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Rope

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US3043086A
US3043086A US7098360A US3043086A US 3043086 A US3043086 A US 3043086A US 7098360 A US7098360 A US 7098360A US 3043086 A US3043086 A US 3043086A
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Prior art keywords
rope
direction
twisted
yarn
extra
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Hood Henry Alexander
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Hood Henry Alexander
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D07ROPES; CABLES OTHER THAN ELECTRIC
    • D07BROPES OR CABLES IN GENERAL
    • D07B5/00Making ropes or cables from special materials or of particular form
    • D07B5/005Making ropes or cables from special materials or of particular form characterised by their outer shape or surface properties
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D07ROPES; CABLES OTHER THAN ELECTRIC
    • D07BROPES OR CABLES IN GENERAL
    • D07B1/00Constructional features of ropes or cables
    • D07B1/02Ropes built-up from fibrous or filamentary material, e.g. of vegetable origin, of animal origin, regenerated cellulose, plastics
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D07ROPES; CABLES OTHER THAN ELECTRIC
    • D07BROPES OR CABLES IN GENERAL
    • D07B2201/00Ropes or cables
    • D07B2201/20Rope or cable components
    • D07B2201/2095Auxiliary components, e.g. electric conductors or light guides
    • D07B2201/2097Binding wires

Description

H. A. HOOD July 10, 1962 ROPE Filed NOV. 22, 1960 /NVEA/TOR HLEXNDER HOOD A TToRA/EY 3,043,086 RPE Henry Alexander Hood, Prices Lane, Rose Valley, Pa. Filed Nov. 22, 1960, Ser. No. 70,983 11 Claims. (Cl. 57-140) This invention relates to cordage, especially to rope, and more particularly to rope provided with a rough surface texture although made of smooth-textured material.

Ropes made of various synthetic materials are now in Y common use. 'Ihese are preferred to ropes made of natural fibers, especially when strength, durability, and resistance to rotting or chemical attackl are required properties. Of the synthetic materials currently employed in the making of rope, thermoplastic materials are most widely used, especially nylon, polyester fiber, polyethylene and polypropylene; however, the invention is not limited to cordage made of these fibers.

Some synthetic materials, notably polyethylene and polypropylene, have a slippery or unctuous surface texture. Ropes made ofthese materials are not entirely satisfactory because knots have been known to become undone, and lashings or gangings secured to the rope are susceptible to sliding along the length thereof. Additionally, ropes having a relatively slippery surface ca nnot be held scurely by the hand.

It is the principal object of the present invention to provide rope madeV of synthetic material constructed so as to minimize the slippage of lashings secured thereto and/or to possess a rougher surface texture than prior art ropes of this kind.

Cordage constructed according to the present invention comprises a plurality of filaments twisted in a first direction into rope yarns, there being a number of these rope yarns twisted together in a direction opposite to the first direction to form a rope strand. It is to be understood, however, that the invention is applicable to rope having yarn made in one or more operations. Coiled about each strand in the same direction as the strand is twisted is an extra yarn which lies on the surface of the strand. The requisite number of strands, usually three, with the extra yarn coiled about each, are laid up into rope in a direction opposite to the direction in which the strands are twisted. In one form of' the invention, the extra yarn coiled about each strand comprises filaments which are twisted in a direction opposite to the direction in which the filaments of the rope yarns are twisted; but in another form of the invention the filaments of the extra yarn and the laments of the rope yarns are twisted in the same direction.

The invention contemplates still further modifications wherein the number of wraps or turns per unit length of the extra yarn about the strand does not correspond to the number of turns or twists per unit length of the rope strand. For example, when there are more turns per unit strand length of the extra yarn than the turns of the strand, the helix angle of the extra yarn to the strand axis will be greater than if they had the same number of turns per unit length.

The extra yarns appear Vat closely spaced intervals along the length of the rope, so that the girth of the rope alternately increases and decreases along the length thereof with great frequency. Because of this provision lashings, tightly wrapped about rope portions of reduced girth are secured against axial movement by adjacent rope portions of increased girth.

Furthermore, the twisting of the filaments of the extra yarns opposite to the direction in which the filaments of the rope yarns are twisted disposes the exposed lengths of filaments of the extra yarn more nearly at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the rope than lengthwise thereof. This provision produces, at the exposed outer- 4tritati tates tiatent Bi Patented July l0, 1962 Mice most portions of the rope, where the extra yarn protrudes, an axially spaced series of minute protuberances which give the rope a rough texture.

When the number of turns per unit length of the extra yarn about its associated strand differs from the number of turns per unit length of each outermost rope yarn,.

scription, taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, forming a part of this application, in which:

FIG. l is a elevational View of rope embodying the invention used as a hanging line for fish netting; Y

FIG. 2 is an enlarged view of a fragment of the rope of FIG. l;

FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the rope of FIGS. 1 and 2, taken along line III- III of FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 is a view simil-ar to FIG. 3, taken along line IV--IV of FIG. 2;

FIG. 5 is a View similar to FIG. 2, showing the invention in modified form; and

FIG. 6 is a View similar to FIG. 2, showing the in-` vention in another modified form.

For the sake of illustration, and without the intention of limiting the invention, right hand laid rope 10 embodying the invention is shown in FIG. 1 as a hanging'line supporting a fish net 12. The latter is lashed to the rope lil by gangings 14 tightly wrapped or secured thereabout.

The rope 10 is made of thermoplastic material, or other synthetic material capable of extrusion in great lengths into continuous filaments and having in the range of between .O05 to .015 inch cross-sectional diameter. These, commonly termed monofilaments, give rope a smoother surface texture than filaments which are more finely spun. Nylon, polyester fiber, polyethylene, and polypropylene are among the synthetic materials preferred for rope making.

The filaments 16, preferably of polyethylene material,

are successively twisted, in one or more operations, into rope yarns l18, twisted into strands 20, and, after coiling an yadditional or extra yarn 22 aboutl each strand 20, finally laid up into rope 10. t

As shown in FIGS. 2, 5 and 6, a multiplicity of laments 16 are Z-twisted, or twisted right-handedly, into rope yarns v18. A number of rope yarns 18, six for example, are S-twisted, that is, tvn'sted left-handedly to form each -strand 20. 'I'he extra yarns 22 are coiled about their associated strands 20, as will be explained in detail hereinafter. The strands 20, with their coiled extra yarns 22, are Z-laid, or laid up right-handed into A rope. Three strands 20 are preferred for rope.

sions between successive, adjacent rope yarns 18' in each strand 20, but the depressions afford virtually no security against slippage of the gangings 14 along the length of the rope. And the slippery surface texture of materials such as polyethylene makes this condition even more diflicult to correct. .y

In the embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 2, the filaments 26 of the extra yarn 22 are S-twisted, and preferably they are made of polypropylene material. It will be noted that these filaments 26 are twisted opposite to the direction in which the filaments 16 of the rope yarn 1S are twisted. One extra yarn 22 is coiled left-handedly about the rope yarns 18 comprising each strand 2t) after the yarns 1S are S-twisted together into strand form, whereby the extra yarn 22 is given an extra left hand twist as the strand is formed. It will be noted in FIG. 2 that, because of the way in which the extra yarn 22 is Rope made in this fashion has slight helical depresaomose incorporated in the rope, the exposed portions of its lilarnents 26 are disposed more nearly at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the rope than lengthwise thereof. I'he exposed portions of the laments 26 provide the rope with an axially spaced series of small ridges or teeth, thus giving the rope a rough surface.

The rope not only has a rough surface, but its girth alternately increases and decreases with great frequency along the length thereof, thereby enabling a hand to grip the rope more securely. To this end, it will be appreciated that the positional relationship of the extra yarns 22 to veach other affect the girth of the rope,'the Ygreatest girth prisring a multiplicity of continuous, twisted iilaments, said being obtained when the extra yarns are all disposed at maximum distance from the ropeaxis, as shown in FIG.

3. A rope portion of small girth is shown in FIG. 4.

- With this arrangement, gangings 14 and the like are held against axial slippage along the length of the rope because one or more turns wrapped tightly about a rope portion ofv small girth will be secured between adjacent rope portions of larger Furthermore, knots are less likely to become undone in ropes made according to the invention.

Modified forms of the invention are shown in FIGS. 5 and 6. In these views like reference numerals are used to designate parts similar to those of the embodiment dev scribe previously.

In the embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 6,

the filaments 26 of the extra yarn 2.2 are twisted in the same direction as the laments 16 of the rope yarns' 18; however, the rope alternately increases and decreases in along its length as set forth previously without imparting a rough surface to the rope. The absence of surface roughness is desirable for some applications.

The `embodiment of FIG. 5 differs from the embodi- `n1ent of FIG. 2 primarily in the angular disposition of the axis ofthe coiled extra yarn 22 with the depressions between the rope yarns 18. The exposed portions of the extra yarn 22 have incremental lengths thereof extending at a small ac ute angle to the exposed, adjacent depressions of the yarns 18. This ensures that decreases in girth will not be brought about by nesting of the extra yarns 22 in the depressions. f It will be noted that in the embodiment of FIG. 5 more turns of the extra yarn 22 are coiled embodiment of FIG. 2. And although not illustrated,

. the angular disposition of the extra yarns 22 to the destrand 20, or it can rbe made Aof diiferent material, depending upon the 'requirements of Vthe rope.

From the foregoing it can be appreciated that improved rope has rope is made are themselves slippery.

WhileV the invention has been shown in but several yarns being positioned relative to each other so as to provide portions of alternately large and small Igirth along the length of said cordage.

v 2. Cordage according to claim 1 wherein the iilaments of the second yarn are twisted in rst direction.

3. Cordage according to claim l wherein the filaments of the second yarn are twisted in a direction opposite to rst direction. Y l

4. Rope comprising a plurality of strands twisted in a iirst direction and twined together, each of said strands lcomprising a plurality of iirst yarnstwisted in a direction opposite to said iirst direction, and a second yarn for each strand coiled thereabout in said first direction, said second yarn comprising a multiplicityof continuous laments which are twisted in said rst direction.

5. kCordage Vcomprising a multiplicity of continuous iilaments which are successively twisted in a rst direction into yarns, twisted opposite to said first direction into a plurality of strands, and laid in said rst direction into rope; and an additional yarn coiled about at least one of said strands in a direction opposite to said first direction, said 4additional yarn comprising IcontinuousV laments twisted in a direction opposite to said iirst direction.

6. Cordage according to claim 5 wherein the iilaments have an unctuous surface texture.

about its strand 20 fora given length thereof than in the' Y been provided which notronly is inexpensive, v strong, rugged and dependable, but which is also capable of resisting rotting and chemical attack, and has the desited degree of elasticity and surface roughness; and this can be accomplished even if the filaments from which theY forms, it will be obvious to those skilled in ythe art that it is not so limited, 'but is susceptible of various changes and modifications without departing from the 'spirit thereof.

7. Cordage comprising a pluralityV of strands Veach twisted in one direction, each of said strands comprising yarns which are twisted opposite to said one direction, said yarns comprising a multiplicity of continuous rila- 'rnents which lare twisted in said `one direction, and an extra yarn coiled about each of said strands, said extra yarn comprising a multiplicity of continuous filaments which are twisted in said `one direction.

8. Cordage according to claim 7 wherein the extra yarns are positioned relative to each other so as to provide the cordage with portions of large and small girth alternately along the length thereof.

9. Cordage according to claim 7 wherein the filaments have Va cross-sectional diameter in the range of between .005 inch and .O15 inch.

10. Cordage including a plurality of twined strands each comprising a plurality of rst yarns twisted together iin a iirst direction, each ofV said first yarns being made Wup' of continuous thermoplastic iilaments which are twisted'opposite t'o said iirst direction, and a vsecond yarn for. each strand coiled `snugly thereabout in said iirst direction, said vsecond yarn comprising Vcontinuous thermoplastic larnents twisted in said first direction.

11. Cordage according to claim l0 Iwherein said second yarn and each of said first yarns differ in the number of turns they make in a given length of strand.

References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES vPATENTS Y Momoi Sept. 12, 1961

US3043086A 1960-11-22 1960-11-22 Rope Expired - Lifetime US3043086A (en)

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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3137990A (en) * 1961-09-29 1964-06-23 William L Carranza Baling twine
US3145525A (en) * 1962-11-23 1964-08-25 Wall Rope Works Inc Ropes of synthetic fibers
US3205649A (en) * 1962-04-11 1965-09-14 Ici Ltd Ropes, cordage and twine
US3266232A (en) * 1963-06-03 1966-08-16 Grace W R & Co Polypropylene rope stabilization process
US3711586A (en) * 1971-03-18 1973-01-16 Us Navy Method of increasing tensile strength of plastic materials
US4789045A (en) * 1987-05-12 1988-12-06 Billy Pugh Co., Inc. Swing rope
US5884467A (en) * 1996-09-11 1999-03-23 Spyderco, Inc. Self-attaching rope
US5941198A (en) * 1998-04-20 1999-08-24 Equibrand Corporation Cattle roping lariat
US6119632A (en) * 1998-04-20 2000-09-19 Equibrand Corporation Lariat, lariat rope body and method
US6142104A (en) * 1998-04-20 2000-11-07 Equibrand Corporation Lariat rope body

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US346577A (en) * 1886-08-03 Sewing-cord
US1096404A (en) * 1913-03-20 1914-05-12 Noboru Terashima Fabric for matting.
US2999413A (en) * 1959-02-26 1961-09-12 Momoi Kazuo Process of making a fishing net

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US346577A (en) * 1886-08-03 Sewing-cord
US1096404A (en) * 1913-03-20 1914-05-12 Noboru Terashima Fabric for matting.
US2999413A (en) * 1959-02-26 1961-09-12 Momoi Kazuo Process of making a fishing net

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3137990A (en) * 1961-09-29 1964-06-23 William L Carranza Baling twine
US3205649A (en) * 1962-04-11 1965-09-14 Ici Ltd Ropes, cordage and twine
US3145525A (en) * 1962-11-23 1964-08-25 Wall Rope Works Inc Ropes of synthetic fibers
US3266232A (en) * 1963-06-03 1966-08-16 Grace W R & Co Polypropylene rope stabilization process
US3711586A (en) * 1971-03-18 1973-01-16 Us Navy Method of increasing tensile strength of plastic materials
US4789045A (en) * 1987-05-12 1988-12-06 Billy Pugh Co., Inc. Swing rope
US5884467A (en) * 1996-09-11 1999-03-23 Spyderco, Inc. Self-attaching rope
US6161371A (en) * 1996-09-11 2000-12-19 Spyderco, Inc. Self-attaching rope
US5941198A (en) * 1998-04-20 1999-08-24 Equibrand Corporation Cattle roping lariat
US6119632A (en) * 1998-04-20 2000-09-19 Equibrand Corporation Lariat, lariat rope body and method
US6142104A (en) * 1998-04-20 2000-11-07 Equibrand Corporation Lariat rope body

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