US3041616A - Fastening apparatus - Google Patents

Fastening apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
US3041616A
US3041616A US82842059A US3041616A US 3041616 A US3041616 A US 3041616A US 82842059 A US82842059 A US 82842059A US 3041616 A US3041616 A US 3041616A
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United States
Prior art keywords
plug
pin
barrel
tool
fastener
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Expired - Lifetime
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Robert W Henning
Elmer F Pfaff
Rowland J Kopf
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Olin Corp
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Olin Corp
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Priority to US410787A priority Critical patent/US2954717A/en
Application filed by Olin Corp filed Critical Olin Corp
Priority to US82842059 priority patent/US3041616A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US3041616A publication Critical patent/US3041616A/en
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Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25CHAND-HELD NAILING OR STAPLING TOOLS; MANUALLY OPERATED PORTABLE STAPLING TOOLS
    • B25C1/00Hand-held nailing tools; Nail feeding devices
    • B25C1/08Hand-held nailing tools; Nail feeding devices operated by combustion pressure
    • B25C1/10Hand-held nailing tools; Nail feeding devices operated by combustion pressure generated by detonation of a cartridge
    • B25C1/18Details and accessories, e.g. splinter guards, spall minimisers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16BDEVICES FOR FASTENING OR SECURING CONSTRUCTIONAL ELEMENTS OR MACHINE PARTS TOGETHER, e.g. NAILS, BOLTS, CIRCLIPS, CLAMPS, CLIPS, WEDGES, JOINTS OR JOINTING
    • F16B19/00Bolts without screw-thread; Pins, including deformable elements; Rivets
    • F16B19/14Bolts or the like for shooting into concrete constructions, metal walls or the like by means of detonation-operated nailing tools

Description

July 3, 1962 R. w. HENNING ETAL 3,041,616

FASTENING APPARATUS Original Filed Feb. 17, 1954 Fig.l

' INVENTORS ROBERT W. HENNING ELMER F. PFAFF ROWLAND J. KOPF ATTORNEY United States Patent This invention relates to fasteners and more particularly to studs of special form adapted to be power driven by explosives into wood, steel, concrete, masonry or the 7 like materials to fasten work including Various objects on a surface of these materials at a great saving in time and labor. This application is a division of co-pending application Serial No. 410,787, filed February 17, 1954, now US. Patent No. 2,954,717 granted October 4, 1960.

Explosive drivable studs of various thread sizes and lengths are necessarily in use to accommodate the myriad of work situations encountered; and it will be appreciated that this represents a disadvantage in that, as a result, various sizes of explosively actuated tools and various calibers of explosive power cartridges must be carried at the place of work. Interchange of tools and cartridges as well as fasteners on the job delays the work. More.- over, it has always been recognized that in fastening operations with these types of fasteners over-penetration, especially in plate and thin wall structures, represents a hazard and is to be avoided regardless of the precautionary measures required to do so. It is self-evident that such measures are often likely to keep the work from progressing as rapidly as it might and thus prevent the full realization of the advantages of this type of fastening method. A still further disadvantage of certain kinds of prior fasteners of the type to which this invention relates is a tendency of these to strike the surface fired into at an angle. This makes for out-of-square shots which fail to penetrate properly.

Therefore, an object of this invention is the provision of a new and improved explosive drivable stud having the simplified structural features hereinafter described. Another object is to provide an improved stud so designed as to offer explosive actuated tool operators a selection of a variety of thread sizes in the stud but which is ejectable from the same size tool barrel and thus makes possible reduction in frequency of fastener, cartridge and tool interchanges on the job. Another object is to provide a stud which can be driven into a supporting material under the force of an explosive without any appreciable possibility of over-penetration and out-of-square shots. Other objects and advantages will become apparent from the following description of various illustrative and preferred embodiments of the invention when taken together with the accompanying drawing in which:

FIGURE 1 is a view in cross-section taken through the barrel of a driving tool and a supporting object into and on which one embodiment of the stud of this invention, shown in elevation, is to be emplaced;

FIGURE 2 illustrates the embodiment of FIGURE 1, partially in cross section, after it has been driven;

FIGURE 3 is a cross sectional view of a preferred modification of the outer member of the fastener of this invention;

FIGURE 4 is an elevational view partly in cross section showing another embodiment of the invention driven into a supporting object; and

FIGURE 5 is an elevational exploded view of a still further embodiment prior to assembly. v

In accordance with this invention, a fastener or stud is provided of two members, one carrying the object attaching structure such as threads and adapted to remain implanted upon the surface of the work or supporting object and the other adapted to penetrate the supporting object and impale the first part thereon. The one member, also called the plug or coupling, which is the thread carrier, may be formed of any suitable threaded length, of any suitable thread diameter and of any suitable number of threads per unit of threaded length. This thread carrier is perforated longitudinally for passage therethrough and of permanent reception therein of a portion of the other member hereinafter called the pin. Generally the attachment member is a centrally perforated cylinder. One end of the pin is pointed to facilitate penetration of the forepart of the pin into the supporting object under the driving force of an explosive propellant. The other end of the shank of the pin is designed to apply the residue of the explosive force to the threaded member and thereby limit the penetration of the pin and fix the thread carrier implanted upon the supporting object. This end of the pin may take the form of an enlarged head so related to the perforation of the penetrable plug as to insure that the pin upon being fired into the plug will not pass through the plug entirely. The pointed end of the pin may pass freely through the plug perforation. The head of the pin is unable to pass beyond that end of the plug which is designed to receive the head of the pin. Thus a series of studs having pins of uniform head diameters can be provided with plugs having predetermined threaded diameters, threaded lengths and thread sizes difiering from one another.

Generally the length of the plug which is also that of its longitudinal perforation is not less than the length of the tapered penetrating point of the pin. This rela-. tionship of lengths assists in aligning the pin so as tofacilitate its being driven squarely into the surface of a supporting object. 7

Preferably the thread carrier is formed so as to be re versible, i.e. so as to have symmetrical anterior and posterior constructions. or the other member or both be longitudinally serrated at the mating surfaces so as to provide a more positive locking against rotational relative motion between the members than that provided by friction alone particularly whenever an impact bond between the members is not attainable consistently. This locking action feature may be extended to fix not only. the members with respect to each other angularly but to also fix one or both positively with respect to the supporting material.

But the character of this invention will be better understood from the description of various specific embodiments which now follows.

With reference to FIGURES 1 and 2 of the drawing, the fastener illustrated consists of the pin 1 and the plug 2. These are shown in FIGURE 2 just prior to assembly Moreover, it is preferred that one inrelationship to each other, to the supporting work surface 37 and to the tool, which ma be of any suitable type, having a barrel 38 spring biased forwardly, a tubular shield member 39 slidably disposed about barrel 38 in coaxial relationship, a coaxial outer tube or barrel housing 40, and a shield spring 46 which is compressed between the internal flange 48 on tube shield 39 and a shoulder 51 on the housing 40 so as to forwardly bias shield member 39 the front part of which is made up of a spall deflector V plug 2 before actuation of the tool and until part of the. tool after firing is backed off from the Work and specifically until housing 40 together with shield structure 39 are per mitted rearward movement with respect to the barrel 38. This adaptor or plug receptor consists of an internally threaded nut-like barrel connector 42 engageable with barrel threads 47, a number of spring, elements or resilient fingers 43 integral with and extending forwardly from connector 42, one or more internally rough surfaced grip members 44 on the end of each finger and tral bore of the plug. This construction permits a load attaching meanssuch as a nut being tu-rned'down on the threads 8 of the plug. Alternately the socket of the bore of the plug may be splined. Moreover, the shank 3 of the pin may be longitudinally serrated or fluted as shown at 5 so as to constrain the pin 1 rotationally with respect to the supporting object 37. When driven, the fastener as shown in FIGURE 2 consists ofthe pin 1 and the plug 2 swaged on the pin and impaled thereby on the work surface of 37. Inasmuch as the tapered penetrating portion 4 of the pin 1 is shorter than the length of the plug 2 and that of its bore, it will be appreciated that such cant of the fired pin 1 as it may assume within the barrel of the tool will be reduced to substantially zero at the muzzle of .the tool before the point of the pin touches the supporting object 37. v

In its preferred form, FIGURE 3, the plug is made reversible for the convenience of the tool operator, to expedite the work and for better operation in general. The tubular body of the plug illustrated in FIGURE 3 has the bore 11 one end of which is enlarged to form socket 12 while the other end is enlarged to form an identical socket 13. Externally the plug is provided with a thread profile having a thread diameter, for example, less than that of the plug of FIGURES l and 2 but of greater length.

In the embodiment of FIGURE 4, the plug is also of the 7 reversible type and consists of the pin 16 and the threaded biased by elements 43 radially away from the axis of the a bore 57 of the barrel. and, extending outwardly from each grip 44, a radial array of rigid links or'appendages 45 adapted to be acted upon at one end thereof by the for wardly biased plate 49 and its skirt 50 so as to force each grip 44 toward the axis of the tool barrel. When at rest,

. the shield structure with its plate 49 and skirt 50 and also the barrel 38 are forwardly biased to protrude an appreciable distance from the open front end of the housing 40. In this position the array of grips 44 tend to contract about the inserted plug 2 and hold it captive substantially in abutment with the tool barrel muzzle. To insert the plug 2 into the adaptor 42, sleeve 39 and its plate 49 are moved back away from links 45 by pulling back on catch 52, thus permitting the array of grips 44 to spring outwardly and dilate the opening of the adaptor 41. To

'fire the tool, it must be pressed firmly and completely against object 37, in which position the adaptor 41 still continues to grip the plug 2. In this position a sear 53 on catch '52 engages automatically with one of the series of detents 54 on housing 40 and upon withdrawal of'the' tool away from work object 37 the impaled plug 2 and driven pin 1 are released from the tool muzzle. This sear 'and detent arrangement also facilitates insertion of a plug 2-into the adaptor 41. Reception of different lengths of plugs 2 is provided for by screw adjustment of the position of the adaptor 41 on threads 47 of the tool muzzle by turning connector 42 until the desired point is reached.

The impaling member of the fastener illustrated in FIG- URES l, and 2 consists of a pin 1 having an enlarged holding head 6 and a cylindrical shank 3 of reduced cross section as compared to the head 6 which isdesigned to closely fit the'bore 57 of the tool barrel so that an explosive discharge received in the chamber portion 58 of'the bore back of the head may drive the pin forcibly.

The object attachment means of the fastener consists of a cylindrical plug 2 having sides of a diameter larger than that of either-shank 3 or head 6 and of a configura tion and size matching that of any suitable standard thread plug 17. Pin 16 has an ogival point 19 adapting the shank 18 to accomplish penetration into supporting material 38 under the force of an explosive. The rear end of the pin 16 is provided with an, enlarged holding head 20 as in the preceding embodiment. The plug 17 has the central perforation 21 and externally the side walls are formed with a thread profile 22. One end face of the plug 17 is provided with a radial array of sharp projections 23.

, These are adapted to be forced into the underface of the head 20 of the driven pin 16 under the force of the explosive by driven pin thus fixing the pin 16 and plug 17 rotationally. Similarly the other end face of the plug 17 is provided with an identical array of projections 24 which serves to fix the plug 17 and also the driven pin 16 rotationally with respect to the supporting object 38.

The embodiment of FIGURE 5 is of simplified construction adaptable to heavyduty usage. It consists of pin 25 and the plug 26. Anterior section 27 of the shank 1 of pin 25 is of a cross section almost as great as that of the heel 29 and the knurled intermediate section 28. -As compared to the shank sections of the preceding embodiments, section 27, which as in the other embodiments has an ogival or pointed front end 27A, is of a diameter only slightly less than that of sections 28 and 29 both of which profile 8. Longitudinally the plug is centrally pierced by a hole9 adapted to receive the shank 3 of pin 1' snugly and having an internal enlar'gementor socket 10 at one end to seat the head 6 of the pin." 7

The head 6 of the pin l is provided with longitudinal splines orserrations 7 designed to bite into plug 2 and lock it rotationally at 14 withr espect to the pin 1 as the head 6 is seated with impact in the asket 10 of the cenare part of the same posterior enlarged section. Section 28, however, differs from heel 29 only in that section 28 is knurled or otherwise roughened to have grooves and protrusions for a purpose hereinafter disclosed. Hence, anterior section 27 is designed to make a greater displacement in supporting materials so as to be capable of either holding a heavier load on the supporting material or of accomplishing desired penetration in-more difiicultly penetrable material. Attached to the heel 29 of pin 25 is an explosive propellant cartridge 35 of the rimfire type, for example, bearing any suitable propellant 36 such as smokeless powder or the like. r

, Plug 26 is perforated longitudinally by central bore 30 the major partof which, except for the ends 31 and 32,

The contracted midsection of bore 30 and its serrations 33 plastically deform together with the protrusions of section 28 and as a result not only is pin 25 halted at a desired point in bore 30 but an annular bulge of metal is formed adjacent the heel so as to better embed the heel 29 in one or the other of the ends 31 and 32. As a rule, the longer the length of threaded plug 26, the greater is the length of serrations 33. This enables the anterior section 27 of pin 25 being driven with the proper degree of penetration into a supporting object so as to secure plug 26, with respect to its length, properly. Externally plug 26 is provided with threads 34 of any pitch and diameter needed by the job while using the same pin 25 as standardized and suitable for the explosive actuated tool employed.

It is to be understood that in the tool shown in FIG- URE 1 not only can the adaptor 41 be adjusted back and forth on threads 47 along the muzzle of the barrel 38 but that an adaptor having segments 43 of difierent length may be substituted therefor. It is also to be understood that as the adaptor is adjusted the extent of normal protrusion of the forward end of the housing 40, which abuts against plate 49 and limits the rearward movement of shield 39, and the sears or pawls 54 carried thereon is accordingly adjusted. The plug holding structure disclosed is suitable for incorporation, for example, in the type of tool disclosed in co-pending patent application, now US. Patent No. 2,945,236, granted July 19, 1960, on application Serial No. 355,034, filed May 14, 1953, wherein the tool barrel 38 has a discharge muzzle 59 and the bore 57 provides a piston chamber 58 adjacent the breech.

Since many other embodiments within the scope of this invention may occur to those skilled in the art, it is to be understood that the foregoing is intended by way of illustration and not as a limitation of the scope of the present invention except as set forth in the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. An explosive actuated fastener driving tool including a housing and a barrel, said barrel having a bore adapted to receive a fastener for driving including means back of said fastener for receiving the discharge of an explosive cartridge therein for driving said fastener through said bore toward the barrel muzzle for penetrating a workpiece after the piercing portion of said fastener has been driven through said bore, said housing and barrel being mounted for axial relative movement with respect to each other between a forward thrust position of said housing and a safety position rearwardly thereof, jaw means mounted adjacent said barrel muzzle for holding captive thereat a perforated fastener stopping plug member adapted to be impaled on said workpiece by the forwardly projecting piercing portion of said fastener having an enlarged plug abutment section incapable of passing through said plug member, said jaw means on said tool being operatively mounted for movement between an operative position where said jaw means extend in constraining relation about said plug member for holding said member in the path of said fastener against forward movement of said member for stopping said fastener only when its piercing portion has emerged a predetermined distance through said plug member beyond the muzzle for workpiece penetration and an inoperative position outwardly from said path to permit removal of said plug member from the tool, connecting means responsive to said relative movement whereby said jaw means is movable into said operative position as said housing and barrel are axially moved relative to each other in one direction to said forward position and said jaw means is movable to said inoperative position as said housing and barrel are moved in the opposite direction relative to each other.

2. The tool of claim 1 wherein the jaw means is attached to the barrel muzzle with axial adjustment to provide for reception in said jaw means of plug members of dilferent lengths.

3. The tool of claim 1 wherein the connecting means includes a sleeve telescopically mounted over said barrel, said sleeve being mounted for axial relative movement with respect to said barrel and the jaw means, said means having an inner configuration for holding the plug member back and also outward abutment means for engagement with said sleeve for moving said jaw means into operative position, and means on said tool normally biasing said sleeve with respect to the housing against said jaw means and both said sleeve and barrel forwardly to urge said jaws into said operative position, said sleeve being retractable against said normal bias to render said configuration of the jaw means inoperative.

4. The tool of claim 3 wherein the jaw means includes a plurality of circumferentially arrayed fingers mounted at one end of said jaw means on the barrel muzzle and normally biased to pivot at their opposite ends radiaily outwardly about said first ends sufficiently so that said fingers at said opposite ends to form the abutment means engageable with the sleeve for reverse pivotal movement into the operative position for holding the plug member at said ends back at the muzzle end of the barrel ready for impalement of said member on the workpiece surface by a projected fastener.

5. The tool of claim 4 wherein the sleeve has an outwardly extending guard plate and the fingers are resilient and normally sprung outwardly from the end of the jaw means mounted on the muzzle of the barrel and have outwardly extending lateral appendages at the opposite ends adapted for axial compression between said plate of the sleeve and the workpiece so as to rock the appendages and move the fingers at said ends radially inwardly into operative plug grasping position.

6. An explosively actuated composite fastener driving tool including a housing, a barrel mounted within the housing for axial relative movement of said housing with respect to said barrel and having a bore for reception of a projectable first fastener component having an enlargement fitting the barrel bore closely and forming a chamber in said bore back of said fastener for reception of the discharge of an explosive charge for propelling said fastener toward the muzzle of said barrel, a sleeve telescopically mounted between said housing and barrel to extend adjacent said muzzle, abutment means movably mounted on the muzzle of said barrel for swinging radial movement inwardly into an operative position forming a receiver for holding a centrally perforated and restricted second fastener component at said muzzle of the barrel bore for passage through said perforation of the piercing portion of said projected first fastener component and for abutment of said fastener enlargement with said second component restriction for stopping said first fastener component at the muzzle end of the bore with said piercing portion projecting a predetermined distance beyond said second component for workpiece penetration and alternately for swinging movement radially outwardly from said assembled components into an inoperative position to permit removal of said impaled and penetrating fastener components from the tool, spring means biasing said sleeve with respect to said housing into engagement with said abutment means while simultaneously moving said abut ment means into said operative position as the tool remains unthrust and as the tool is thrust against the workpiece with the abutment means in engagement with said workpiece.

7. The tool of claim 6 wherein the barrel is biased forwardly and the spring means biases the sleeve into engagement with flexible abutment means and further biases the sleeve forwardly all with respect to the'housing, said abutment means having a rigid movable portion compressible between said sleeve and workpiece as the tool is thrust forwardly against the workpiece with the abutment means in engagement with said workpiece thereby moving said housing against said spring bias into abutment with said sleeve and simultaneously moving said abutment means farther into said operative position.

' thrust of the tool against the workpiece and projection of thepenetrating fastener component upon withdrawal of the tool from the workpiece said sleeve is locked in a position rearwardly' of the forwardmost position of the biased banel whereat said abutment meansare movable into an inoperative position to release said'tool :frem'said assembled components and are held thereat for reloading until said engagement is released.

7 References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Bush i Jan. 3, 1911 Temple Jan. 18, 1921 Temple Jan. 21, 1921 Temple Nov. 13, 1951 Springate May 6, 1952 FOREIGN PATENTS Australia July 18, 1941

US82842059 1954-02-17 1959-07-20 Fastening apparatus Expired - Lifetime US3041616A (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US410787A US2954717A (en) 1954-02-17 1954-02-17 Threaded plug and explosively driven stud therefor
US82842059 US3041616A (en) 1954-02-17 1959-07-20 Fastening apparatus

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3480306A (en) * 1967-09-07 1969-11-25 Omark Industries Inc Fastener structures
US3505920A (en) * 1967-11-02 1970-04-14 Hilti Ag Anchoring elements
US3643542A (en) * 1970-01-02 1972-02-22 Pin Set Corp Mine roof pins and apparatus for setting the same
EP0756093A1 (en) * 1995-07-28 1997-01-29 HILTI Aktiengesellschaft Fastening element with damping element
US7635385B2 (en) * 1996-07-23 2009-12-22 Keith Milliman Anastomosis instrument and method for performing same

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US980595A (en) * 1908-06-15 1911-01-03 Carl Bush Screw-driver.
US1365870A (en) * 1919-12-15 1921-01-18 Temple Robert Explosively-actuated affixing device
US1365869A (en) * 1919-10-10 1921-01-18 Temple Robert Rxplosively-actuated penetrating means
US2575079A (en) * 1949-05-13 1951-11-13 Temple Velocity Equipment Inc Explosively driven stud with knockoff head portion
US2595551A (en) * 1947-05-23 1952-05-06 Aviat Developments Ltd Feeding device for rivets or similar articles

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US980595A (en) * 1908-06-15 1911-01-03 Carl Bush Screw-driver.
US1365869A (en) * 1919-10-10 1921-01-18 Temple Robert Rxplosively-actuated penetrating means
US1365870A (en) * 1919-12-15 1921-01-18 Temple Robert Explosively-actuated affixing device
US2595551A (en) * 1947-05-23 1952-05-06 Aviat Developments Ltd Feeding device for rivets or similar articles
US2575079A (en) * 1949-05-13 1951-11-13 Temple Velocity Equipment Inc Explosively driven stud with knockoff head portion

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3480306A (en) * 1967-09-07 1969-11-25 Omark Industries Inc Fastener structures
US3505920A (en) * 1967-11-02 1970-04-14 Hilti Ag Anchoring elements
US3643542A (en) * 1970-01-02 1972-02-22 Pin Set Corp Mine roof pins and apparatus for setting the same
EP0756093A1 (en) * 1995-07-28 1997-01-29 HILTI Aktiengesellschaft Fastening element with damping element
US7635385B2 (en) * 1996-07-23 2009-12-22 Keith Milliman Anastomosis instrument and method for performing same

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