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US3069680A - Ferrite-loaded cavity beam-shifting antenna - Google Patents

Ferrite-loaded cavity beam-shifting antenna Download PDF

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US3069680A
US3069680A US4550760A US3069680A US 3069680 A US3069680 A US 3069680A US 4550760 A US4550760 A US 4550760A US 3069680 A US3069680 A US 3069680A
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waveguide
slots
cavities
beam
ferrite
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Elwin W Seeley
Douglas M Moncrieff
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Elwin W Seeley
Douglas M Moncrieff
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QAERIALS
    • H01Q3/00Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an aerial or aerial system
    • H01Q3/26Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an aerial or aerial system varying the relative phase or relative amplitude of energisation between two or more active radiating elements; varying the distribution of energy across a radiating aperture
    • H01Q3/30Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an aerial or aerial system varying the relative phase or relative amplitude of energisation between two or more active radiating elements; varying the distribution of energy across a radiating aperture varying the relative phase between the radiating elements of an array
    • H01Q3/34Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an aerial or aerial system varying the relative phase or relative amplitude of energisation between two or more active radiating elements; varying the distribution of energy across a radiating aperture varying the relative phase between the radiating elements of an array by electrical means
    • H01Q3/36Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an aerial or aerial system varying the relative phase or relative amplitude of energisation between two or more active radiating elements; varying the distribution of energy across a radiating aperture varying the relative phase between the radiating elements of an array by electrical means with variable phase-shifters

Description

1962 E. w SEELEY ETAL 3,069,680

FERRITE-LOADED CAVITY BEAM-SHIFTING ANTENNA Filed July 26, 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet l MICROWAVE I4 LOAD END FIG. 3

ELWIN W. SEELEY DOUGLAS M. MONCRIEFF INVENTORS By jxm ATTORNEYS Dec. 18, 1962 E. w. SEELEY ET AL 3,069,680

FERRITE-LOADED CAVITY BEAM-SHIFTING ANTENNA Filed July 26, 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 HIHIIIIHIIHHHHIHIIIHIIIHIIHH ELWIN W. SEELEY DOUGLAS M. MONCRIEFF INVENTORS ATTORNEYS 3,%9,68fi Patented Dec. 18, 1962 The invention herein described may be manufactured and used by or for the Government of the United States of America for governmental purposes without the payment of any royalties thereon or therefor.

The present invention is related to beam-shifting antennas and more particularly to a simple lightweight and extremely compact multi-slot waveguide antenna.

Heretofore, beam shifting was produced by mechanical systems, or by a system of manifolding to distribute microwave energy to individual waveguide elements, where each element contained a phase shifter followed by a radiator. In the manifolded system beam shifting is accomplished by applying electric currents to the phase shifters. However, the mechanical method of beam shifting is slow and readily subject to wear and malfunction. Also, the manifolded method of beam shifting requires a considerable amount of space to accomplish power distribution and each consecutive phase shifter must shift a greater amount to maintain proper beam proportion since phase shift is not accumulative or reciprocal.

The present invention overcomes the above mentioned disadvantages of previous beam shifting systems by using ferrite-loaded solenoid-wound cylindrical cavities coupled with a slot array waveguide. The use of ferriteloaded phase shift cavities induces phase shift into a waveguide containing a slot array and causes the beam lean angle to change; the phase shift is varied by changing the electromagnetic current in the solenoid coil around the cavity, thus changing the permeability of the ferrite in the cavity, thereby producing phase shift by Faraday rotation of the high frequency energy as it travels into thru and back out of the cavity. In the present invention the phase shift is accumulative.

It is an object of the invention, therefore, to provide a novel multi-slot beam shifting waveguide antenna that is extremely compact, lightweight and simple in construction.

It is also an object of the invention to provide a multislot waveguide antenna in which the beam may be electronically shifted at a very high rate without changing the frequency of the transmitter.

It is another object of the invention to provide a new beam shifting antenna having solenoid phase shifting elements.

It is a further object of the invention to provide beam shifting in a multi-slot waveguide antenna by applying current to solenoids coupled therewith. 7

Other objects and many of the attendant advantages of this invention will become readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a preferred embodiment of the invention;

FIGURE 2 is a planar view of the top side of the waveguide of FIGURE 1, with the solenoids removed, showing the coupling slots;

FIGURE 3 is a planar view of the bottom side of the waveguide of FIGURE 1 showing an example of a slot array therein;

FIGURE 4 is a cross-sectional view of the waveguide antenna taken along line 44 of FIGURE 1;

2 FIGURE 5 is a cross-sectional view of the waveguide antenna taken along line 5-5 of FIGURE 1.

Referring now to the drawings, like numerals refer to like parts in each of the figures of drawing.

A basically conventional waveguide section 10, as

- shown in FIGURE 1, having a conventional slot array consisting of a plurality of radiating slots 12 on the under side thereof, as shown in FIGURE 3, is provided with a plurality of small cylindrical cavities 14 attached to the upper side thereof. The cylindrical cavities 14 are each located electrically between radiating slots 12, along the longitudinal axis of the waveguide, and physically on the opposite side of the waveguide from the array of slots. Each cylindrical cavity is coupled to the waveguide 10 by a pair of crossed slots 16, shown in FIGURE 2, and

has a solenoid winding 18 surrounding its cylindrical surface. Flange 19 extends along one edge of the waveguide for partially supporting cavities 14.

Cylindrical cavities 14 are ferriate loaded and may be constructed, as shown in FIGURE 5, from a cylinder 20, of brass for example, having a circumferential flange at opposite ends thereof holding solenoid winding 18 in place. A polystyrene sleeve 22 fits within cylinder 20 and about the cylindrical sides of a poly foam support cup 24 which holds a small ferrite core 26. A cavity cap 28, of brass or the like, having a low frequency ferrite disc 29 recessed therein completely encloses the top of each cylindrical cavity 14. Lead wires 30 are used for feeding current to the solenoids. Ferrite disc 29 has for its purpose to enhance the DC. magnetic field or the static magnetic field of the solenoid 18. Cylindrical cavities 14 are located more nearly along one side of the waveguide 10, as can best be seen from crosssectional views of FIGURES 4 and 5.

As microwaves travel along waveguide 10 they will enter each cavity 14 through a coupling cross slot 16, pass up through the ferrite core 26, be reflected by cavity cap 28 back through ferrite core 26, and couple back to the waveguide by means of coupling slot 16 to proceed to the next cavity. Application of electric current to the solenoids 18 will alter the electrical length of the cavities I4 and thus alter the electrical spacing between antenna slots 12; this will produce beam shift. In other words the ferrite loaded cavities 14 inject phase delay into the waveguide between the slots 12 of the slot array by effectively changing the electrical spacing between the slots through the application of current to the solenoids wound about the cavities. The amount of phase delay can be varied by varying the amount of current applied to the solenoids IS. The size and shape of the ferrite core can also be varied to produce the results desired.

Extreme compactness of the antenna of the present invention can be achieved because the basic dimensions of a slot array require little alteration. The cavities 14 are, in effect, in series, producing a desired accumulated phase shift along the waveguide. Only a small amount of phase shift from each cavity is needed to produce a large amount of beam shifting in the array. Using the present system for phase shifting permits the beam of an antenna to sweep electronically and easily even at very high rates.

Obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in the light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.

What is claimed is:

l. A beam shifting antenna comprising a section of waveguide having a plurality of radiating slots in one side thereof, a plurality of coupling slots in the side of said waveguide opposite said radiating slots and positioned electrically between said radiating slots along a length of said waveguide, a plurality of ferrite loaded cavities mounted on said section of waveguide and coupled thereto by means of said coupling slots, each of said ferrite loaded cavities consisting of a metal cylinder having a foam-plastic cup-shaped support therein supporting a ferrite core, a solenoid winding about each of said ferrite loaded cavities, said solenoid wound cavities being operable to vary the electrical spacing between said radiating slots by applying varying amounts of current to said solenoid winding whereby the application of electrical current to the solenoid windings alters the electrical length of the cavities and thus alters the electrical spacing between antenna slots to produce beam shift, and wherein a small amount of phase shift from each cavity produces atlarge amount of beam shifting in the antenna.

2., A beam shifting antenna comprising a section of waveguide having a plurality of radiating slots in one side thereof, a plurality of coupling slots in the side of said waveguide opposite said radiating slots and positioned electrically between said radiating slots along a length of said waveguide, a plurality of ferrite loaded cavities mounted on said section of waveguide and coupled thereto by means of said coupling slots, each-of said ferrite loaded cavities consistingof a metal cylinder hav ing a foam-plastic cup-shaped support therein supporting a ferrite core and having a metal cap enclosing the end of each saidcylinder at the open end of said plastic cup, said metal cap containing a disc of ferrite for enhancing the magnetic field of the solenoid, a solenoid winding about each of said ferrite loaded cavities, said solenoid wound cavities being operable to vary the electrical spacing between said radiating slots by applying varying amounts of current to said solenoid winding whereby the application of electrical current to the solenoid windings alters the electrical length of the cavities and thus alters the electrical spacing between antenna slots to produce beam shift, and wherein a small amount of phase shift from each cavity produces a large amount of beam shifting in the antenna.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,905,940 Spencer et al. Sept. 22, 1959 2,946,056 Shanks July 19, 1960 2,96lg658 Spencer et al Nov. 22, 1960 3,032,762 Kerr May 1, 1962

Claims (1)

1. A BEAM SHIFTING ANTENNA COMPRISING A SECTION OF WAVEGUIDE HAVING A PLURALITY OF RADIATING SLOTS IN ONE SIDE THEREOF, A PLURALITY OF COUPLING SLOTS IN THE SIDE OF SAID WAVEGUIDE OPPOSITE SAID RADIATING SLOTS AND POSITIONED ELECTRICALLY BETWEEN SAID RADIATING SLOTS ALONG A LENGTH OF SAID WAVEGUIDE, A PLURALITY OF FERRITE LOADED CAVITIES MOUNTED ON SAID SECTION OF WAVEGUIDE AND COUPLED THERETO BY MEANS OF SAID COUPLING SLOTS, EACH OF SAID FERRITE LOADED CAVITIES CONSISTING OF A METAL CYLINDER HAVING A FOAM-PLASTIC CUP-SHAPED SUPPORT THEREIN SUPPORTING A FERRITE CORE, A SOLENOID WINDING ABOUT EACH OF SAID FERRITE LOADED CAVITIES, SAID SOLENOID WOUND CAVITIES BEING OPERABLE TO VARY THE ELECTRICAL SPACING BETWEEN SAID RADIATING SLOTS BY APPLYING VARYING AMOUNTS OF CUR-
US3069680A 1960-07-26 1960-07-26 Ferrite-loaded cavity beam-shifting antenna Expired - Lifetime US3069680A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3697783A (en) * 1971-04-29 1972-10-10 Raytheon Co Transistor switching circuitry
US4506234A (en) * 1983-06-17 1985-03-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Amplitude and phase modulation in fin-lines by electrical tuning
US4574259A (en) * 1984-12-20 1986-03-04 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy High switching speed electrically tuned microwave magnetic resonance devices
US5694139A (en) * 1994-06-28 1997-12-02 Sony Corporation Short-distance communication antenna and methods of manufacturing and using the short-distance communication antenna

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2905940A (en) * 1957-05-02 1959-09-22 Edward G Spencer Electromagnetically steered microwave antenna
US2946056A (en) * 1958-06-18 1960-07-19 Hughes Aircraft Co Electrically variable complex slot
US2961658A (en) * 1956-12-11 1960-11-22 Edward G Spencer Microwave energy radiators
US3032762A (en) * 1959-01-02 1962-05-01 John L Kerr Circularly arrayed slot antenna

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2961658A (en) * 1956-12-11 1960-11-22 Edward G Spencer Microwave energy radiators
US2905940A (en) * 1957-05-02 1959-09-22 Edward G Spencer Electromagnetically steered microwave antenna
US2946056A (en) * 1958-06-18 1960-07-19 Hughes Aircraft Co Electrically variable complex slot
US3032762A (en) * 1959-01-02 1962-05-01 John L Kerr Circularly arrayed slot antenna

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3697783A (en) * 1971-04-29 1972-10-10 Raytheon Co Transistor switching circuitry
US4506234A (en) * 1983-06-17 1985-03-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Amplitude and phase modulation in fin-lines by electrical tuning
US4574259A (en) * 1984-12-20 1986-03-04 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy High switching speed electrically tuned microwave magnetic resonance devices
US5694139A (en) * 1994-06-28 1997-12-02 Sony Corporation Short-distance communication antenna and methods of manufacturing and using the short-distance communication antenna

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