extremely cold temperatures, auxiliary heat is desirable. Shaw in his U.S. Patent No. 2,647,507 provides a water-activated chemical-heat unit which can be transferred to various locations within the coverall-unit.

'A feature of the present invention for the purpose of distributing warm air more thoroughly (at very cold outside temperatures) is the optional provision of two smallsize chemical-heat units, one in each of the foot-coverings, positioned in back of the heel and at right angles (approximately) to the sole of the foot. These units may be attached by a cord or tape means, one end of the aforesaid cord or tape being attached to the kneeportion, or adjacent area of the coverall-unit. The heatunits may be positioned between the lining and the outmeans than chemical heat may be utilized within the scope of this invention.

In the earlier part of this specification, we have stressed the use of expanded, closed-cellular foam. There is also another complementary benefit from a related product, foam-rubber or foam-plastic of interconnectingcellular type. As a further modification, we provide, optionally, inserts of interconnecting-cellular foam, the function of which is to provide additional bellows-like motion of air within the coverall-unit. It also adds resiliency. It is practical to join the two types of cellular foam so that the closed-cellular layer is adjacent to the outside covering of the coverall or other unit of buoyant apparel and the interconnecting-cellular foam is adjacent to the inside covering (lining) of the apparel unit.

Interconnecting-cellular foam-bellows inserts are especially useful in and adjacent to foot-coverings, underarm or adjacent areas, between the knees or adjacent areas. Such inserts, either independently or joined to closed-cellular-foam inserts, may be placed wherever desired, for specialized types of activity, and may be included in small sacs, for example in combination with chemical-heat compound, or with desiccant material.

A further modification of amphibian survival-coveralls is described as follows: From the waist upward at least as far as the neck (and optionally as far as the top of an attached helmet-portion), the coverall-unit is constructcd of two layers of sheet material, with an interlining of buoyant expanded-cellular material, or interconnecting-cellular material, or both. The buoyant jacket-portion in this modification is provided with means for inflating that portion (by mouth-tube or CO cartridge). At least the jacket-portion is constructed of substantially vapor-and-water-impermeable material, a substantially airtight seam being provided where the jacket-portion is joined to the leg-covering portion of the coverall-unit. This same combination of buoyant solidified foam plus inflatable buoyancy is adaptable to all types of amphibian apparel-gear, e.g., vests, jackets, and bib-front overalls.

Material used in multipurpose survival-apparel may be treated with suitable fiameproofing compound, such as ammonium sulfamate, by dip, spray, or brush-on methods. Fabrics which are to be treated with a solution of waterrepellent may first be treated with suitable flameproofing compound and subsequently treated, by dip, spray, or brush-on methods, with water-repellent solution. The latter then provides a secondary function of helping to prolong the effectiveness of the preceding treatment (flameproofing).

FIGURE 1 is a partly broken-away front elevational view of an amphibian jacket unit showing the features of the present invention.

FIGURE 2 is a partly broken-away front elevational view of an amphibian sportsWear-coverall-unit showing the features of the present invention.

FIG. 3 is a partly broken-away front elevational view of an amphibian emergency-wear coverall-unit incorporating the features of the present invention.

FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary partly broken-away elevational view in large scale showing in vertical section a modified form of leg-and-foot covering.

Seams may be sewed, cemented, strapped, or/and electronically Welded, depending on the materials used and the particular requirements of usage, etc. Any segments of solidified foam (whether closed-cellular or interconnecting-cellular) may be molded, if desired, and may be joined to either covering (or both).

Shown in FIGURE 1 is a reversible buoyant jacket constructed of two layers of sheet material, outside and inside" layers, 1 and 2 respectively, which are joined at their peripheral edges. To either layer (or to both layers, if preferred) are joined (by cementing, sewing, stapling, electronically sealing, or other method) spaced segments 3 of buoyant closed-cellular solidified foam. Sleeves may be provided with adjustment-straps 4. An optional hood of the parka type 5 may also be provided. Segments 3 may also be equipped with foam-bellows layers and/ or apertures, or perforations 6. Channels separating the segments 3 provide circulation of air and as a result, increased comfort. Channels 7 may intersect at either right or oblique angles. Removable pads 8 of desiccant may be provided to aid in drying air, especially under conditions of high humidity. Each pad 8 containing the desiccant beads may be joined to its layer or layers as by snap-fastener 8a. The desiccant beads may be reactivated by exposing them to dry atmosphere in an oven at a temperature between 200 F. and 500 F., for about 20 minutes, all as is known.

solidified foam is perforated).

As mentioned earlier in this specification, the segments 3 comprise soft, closed-cellular foam of various dimensions and shapes, and may be from A" to 1%" in thickness. In experimentation, we have utilized closed-cellular foam comprising neoprene, vinyl, polyethylene, and other synthetic compounds. Each may be joined to the inner and/or outer layers by the use of special adhesives, or of special types of sewing materials so as to achieve a quilting effect, or by electronic sealing.

By the use of these segments, each comprising a nonconnecting cell structure of gas-expanded solidified rubber or plastic foam, as aforementioned, we offer a tremendous multiplicity, hundreds of thousands, of separate closed gas-containing cells per cubic inch of foam.

Reference has been made in this specification to the perforations 6 through the foam of the segments 3. Such are especially desirable, as aforesaid, in areas, such as under the arms and knees and adjacent areas, or other locations where ventilation and air-circulation are particularly desirable. These apertures or perforations may be cut in various sizes and in various shapes. In addition to providing ventilation, the perforation method assures retention of structural strength while simultaneously offering increased flexibility.

As aforesaid, the perforations may be arranged to extend transversely through the segments in a manner perpendicular to the main axes of the segments, or alternatively, they may be arranged to extend obliquely therethrough.

Also as set forth above, in the case of apparel-gear units designed solely for warm-weather use, these perforations may extend not only through the solidified-foam segmented interlining but also through the outside layer and/ or the inside layer. Contrariwise, for units designed solely for cold-weather use, the perforations may extend only through solidified-foam segmented interlining. In both types of construction, the perforations will serve to provide added circulation of air concurrently with the body-motion of the wearer.

It is to be appreciated, as has been previously stated, that the use of the segments allows a siphoning action along the channels and spaces which separate the segments, and back and forth through the apertures (when the There is a bellowsaction or siphoning-motion of the air with each motion of the wearers body, due to the channels and the other air-spaces, which serves as a means for increasing the wearers comfort and efficiency.

It is to be explained that the segments may be formed from sheets of solidified foam, or from laminated sheeting and solidified foam (either of which foam forms may be preperforated), along any desired apparel-pattern,

And it is also worthy of note, as mentioned earlier herein, that condensation moisture, offering such problems as it does in the case of water-impermeable survival-apparel, can be isolated where the outer layer is constructed of a water-impermeable material, and the inside or lininglayer may be constructed of a vapor-permeable material, which may have been treated with a suitable water-repellent solution. The vapor from the wearers body will readily penetrate the vapor-permeable lining-layer, then pass through the channels or spaces separating the solidifled-foam segments, and finally condense into drops of water against the inner surface of the outside (waterimpermeable) layer.

Heretofore in prior art types of immersiomcoveralls, this moisture would cause the wearers ordinary clothing to become wet, resulting in the wearers general discomfort.

Contrariwise however, by the construction herein comprehended, this condensation-moisture does not return through the water-repellent lining-layer. It penetrates one Way in the form of vapor, and it does not return after it has condensed into water wherefor the Water-repellent lining-layer has served effectively as a moisture-barrier.

On the other hand, in the case of applications where the weather is both warm and wet, the outside layer may be constructed of a material which is both water-impermeable andvapor-permeable and the lining-layer may be of an ordinary vapor-permeable materiaLall for the reason that in warm weather, it is generally desirable to expedite (rather than to retard) evaporative heat-loss. For such warm-weather use, both the outside and inside layers may be constructed of an air-porous fabric, either or bothof which may be water-repellent-treated. v

The structure, so far described and comprising the inner and outer layers (and the segments sometimes referred to as interlinings), provides, as was set forth in the preamble hereof, along with buoyancy and flexibility, and adequate means for achieving air-circulation and ventilation, all so as to aid in evaporating the vapor constantly being excreted by the body of the wearer in the form of insensible perspiration. The structure functions to isolate the condensation-moisture between the said inner and outer layers.

The aforementioned removable pads or sacs 8 containing the beads of adsorbent desiccant may be inserted Within the said channels or spaces between the segments, as, for example, near the armpits, all so as to expedite the evaporation of body-vapor.

Alternatively, the channels or spaces between the buoyant segments, in the case of applications in extremely hot areas, can be employed to accommodate sacs of Dry Ice or other types of refrigerant.

As shown in FIGURE 2, a belt 9 may be used in a sportswear coverall-unit of the continuous-wear type. Also, for convenience and for adjustable ventilation, vertically-extending sleeve-openings .between upper and lowerportions'of the sleeve may be provided and may be equipped with slide-closuresfl of known type. A central vertically-extendingopening of the coverall-unit may be provided with a slide-closure 11. Fullness of legcoverings may be reduced by means of lacings 12. Op; tionally, such lacing may be spiraled around the leg, from instep and ankle to a point just below the knee.

Coverall-units may also be reversible, and, like the jacket-units, may have one of the covering-layers of a bright color, such as international orange or red. Buoyant epaulets 13 may be joined to either the interior or the exterior surface(s) of the coverall or jacket units. For supplementary buoyancy, inflating-tubes 14 may be added, all for the purpose of inflating the space between the outside and inside layers, and if desired, said tubes may be provided with CO cartridges.

In FIGURE 3 are shown anti-concussion, shock-insulating segments 15, 16 attached to the helmet-portion, to protect, or reduce injuries to the wearers head in case it collides with floating objects; for example, at night or in thick fog. A shoulder-tab 17 may be secured to the outer surface of the outer layer and may 'be provided is for attaching a waterproof flashlight and/ or jackknife by means of a lanyard, spring-clamp, safety-clasp, or the like. Vertical adjustment-straps 18 are provided for adjusting the length of the sleeves and leg-coverings, especially to allow better fitting of individuals being protected from exposure aboard lifeboats, liferafts, etc. Slide-closures 19, which may extend from the instep to a point just below the knee and, if desired, also above the knee, may be used as an alternative to the lacing, drawcord, clasp, or button methods of closure, all so as to reduce the circumference of the leg-coverings.

As shown in FIGURE 4, closure means (e.g., slideclosures 20) may be provided at the side instead of at the front of the leg-covering portion of the amphibian coverall-units. Heat-units 21 may be provided in each of the foot-coverings or/ and attached leg-portions, said heatunits being insertable through appropriate openings in the outer layer, said openings being closed as by slide closures, snap fasteners, buttons, or the like and the heat-units being attachable at the heel area to the sole or at right angles to the sole by suitable means, and extending from the heel upwardly toward the calf of the leg, and/or also 10 joined, if desired, by a cord 23 to a reinforcing-patch 24 in the back or sides of the knee-area. If preferred, a slide-closure (separable), stud-fastener, or other means may be used to attach the heat-unit in the knee-area so that the heat-units can be more easily transferred from the back to the front and/or from the side to the side of the leg coverings, as when the wearer is working on a deepsea fishing trawler in winter, or is wading at low tide from shore to an off-shore island in cold temperature. (Similar means may be used for attaching small heat-units in or adjacent to the wrist area of the sleeves, if desired.)

Optional buoyancy-segments 25 may extend from the adjacent the seam per se. The area requiring such reinforcement is not actually a part of the seam, but portion adjacent the seam.

These tapes used for such reinforcement may be attached to the outside, inside or to both sides,'of the adjacent weakened area, all depending on the types of material used.

We claim:

1. In water-impermeable coats, the improvement comisa prising an outside layer of water-impermeable sheet material, an interlining consisting of a plurality of segments of flexible, buoyant, expanded closed-cellular solidified foam, said segments being spaced from each other and providing a plurality of interconnecting criss-crossing channels, and a lining of vapor-porous, water-repellent fabric, said outside layer and lining being secured to each other at all peripheral edges thereof, to provide isolation of condensation moisture between said outside and lining layers.

2; In water-impermeable coveralls, the improvement comprising an outside layer of water-impermeable sheet material, an interlining consisting of a plurality of segments of flexible, buoyant, expanded closed-cellular solidified foam, said segments being spaced from each other and providing a plurality of interconnecting criss-crossing channels, and a lining of vapor-porous, water-repellent fabric, said outside layer and lining being secured to each other at all peripheral edges thereof, to provide isolation of condensation moisture between said outside and lining layers.

3. In water-impermeable coats, the combination comprising an outside layer of water-impermeable sheet material, an interlining layer of expanded, flexible, closedcellular solidified foam, said interlining layer being punctured at intervals to provide transverse perforations for the purposes of flexibility and ventilation, and a lining of vapor-porous, water-repellent fabric, said outside layer and said lining layers being secured to each other at or adjacent to the peripheral edges thereof, to provide isolation of condensation moisture between said outside and lining layers.

4. In water-impermeable coveralls, the combination comprising an outside layer of water-impermeable sheet material, an interlining layer of expanded, flexible, closedcellular solidified foam, said interlining layer being punctured at intervals to provide transverse perforations for the purposes of flexibility and ventilation, and a lining of vapor-porous, water-repellent fabric, said outside layer and said lining layers being secured to each other at or adjacent to the peripheral edges thereof, to provide isolation of condensation moisture between said outside and inside layers.

5. In anti-exposure protective coats, the combination comprising an outside layer of water-impermeable sheet material, an interlining consisting of a plurality of panels of flexible, expanded closed-cellular solidified foam, said panels being spaced from each other and providing a plurality of interconnecting channels, said panels also being punctured at intervals to provide transverse perforations for the purposes of flexibility and ventilation, and a lining of vapor-porous, water-repellent fabric, said outside layer and lining being secured to each other at all peripheral edges thereof, to provide isolation of condensation moisture between said outside and lining layers.

6. In anti-exposure protective coveralls, the combination comprising an outside layer of water-impermeable sheet material, an interlining consisting of a plurality of panels 'of flexible, expanded closed-cellular solidified foam, said panels being spaced from each other and providing a plurality of interconnecting channels, said panels also being punctured at intervals to provide transverse perforations for the purposes of flexibility and ventilation, and a lining of vapor-porous, water-repellent fabric, said outside layer and lining being secured to each other at all peripheral edges thereof, to provide isolation of condensation moisture between said outside and inside layers.

7. In anti-exposure protective coats, the combination of an outside layer of water-impermeable, thermoplastic sheet material, an interlining of perforated, thermoplastic expanded closed-cellular solidified foam joined by electronic scaling to said outside layer, and a lining of vaporporous, water-repellent fabric, said outside layer and lining being secured to each other by electronic sealing at all peripheral edges thereof, to provide isolation of condensation between said outside and lining layers.

8. In anti-exposure protective coveralls, the combination of an outside layer of water-impermeable, thermoplastic sheet material, an interlining of perforated, thermoplastic expanded closed-cellular solidified foam joined by electronic sealing to said outside layer, and a lining of vapor-porous, water-repellent fabric, said outside layer and lining being secured to each other by electronic sealing at all peripheral edges thereof, to provide isolation of condensation moisture between said outside and lining layers.

9. In water-impermeable coveralls, the combination as described in claim 2, including removable sacs containing adsorbent desiccant beads, said sacs being positioned adjacent the underarm areas of the apparel.

10. In anti-exposure coveralls, the combination as described in claim 2, and a pair of attached moistureactivated chemical-heat units, one of said units being joined by a cord to the inside surface of the coveralls left leg covering, the other of said heat units being joined by another cord to the inside surface of the coveralls right leg covering, each of said cords permitting both feet and both legs of the wearer to be warmed simultaneously.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,221,417 Cheek Apr. 3, 1917 1,504,916 Teiber Aug. 12, 1924 1,771,730 Marcks July 29, 1930 2,129,742 Mason Sept. 13, 1938 2,195,736 Myers Apr. 2, 1940 2,329,093 Sommers Sept. 7, 1943 2,335,630 Bachardy Nov. 30, 1943 2,349,480 Walk May 23, 1944 2,414,051 Mallory Jan. 7, 1947 2,421,533 Akerman June 3, 1947 2,621,342 Boyle Dec. 16, 1952 2,629,116 Frieder Feb. 24, 1953 2,629,118 Frieder Feb. 24, 1953 2,647,507 Shaw Aug. 4, 1953 2,664,566 Mianulli Jan. 5, 1954 2,794,756 Leverenz June 4, 1957 2,803,023 Rosenberg Aug. 20, 1957 2,842,771 Foti July 15, 1958 FOREIGN PATENTS 6,955 Great Britain 1899 805,173 France Aug. 17, 1936 557,220 Great Britain Nov. 10, 1943 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No 3.076306 February 5, 1963 Hubert Kinney Shaw et a1.

It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.

Column 1, line 38, for ."survival-appear" read survival apparel line 41, for "involvo" read involved column 9, line 53, for "and may be provided is for" read may be provided for Signed and sealed this 24th day of December 1963.

(SEAL) Attest: EQWIN L. REYNOLDS ERNEST W. SWIDER Attesting Officer ng Commissioner of Patents

Claims (1)

1. IN WATER-IMPERMEABLE COATS, THE IMPROVEMENT COMPRSING AN OUTSIDE LAYER OF WATER-IMPERMEABLE SHEET MATERIAL, AN INTERLINING CONSISTING OF A PLURALITY OF SEGMENTS OF FLEXIBLE, BOUYANT, EXPANDED CLOSED-CELLULAR SOLIDIFIED FOAM, SAID SEGMENTS BEING SPACED FROM EACH OTHER AND PROVIDING A PLURALITY OF INTERCONNECTING CRISS-CROSSING CHANNELS, AND A LINING OF VAPOR-POROUS, WATER-REPELLENT FABRIC, SAID OUTSIDE LAYER AND LINING BEING SECURED TO EACH OTHER AT ALL PERIPHERAL EDGES THEREOF, TO PROVIDE ISOLATION OF CONDENSATION MOISTURE BETWEEN SAID OUTSIDE AND LINING LAYERS.
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US3152343A (en) * 1963-02-12 1964-10-13 Belden B Brown Foldable yoke life presservers
US3201808A (en) * 1963-03-11 1965-08-24 Marksway Entpr A G Buoyant undergarment
US3369263A (en) * 1965-05-11 1968-02-20 Glanzstoff Ag Protective sea rescue suit
US3444570A (en) * 1966-04-18 1969-05-20 James W Smith Wet-dry survival suit
US3498246A (en) * 1964-08-05 1970-03-03 Mcneil Corp Turbulence-reducing device for swimming pools
US3511743A (en) * 1966-05-31 1970-05-12 Uniroyal Inc High stretch thermal insulating laminates
US3640832A (en) * 1969-02-06 1972-02-08 Verolme Vacuumtechnik Ag Heat-insulating material
US3925839A (en) * 1974-04-17 1975-12-16 James W Smith Survival suit
US4276341A (en) * 1979-10-22 1981-06-30 Kabushiki Kaisha Asahi Gomu Wet suit material and wet suit made thereof
US4599075A (en) * 1983-02-18 1986-07-08 Nygard Holger B Survival suit
US4625337A (en) * 1985-08-05 1986-12-02 Zahn Daniel P Safety rain suit
FR2583960A1 (en) * 1985-06-26 1987-01-02 Bochard Roland Clothing for improving the conditions for the rescue of a man falling at the sea, and in particular, a fishing boat crew man
US4864656A (en) * 1988-08-10 1989-09-12 Nesse Gary E Removable insert assembly for jackets
US5022878A (en) * 1988-09-02 1991-06-11 Casad Manufacturing Corp. Wet suit style personal flotation device
EP0744336A1 (en) * 1995-05-25 1996-11-27 O'Dare International Limited A life jacket
US6049906A (en) * 1999-02-16 2000-04-18 Lion Apparel, Inc. Silicone foam pad for a firefighting garment
EP0992423A3 (en) * 1998-10-07 2001-04-04 Wardle Storeys (Safety & Survival Equipment) Limited Marine escape suit
US6488188B2 (en) * 2001-04-02 2002-12-03 Jack A. Fleischli Combination backpack and protective body heat retaining pod
US20050229653A1 (en) * 2004-02-27 2005-10-20 The Procter & Gamble Company Fabric conditioning dispenser and methods of use
US20080135640A1 (en) * 2006-12-11 2008-06-12 Velazquez Herb F Personal appliance for producing water vapor
US20080138051A1 (en) * 2006-12-11 2008-06-12 Velazquez Herb F Methods for designing, making, and using a personal appliance for producing water vapor
CN101342024A (en) * 2007-07-11 2009-01-14 株式会社岛野 Upper garment for fishing with buoyancy material
US20090165183A1 (en) * 2005-09-12 2009-07-02 Andrew Robert England Kerr Heat exchange garment
US20100235973A1 (en) * 2008-03-06 2010-09-23 Alpinestrars Research Srl Adjustable neck protective collar in particular for motorcycle riders
US7827624B1 (en) * 2007-08-09 2010-11-09 David Cole Combined clothing garment/air-cooling device and associated method
US20110041240A1 (en) * 2008-05-02 2011-02-24 Alpinestars Research Srl Protecting device for the neck
US20110159226A1 (en) * 2007-05-23 2011-06-30 Daniel Kim Protective materials and methods for producing protective materials
US20130340140A1 (en) * 2012-05-02 2013-12-26 La Spirotechnique Idustrielle Et Commerciale Diving dry suit

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US2794756A (en) * 1952-10-03 1957-06-04 Roy F Leverenz Reinforced plastic article
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US2842771A (en) * 1957-05-17 1958-07-15 Foti Peter Insulated glove

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB189906955A (en) * 1899-03-30 1900-02-03 Antoine Saignac Improvements in Cork Life Jackets for Supporting Persons Immersed in Water.
US1221417A (en) * 1915-12-28 1917-04-03 Carl B Cheek Life-saving suit.
US1504916A (en) * 1923-01-08 1924-08-12 Edward A Teiber Bathing suit
US1771730A (en) * 1927-06-20 1930-07-29 Marcks Rudolf Flotation bag
FR805173A (en) * 1936-04-20 1936-11-13 Habit heating for plunging
US2129742A (en) * 1936-06-03 1938-09-13 British Marine Utilities Compa Lifesaving craft
US2195736A (en) * 1938-10-22 1940-04-02 Jeremiah C Myers Life-saving suit
US2329093A (en) * 1941-11-26 1943-09-07 Albert L Sommers Bathing suit
GB557220A (en) * 1942-05-06 1943-11-10 Zbigniew Siedlecki Improvements relating to buoyant suits for use more especially for life saving purposes
US2349480A (en) * 1942-12-18 1944-05-23 Walk Udell Clifford Inflating device
US2335630A (en) * 1943-01-28 1943-11-30 Stephen J Bachardy Removable cooling unit for hats
US2421533A (en) * 1943-05-01 1947-06-03 John D Akerman Clamp-sealed joint construction for aviators' suits
US2414051A (en) * 1943-09-20 1947-01-07 Wingfoot Corp Suit
US2647507A (en) * 1944-10-02 1953-08-04 Hubert K Shaw Buoyant, regulated-temperature weather-suit
US2629116A (en) * 1949-04-29 1953-02-24 Reconstruction Finance Corp Life jacket
US2621342A (en) * 1950-03-11 1952-12-16 Air Cruisers Co Lifesaver vest
US2629118A (en) * 1950-11-04 1953-02-24 Frieder Buoyant vest
US2664566A (en) * 1951-06-22 1954-01-05 Avo R Mianulli Flexible shell suit
US2794756A (en) * 1952-10-03 1957-06-04 Roy F Leverenz Reinforced plastic article
US2803023A (en) * 1954-07-19 1957-08-20 Holiday Line Inc Life preserver cushion
US2842771A (en) * 1957-05-17 1958-07-15 Foti Peter Insulated glove

Cited By (36)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3152343A (en) * 1963-02-12 1964-10-13 Belden B Brown Foldable yoke life presservers
US3201808A (en) * 1963-03-11 1965-08-24 Marksway Entpr A G Buoyant undergarment
US3498246A (en) * 1964-08-05 1970-03-03 Mcneil Corp Turbulence-reducing device for swimming pools
US3369263A (en) * 1965-05-11 1968-02-20 Glanzstoff Ag Protective sea rescue suit
US3444570A (en) * 1966-04-18 1969-05-20 James W Smith Wet-dry survival suit
US3511743A (en) * 1966-05-31 1970-05-12 Uniroyal Inc High stretch thermal insulating laminates
US3640832A (en) * 1969-02-06 1972-02-08 Verolme Vacuumtechnik Ag Heat-insulating material
US3925839A (en) * 1974-04-17 1975-12-16 James W Smith Survival suit
US4276341A (en) * 1979-10-22 1981-06-30 Kabushiki Kaisha Asahi Gomu Wet suit material and wet suit made thereof
US4599075A (en) * 1983-02-18 1986-07-08 Nygard Holger B Survival suit
FR2583960A1 (en) * 1985-06-26 1987-01-02 Bochard Roland Clothing for improving the conditions for the rescue of a man falling at the sea, and in particular, a fishing boat crew man
EP0209434A1 (en) * 1985-06-26 1987-01-21 Roland Bochard Clothing for improving the conditions for rescuing a man fallen into the sea, especially a crew member of a fishing boat
US4625337A (en) * 1985-08-05 1986-12-02 Zahn Daniel P Safety rain suit
US4864656A (en) * 1988-08-10 1989-09-12 Nesse Gary E Removable insert assembly for jackets
WO1990001274A1 (en) * 1988-08-10 1990-02-22 Nesse Gary E Removable insert assembly for jackets
US5022878A (en) * 1988-09-02 1991-06-11 Casad Manufacturing Corp. Wet suit style personal flotation device
EP0744336A1 (en) * 1995-05-25 1996-11-27 O'Dare International Limited A life jacket
US5823838A (en) * 1995-05-25 1998-10-20 O'dare International Limited Life-jacket
EP0992423A3 (en) * 1998-10-07 2001-04-04 Wardle Storeys (Safety & Survival Equipment) Limited Marine escape suit
US6049906A (en) * 1999-02-16 2000-04-18 Lion Apparel, Inc. Silicone foam pad for a firefighting garment
US6488188B2 (en) * 2001-04-02 2002-12-03 Jack A. Fleischli Combination backpack and protective body heat retaining pod
US20050229653A1 (en) * 2004-02-27 2005-10-20 The Procter & Gamble Company Fabric conditioning dispenser and methods of use
US7980001B2 (en) * 2004-02-27 2011-07-19 The Procter & Gamble Company Fabric conditioning dispenser and methods of use
US20090165183A1 (en) * 2005-09-12 2009-07-02 Andrew Robert England Kerr Heat exchange garment
US20080135640A1 (en) * 2006-12-11 2008-06-12 Velazquez Herb F Personal appliance for producing water vapor
US20080138051A1 (en) * 2006-12-11 2008-06-12 Velazquez Herb F Methods for designing, making, and using a personal appliance for producing water vapor
US20110159226A1 (en) * 2007-05-23 2011-06-30 Daniel Kim Protective materials and methods for producing protective materials
CN101342024A (en) * 2007-07-11 2009-01-14 株式会社岛野 Upper garment for fishing with buoyancy material
US7827624B1 (en) * 2007-08-09 2010-11-09 David Cole Combined clothing garment/air-cooling device and associated method
US20100263112A1 (en) * 2008-03-06 2010-10-21 Alpinestars Research Srl Neck protective collar with safety breakable structure
US20100235973A1 (en) * 2008-03-06 2010-09-23 Alpinestrars Research Srl Adjustable neck protective collar in particular for motorcycle riders
US8291521B2 (en) * 2008-03-06 2012-10-23 Alpinestars Research Srl Adjustable neck protective collar in particular for motorcycle riders
US8832871B2 (en) 2008-03-06 2014-09-16 Alpinestars Research Srl Neck protective collar with safety breakable structure
US20110041240A1 (en) * 2008-05-02 2011-02-24 Alpinestars Research Srl Protecting device for the neck
US8938820B2 (en) 2008-05-02 2015-01-27 Alpinestars Research Srl Protecting device for the neck
US20130340140A1 (en) * 2012-05-02 2013-12-26 La Spirotechnique Idustrielle Et Commerciale Diving dry suit

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