US307327A - Brick and tile kiln - Google Patents

Brick and tile kiln Download PDF

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US307327A
US307327A US307327DA US307327A US 307327 A US307327 A US 307327A US 307327D A US307327D A US 307327DA US 307327 A US307327 A US 307327A
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kiln
furnaces
brick
openings
piers
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F27FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS
    • F27BFURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS IN GENERAL; OPEN SINTERING OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • F27B9/00Furnaces through which the charge is moved mechanically, e.g. of tunnel type; Similar furnaces in which the charge moves by gravity
    • F27B9/02Furnaces through which the charge is moved mechanically, e.g. of tunnel type; Similar furnaces in which the charge moves by gravity of multiple-track type; of multiple-chamber type; Combinations of furnaces
    • F27B9/021Furnaces through which the charge is moved mechanically, e.g. of tunnel type; Similar furnaces in which the charge moves by gravity of multiple-track type; of multiple-chamber type; Combinations of furnaces having two or more parallel tracks
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C6/00Combustion apparatus characterised by the combination of two or more combustion chambers or combustion zones, e.g. for staged combustion
    • F23C6/04Combustion apparatus characterised by the combination of two or more combustion chambers or combustion zones, e.g. for staged combustion in series connection
    • F23C6/045Combustion apparatus characterised by the combination of two or more combustion chambers or combustion zones, e.g. for staged combustion in series connection with staged combustion in a single enclosure

Description

(No ModeL) 8 8 a sheets -sheet 1.
- J. W; & R. O. PBNPIELD.
. BRICK AND TILE KILN. No. 807,327. Patented Oct. 28.1884.
WITNESSES WW mrcrumu n ner. wmm tan. (LC.
(No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 2.
J. W & R. 0. PENFIELD.
BRICK AND TILE KILN. No. 307,327. Patented Oct. 28, 1884'.
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Nrrn STATES "arnwr Orrrcn.
BRICK ANDTILE KILN.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 307,327, dated October 28, 1884.
Application filed August 16, 1884. (No model.)
To all whom it mag concern:
Be it known that we, J AMES W. PENFIELD and RAYMOND O. PEN-FIELD, of Willoughby, in the county of Lake and State of Ohio, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Brick-Kilns and Tile-Kilns; and we do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it pertains to make and use the same.
Our invention relates to improvements in brick kilns and to a method of setting bricks or other clay products therein to be burned, the object being to provide separate sets of furnaces, respectively, for the .updraft and downdraft, and so arrangedthat either set of furnaces may be used alone, or the two sets may be used conjointly, when required. A further object is to provide chimneys that have, respectively, lateral openings leading into the body of the kiln above the plane of the fun naces, and openings at the bottom of the chimney leading to chambers below the floor of the kiln, and so arranged that the-chimneys may be used with either set of furnaces, or forboth sets of furnaces operating at the same time. A further object is to arrange the bricks or other clay products in the kiln in such a manner that passage-ways are had through the product and in open relation with the chimneys, to the end that the heat, by means of these passage-ways, is drawn into the center of the kiln.
\Vith these objects in view our invention consists in certain features of construction, in combination of parts, and in the process or manner of setting the products in the kiln, as will be hereinafter described and pointed out in the claims.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure l is a front elevation of the lower portion of our improvedkiln. Fig. 2 is a horizontal section on the linein m, Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is avertical section taken longitudinally through the center of one of the long furnaces on the line a: m, Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is a vertical section on the line 3 y, Fig. 2. Fig. 5 is a horizontal section of the kiln on the line yy, Fig. 1, or below the grate-bars. Fig. 6 is a transverse vertical section through the center of the kiln.
A represents the front wall, B the rear wall, and O the side walls of the kiln.
D are long furnaces extending from the front to the inside of the rear wall, and are p'rovided with the grate bars (I and the ash pit D.
E are short furnaces, extending from the front to the walls 6, and are provided with an ash-pit, E, and grate-bars e.
i In constructing the kiln the benches F extend the length of the inside of the kiln and join the front and rear walls, and are of solid mason-work up as far as the top of the gratebars. Alternate spaces between the benches are under the furnaces D, and form the, ashpits D. The intervening spaces between the benches are divided by the walls e, so that the main and rear portions thereof form, re-
' spectively, the chambers E", and the front portion forms so much of the ash-pits E as are not inclosed in the front wall, A.
Above the line of the grate-bars the benches consist of detached piers f, usually about eight inches (more or less) in thickness, and with intervening spaces of three or four inches (more or less) between the piers. These piers run crosswise of the benches, and extend the entire distance between the furnaces D, and
consequently across above the chambers E. An arch, P, may span the chamber E at each pier; or, as these chambers are narrow, the
brick in the piers may be breasted out from either side, as shown at 2, Fig. 6. These piers support the arches G that are over the furnaces D, and the piers extend flush with the top of the arches, as shown in Fig. 6, and a floor, g, of tiles is laid thereon, with spaces between the files, so that the heat that passes up between the piers and that is transmitted through the arches G may have access to the body of the kiln. Sometimes the piers are laid a few inches above the floor g, and a second floor is laid similar to the floor but we make no claim to the construction or arrange ment of the floors.
Upon the floor 9, or upon the upper floor, in case there are more than one, the bricks or other clay products that are to be burned are set in the usual manner, except as hereinafter shown. The crosswalls e, as shown in Fig. 5, extend from bench to bench and divide the ash-pits E from the chambers E"; but above the gratebars the walls 0 are brought forward and join the front wall, A, as shown in Fig. 2, and inclose the rear end of the furnaces E, and are carried up to near the top of the kiln, as shown in Fig. 4:, inelosing, respectively, ZIDOXO the furnaces E, the fines H, that conduct the products of combustion from the furnaces E and discharge them into the kiln near the top arch, l. The short furnaces E have, therefore, no communication with the body of the kiln except through the tlues 1:1, and the heat passes over the top of and down through the body of the kiln, and therefore is known as the dowir draft. The heat from the long furnaces D passes up through the kiln, and is known as the updraft. The fines or chimneys I) are constructed within the rear wall, B, at the back end of the chambers E, with which they are respectively connected by the openings b. Openings 1) midway up the kiln lead from the body of the kiln to the tlues Z), and are provided with the dampers L, that may be made to close the openings I)", or may be turned back so as to close the flucs 1) below the openings 11*.
The furnace may be provided with the doors M for firing, and with the ash-pit doors N, provided with the dampers n,- or the furnaces may be regulated in a more primitive manner, well known to brick-makcrs to wit, more or less closing the mouths of the furnaces and ash pits with mud and brick-bats.
111 operating the kiln, whenever the furnaces I) are fired, either alone or simultaneously with the furnaces E, the dampers L are always turned back so as to close the lower part of the tines b, leaving the openings I) as the only exit from the kiln. Otherwise the heat from the furnaces D would pass into the chambers E", and from thence would escape through the openings b without passing into the body of the kiln, andconsequently the heat from these furnaces would be lost.
\Vhen the furnaces E only are used, and it is desired to extend the downdraft through the entire kiln, the dampers L are turned forward to close the openings If, in which case the downdraft passes through the floor and between the piers f into the chambers E and from thence through the openings 1) into ilues b.
In the process of burning the kiln, after both sets of furnaces have been in operation for some time it is usually found that the lower and rear portions of the kiln are further advancedthat is, the product is more nearly burned than in other portions. In such cases the fire is partially or entirely withdrawn from.
the furnaces l), and the fuel is used to feed the furnaces E, and the damper Lis regulated accordingly.
The grate-bars at the rear end of the furnaces I) usually become clogged, so that little or no draft passes through them, and for this reason tiles might be substituted for gratebars at the rear end, where the fire usually consists of live coals pushed back in firing the front part of the furnace. All of this, however, is rather an advantage than otherwise, as there is usually too much heat at the rear and not enough heat atthe front and central portions of the kiln. The cause of this is that the heat, by reason of the draft, takes the shortest route toward the unobstructed openings 72", and consequently passes diagonally either from above or below toward these openings. Ve remedy this difficulty by setting the bricks in the manner shown in Figs. 4- and 6, that differs from the usual manner only in this, that we leave open spaces or flues J, of considerable size, from front to rear through the product, and connect these flues at the rear directly with the openings I). If the fines J are of considerable width, the brick on either side are breasted toward each other, as shown atj, until a brick will span the space between the two side walls.
Another convenient manner of arranging the flues is to make them so narrow that a brick or tile will reach across above, as shown at the right-hand flue, and in this case the flue should be deep enough to give the required area, that should be at least as great as the area of the opening If. \Vith this arrangement the products of combustion, following the same laws that, as aforesaid, cause them to take the shortest routeto an unobstructed passage-way, would pass from the different points along the furnaces D directly to the nearest point in the tines J. The space above the product and under the arch I is filled with the heated air from the tlues H, and this, instead of taking a diagonal route toward the opening b takes shorter routes down through the interstice to the flue J. Usually the products near the exits are not so well burned as in other parts of the kiln, much of the heathaving been absorbed before reaching these points, and by reason, also, of the heated currents meeting with less resistance as they approach the exits, passing more rapidly than in other parts of their route. Such would doubtless be the results along the fines J if hot-air currents from but one direction entered these fines; but the two opposing currents from above and below meeting at the fines J seem to react upon each other, and reflect the heat in a similar manner as two opposing jets of water would scatter their commingled volume 'in all directions; and it is found that the product in the vicinity of these lines is equally well burned as in other parts of the kiln.
\Vith a kiln constructed as described, and with the brick or other clay products to .be burned set in such manner as to form the fines J, located as aforesaid, no difficulty will be had in introducing the heat alike to all parts and burning the product evenly throughout the kiln.
By the arrangement of separate furnaces for the up and down. draft, and fines and chimneys arranged as aforesaid, by which both sets of furnaces are operated togethenthe products may be burned in about half of the time that is required for burning an ordinary kiln. Of course any number of furnaces may be used, according to the size of the kiln. W
What we claim is 1. In abrick-kiln, furnaces D and E, respectively, for an updraft and a downdraft, and
adapted to discharge heated air and products of combustion through the floor of the kiln, and the other series adapted to discharge heated air above the bricks or other products, of chimneys and escape-fines formed in the body of the kiln and communicating with the chimneys, wl'iereby the heated air from one series of furnaces is caused to ascend and the air from the other series caused to descend, substantially as set forth.
5. In a brick-kiln, the combination, with two series of furnaces, one series of which discharges heated air below the bricks or other products, while the other series is provided with vertical fines for discharging air above the bricks or other products, of chimneys, chambers E in communication with said chimneys, flucs J formed in the body of the kiln from one series is caused to ascend and the air from the other series descend before it can escape.
7. In a briclekiln, chimneys located,prefeiably,in the rear wall of thekiln, and provided above and below the floor of the kiln with i'lues leading, respectively, directly into the body of the kiln above the floor, and the ducts leading into chambers under the floor, sub-.
stantially as set forth.
8.'In a brick-kiln, the combination, with the furnaces D, of the chambersE arranged alongside of said furnaces, and the piers f, with spaces between the piers,and so arranged that the said furnaces, chambers, and spaces between the piers are in open relation with each other through the width of the kiln, sub;
stantially as set forth.
In testimony whereof we sign this specification, in the presence of two witnesses, this 30th day of July, 1884.
JAMES W. PENFIELD.
RAYMOND G. PENFIELD. Vitnesses:
G130. W. CLEMENT, J r., J OHN \V. D'IAYNARD.
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