US3034392A - Wind actuated musical instrument - Google Patents

Wind actuated musical instrument Download PDF

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US3034392A
US3034392A US716343A US71634358A US3034392A US 3034392 A US3034392 A US 3034392A US 716343 A US716343 A US 716343A US 71634358 A US71634358 A US 71634358A US 3034392 A US3034392 A US 3034392A
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keys
base
key
instrument
air
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US716343A
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Seiller Philippe
Borel Andre
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Seiller Philippe
Borel Andre
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; AEOLIAN HARPS; SINGING-FLAME MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D7/00General design of wind musical instruments
    • G10D7/12Free-reed wind instruments
    • G10D7/14Mouth-organs

Description

y 15, 1962 P. SEILLER ETAL 3,034,392
WIND ACTUATED MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Filed Feb. 20, 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 May 1952 P. SEILLER ETAL 3,034,392
. WIND ACTUATED MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Filed Feb. 20, 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 o H .5 L 26 El 27- g #1] Q 0%27 1 a E May 15, 1962 P. SEILLER ETAL 3,034,392
WIND ACTUATED MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Filed Feb. 20, 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 y 15, 1962 P. SEILLER ETAL 3,034,392
WIND ACTUATED MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Filed Feb. 20, 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 ilnited rates hater it he 3,634,392 WIND ACTUATED MUSHCAL HQSTRUMENT Philippe Seiller, 12 Rue Lamblardie, and Andre Borei, 12 Rue .luiliet, both of Paris, France Filed Feb. 2d, 1953, Ser. No. H6343 Claims priority, application France Feb. 27, W57
it Claims. (til. 34-651!) This invention relates to musical instruments, and one of its objects is to provide a novel keyboard-controlled wind instrument.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention we provide a musical instrument comprising a keyboard, e.g. of the conventional type used in pianos, control valve means operatively connected for operation by the keys of the keyboard, air flow cavities or passages respectively controlled by said valve means and vibrating elements, e.g. reeds, mounted in said cavities to be vibrated by air flowing therethrough, and an air distributor-and-collector conduit connected with said cavities for distributing the airflow through the latter in response to the operation of said keys.
Other objects of the invention are to provide improved constructional forms of a keyboard-controlled musical instrument whereby assembly, repair and maintenance operations are made simpler and easier to perform, to impart increased flexibility, smoothness and silence to the operation of the keys, andto eliminate any lateral play of said keys liable to entail inadvertent depression of keys adjacent to the keys to be depressed. A specific object of this invention therefore is to provide an improved mounting arrangement for the keys of a musical instrument keyboard whereby such keys will be made completely independent from one another and individually adjustable and removable, in contrast to conventional arrangements as generally used in present-day pianos, accordions and the like, wherein a set of keys are all operated by way of a common shaft simultaneously engaging all the keys of the set or of the entire keyboard.
it will be understood that several of the objects of the invention are applicable to any keyboard controlled musical instrument including pianos, accordions, harmoniums and the like.
In accomplishing these objects the invention provides a key mounting arrangement wherein each individual key has a projecting portion engageable in pivoting relation with a groove formed in the base of the instrument, or vice versa, and spring means for restoring the key towards its normal position are arranged adjacent to said projection on the side thereof remote from the side of the key which is operatively connected to the tone-control means such as a valve rod. p
The base of the instrument of our invention may be formed with a common shallow groove for both the white and the black keys, all of which are formed with aligned projections engageable with said groove, and the spring restoring means may then comprise a threaded rod extending simultaneously through the rear portion of the key and the base in a recess having a diameter large enough to receive a coil spring therein coaxially surrounding the screw rod.
According to an improvement provided in fulfillment of a funthcr object of our invention, more especially relat ing to portable keyboard-controlled instruments, a proassasaz Patented May 15, 1962 trat-ion but not of limitation, with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein:
PEG. 1 is a perspective exploded view of a novel instrument,
FIG. 2 is a vertical section by a plane normal to the longitudinal dimension of the instrument, substantially through the midplane of a white key,
FIG. 3'is a similar section on a vertical plane extending substantially between a pair of adjacent white keys,
FIG. 4 is a larger scale View in transverse section illustrating the distribution of airflow to the vibratory reeds by the airflow collector and distributor conduit,
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary view from below, with the cover plate raised,
FIG. 6 is a plan view of an improved instrument with the resonant cavity partly broken away,
FIGS. 7 and 8 are transverse sections respectively on lines 7-7 and 88 of FIG. 6, respectively for a white and a black key,
HS. 9 illustrates a modified form of the invention as applied to an accordion, and
FIG. 10 is a perspective view of a detail of the instrument shown in FIGS. 6 to 8.
Referring to FIG. 1, a baseplate 1 forms the main frame of the instrument and has secured to it all of the components thereof. End supports 2. and 3 secured upon the smaller sides of the elongated rectangular base I serve to journal a metal rod 5 (see FIGS. 2 and 3) by means of journals 4, said rod providing a pivotal axis for both the natural or white keys 6 and the chromatic or black keys 7. Spaced at intervals along the length of one side of the baseplate l are journal supports 8 providing bearings for the rod 5 intermediate the end supports 2 and 3.
The keys 6 are provided in the form of relatively thin plates extending across substantially the full width of base 1. At the end of each key there is a down-bent vertical flange 6a adapted to have its lower end displaceable, on depression of the key, in a slot such as 9, the slots 9 being formed adjacent to and in alignment with one another along the front side of plate 1 opposite from the side receiving the rod 5 thereon.
An elongated strip 10 forms the common outer wall of all said slots, and the slots are separated off from one another by partitions such as 11 which serve as lateral guides for the flanges 611 on vertical displacement of said flanges when the keys are depressed. Slots 12 similar to slots are provided along the other longitudinal side of the baseplate 1 between the edge of the plate and a continuous strip 13 similar to strip 16 As will appear later the slots and 12 simultaneously serve for the escape and the intake of air.
in a conventional manner the keys 6 are appropriately cut out to receive the keys 7 in interfitting relation between them. A flanged cover plate 14 is secured to the end supports 2 and 3 over the rear parts of the keys to conceal their pivotal means.
Spring means are provided for biasing the keys to their normal raised position and comprise hairsprings l5 having two arms one of which is received in pr'e-stressed condition within a groove 16 formed in the base while the other arm is supported and guided in a groove 17 formed in the under face of the key. Similar spring restoring means are used both for the keys 6 and 7. Each key has its under side connected at substantially the midpoint of the transverse width dimension of the baseplate, to the top of a related rod 18 which extends vertically through apertures 19 formed through the baseplate 1. Each rod 18 at its lower end receives a removable end piece 2i) including a flexible ring seal 21 forming a valve member as presently described. On depression of a key a felt disc 22 secured to the under face of each key at the point engaging the top of the related rod 18, engages a corresponding damping disc 23 provided on the upper surface of basepiate ll. Simultaneously damping blocks 24 serve to limit the possible deflection of the keys 6 at their free ends as might tend to occur on excessively strong depression of the keys which would not be limited by the mutual engagement of the discs 22 and 23. It will be seen that as a result of the arrangement just described depression of the keys can in no case result in a noisy contact between hard solid surfaces.
For-med in the lower part of the base l in a parallel spaced array are a set of transverse air-flow cavities or passages 25 each cavity corresponding in position with a particular one of the rods 13. Thus there areas many cavities 25 as there are keys 6 and 7. Secured with screws 26 across each cavity 25 are strips 27 formed with slots '23. Mounted for vibration in the slots 23 are reeds 29 which desirably may be alternately secured to the outer face of the strip 27 as shown at the left of FIG. 4 and to the inner. faces of the strips as shown at the right of FIG. 4. Preferably there is associated with each cavity 25 one reed adapted to be operated by outflowing air and another reed adapted to be operated by iniiowing air.
in order to ensure proper air-tightness, at the engagement of strips 27 with the under face of baseplate l, a strip 39 of suitable yielding material, such as felt, leather, rubberized fabric or the like, is interposed under the baseplate and bonded thereto as by means of glue, said strip being formed with rectangular apertures in it accurately registering with the cutouts in the cavities 235 in base ll. Moreover the yielding rings 23 surround the rods lld in a sufiicientiy tight manner to prevent substantial leakage of air along said rods.
in the intermediate space between the opposite side edges of the strips 27, "a rectangular tube 31 is fitted, having one end closed by a removable drain plug not shown and its other end sealed by a removable mouthpiece 32 shown in FIG. 1. Desirably the drain plug and the mouthpiece 32 are adapted to be mountable indiscriminately on either end of the rectangular tube 31. This tube serves as an airflow distributor and collector pipe. It is secured atspaced points to the under side of plate 1 with screws 33 (see FIG. 3) engaging th eaded bosses 33a formed in the upper side of the tube Ell. The screws 33 extend through the base l by way of spaced holes formed in said base between adjacent cavities 25. When the screws 33 are screwed tight the pipe 31 is sealingly applied against the felt lining strip 30. Within the pipe Eli is a strip 34 extending throughout the length of the pipe and providing additional damping abutment means on depression of the keys as the threaded end member is retracted a maximum amount. The upper side of tube 31 is formed with holes 35 equal in number to the total number of rods 118 relating to all the keys 6 and '7. The parts are so assembled that each rod 118 relating to a cavity extends through a .hole in the pipe 331. The holes 35 are smaller in diameter than the diameter of the sealing rings 21. In their idle condition when the keys are held raised by the springs 15 the seal rings 21 are sealingly applied against the inner upper surface of pipe 31.
A bottom cover 36 is secured by screws 3'7 to the under wall of pipe 31' as shown in FIG. 3.
The instrument thus described operates as follows.
When the player blows into the mouthpiece 32, air flows into the pipe 31 and is delivered to only that or those of the cavities 25 made accessible as a result of depression of the key or keys secured to the rod or rods 18 relating to the cavities. Due to the sealed relationship of the parts the air is forced through such cavities past the vibrating reeds therein and the reeds are vibrated thereby to emit predetermined tones. The sound is emitted through the apertures 9 and 312. It will be noted that the bottom plate 36 acts as a resonant cavity. Where the reeds are mounted in mutually opposed pairs at the outlet of a common cavity, only one reed of the pair is operated during the air-discharge stage. When the player draws in air through mouthpiece 32 the reverse effects obtain and the opposite reed of the pair is set into vibration.
it will be noted that when the player is using a mouth piece 32 positioned at the righthand side of the instrument as shown in FIG. 1, the keys of the keyboard can be played with the fingers of the left hand up the scale in the rightward direction. On the other hand when using a mouthpiece positioned on the left side of the instrument the right hand will move up the scale in the rightward direction. Thus any moderately skilled piano player will quickly learn to play the novel instrument.
Gripping means, such as a strappnot shown, may be secured to the under side of bottom cover plate, 36, and may serve to carry the instrument with that hand not engaging in operating the keyboard.
in the form of embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 6, 7 and 8, the instrument is arranged for operation of the reeds only when mouth pressure is applied. It comprises a base it which may be wood, and is formed in its under face with adjacent cavities such as 37 and 38 providing individual air intake chambers with reeds 39 and 4t ar ranged therein. The air from the mouthpiece 42; is conveyed to said chambers by way of a pipe 41 secured below the base and having one end connected with said mouthpiece. Formed in the pipe i1 is a longitudinal partition 43 which divides it in such a way that the air must first how into'chamber 41a. and then into chamber 4112 through a set of ports which may desirably be provided at the end of the pipe ill'remote from the-mouthpiece 4-2 (see FIG. 10). A cover, plate 62 surrounding the reeds and pivots in spaced relation thereto selves to define a resonant cavity.
Each chamber 37 or 38 is normally sealed off from,
chamber 42th but may be individually connected with the chamber on depression of the corresponding key as or 45. The key, through a rod '26 or 4-7, lifts the valve 48 or &9 off its seat. Each such rod is secured to, e.g., moulded in, the related key and its free end is threaded to receive thereon the valve head td or 4-9 beyond an oblong aperture 5a or 51 formed through a sealing member secured in the base.
The under side of the key and the upper side of the base, at points aligned with the ends of the rods 46 and 57,
are provided with damping discs of felt or the like such as 52 and 5?, to prevent noise or depression of the keys. Moreover the discs 53 provide an adequate sealing against air leakage on depression of the valve. shank and prevent leakage of air through aperture St; or fill.
According to a feature of the invention each key is formed at its rear end with a transverse projection 54% or 55 equal in length to the width of the key. All such projections simultaneously rest in aligned condition in a common groove $6 formed in the top of the base. The contact surfaces of the projections. in 'the grooves are rounded so as to, provide pivotal *fulcrums for the keys on the base without any'lateral displacement of the keys on depression thereof since the swivel or pivot means thus provided are linear rather than spherical in character.
The valve shanks and the spring biasing-means for each key further assist inmaintaining the keys in substantially parallel relation with respect to one another on depression thereof.
' The spring restoring means for the keys comprises, for each key, a threaded rod 57 having a spherical head imprisoned in a socket 58 formed in the rear part of the upper face of the key, while the threaded portion of the rod projects into a recess 59 formed in the rear and lower side of the base. Surrounding the end of the threaded rod within the recess 59 is a coil spring 6th the compressional bias of which is adapted to be adjusted separately for each key by means of a nut 61. j a
It will be apparent from the foregoing description that each key of our novel instrument is adapted to be mounted and adjusted individually, and this is a great advantage over the conventional arrangement in keyboard instruments. It will be evident that the features of the invention relating to the keyboard will be applicable to any keyboard instrument rather than only to the wind instrument specifically described herein by way of example.
Shown at '62 is a cover plate secured to the base with screws 63 and providing a resonant cavity. End plates 64 and 65 are secured to the ends of the base to define end walls for said cavity.
In a somewhat modified form of the invention illustrated in FIG. 9 a keyboard system in accordance with the invention is shown as applied to the baseplate of an accordion. Some of the parts shown in FIGS. 7 and 8 described above have been designated in FIG. 9 with the same reference numerals and the general arrangement thereof will be seen to be the same.
What we claim is:
l. A musical instrument comprising in combination an elongated base, a keyboard comprising keys, means pivoting all said keys adjacent their inner ends in aligned relation along the upper side of said base, the under side of said base being provided with a plurality of recesses each in opposite alignment with a respective key, closure means to close all said recesses whereby to provide air cavities corresponding to the respective keys, said closure means having plurality of apertures therein to provide a vent for each of said cavities communicating with the atmosphere, a vibratory element positioned in each said aperture, a common air conduit extending under said base longitudinally thereof, the upper side of said conduit being mounted in contiguous relation with the under side of said closure means, the upper side of the conduit having a plurality of passages in communication with passages provided in said closure means for connecting all said cavities with said conduit, said base having a plurality of bores communicating between each of the cavities and the upper surface of the base in alignment with each of said passages, valve means including valve shanks, means to position a valve means in each passage to project said shanks upwardly into engagement with said keys through said bores whereby depression of a key will open the related passage, sealing means in each bore for the valve shanks to prevent leakage of air, means associated with each key to retain the key in a normal raised condition to maintain the related passage closed, and a mouthpiece secured to an outer end of said conduit, whereby manipulation of said keys with simultaneous introduction of air into said mouthpiece will selectively set said elements into vibration.
2. The instrument claimed in claim 1, wherein each key comprises a downwardly directed end flange at the end thereof remote from said pivoting means, and slots in said base longitudinally spaced along a forward end of the base for slidably receiving said flanges to guide the keys against transverse displacement on depression thereof.
3. In the instrument claimed in claim 1, a cover plate supported from said base in spaced relation with the under side thereof and defining a resonant cavity for said vibratory elements.
4. The instrument claimed in claim 1, wherein said valve means each comprise a vertical valve shank slidably extending through a bore in said base, means connecting the upper end of the shank to the under face of the related key, the lower end of said shank projecting through said passage into said conduit, and a radially extending valve member carried by said lower end of the shank within said conduit and cooperating with said opening.
5. In the instrument claimed in claim 4, an apertured element of yielding sealing material secured to the upper face of said base around each valve shank in slidable sealing relation therewith, and a cooperating element of yielding material secured to the under face of said key around said upper end of the shank for abutting cooperation with said first apertured element on depression of the key.
6. In the instrument claimed in claim 4, yielding means within said conduit on the bottom wall thereof for abutting and damping cooperation with said valve member on violent depression of the related key.
7. In the instrument claimed in claim 4, threefold abutment-silencing means for each key comprising, a yielding damper element on the upper side of said base for cooperation with the under face of said key adjacent the end thereof remote from said pivotal means, a yielding damper element on the upper side of said base for cooperation wit the under face of said key adjacent the top end of said valve shank, and a yielding damper element on the upper side of the bottom wall of said conduit for cooperation with the under face of said valve member.
8. A musical instrument comprising in combination an elongated base, a keyboard including natural and chromatic keys, means pivoting all said keys adjacent their one ends in alignment along the upper side of the base, said base being provided with transverse recesses formed in the under side thereof in alignment with the respective keys, plates secured to the under side of the base to close said recesses and provide cavities corresponding to the respective keys, each of the plates being provided with a pair of apertures spaced transversely of the base to provide two vents for each cavity communicating with the atmosphere, a vibratory element for each of the respective apertures of each plate, said vibratory elements being respectively arranged for vibration in response to air flowing upwards through one aperture and downwards through the other aperture of each plate, a common air conduit extending under said base longitudinally thereof, said conduit having a flat upper side positioned contiguous to the under sides of all said closure plates between the related apertures therein, said flat upper side of the conduit and each plate being provided with mating openings for connecting the respective cavities to said conduit intermediate the two vibratory elements of each pair, valve means in said openings including-valve shanks, means to mount said valve shanks to project upwards through a series of bores provided in said base into operative engagement by said keys, whereby depression of a key will open a respective opening in said conduit, spring means retaining the keys in a normal raised condition to close the respective openings, sealing means in each opening for the valve shanks to prevent leakage of air, and a mouthpiece secured to an outer end of said conduit.
9. In the instrument claimed in claim 8, a sealing member of flexible material interposed between the under face of said base and the upper faces of all said plates and cutouts formed in said element to register with said recesses in the base.
10. In the instrument claimed in claim 8, a cover plate supported from said base in spaced relation with the under side thereof and secured to the under side of said conduit to define a resonant cavity for said vibratory elements.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 683,320 McCrea Sept. 24, 1901 963,827 Swan July 12, 1910 1,995,751 Sampietro Mar. 26, 1935 2,167,582 McCord July 25, 1939 2,197,773 Rosenfield Apr. 23, 1948 2,478,474 Folder Aug. 9, 1949 2,764,907 Link Oct. 2, 1956 FOREIGN PATENTS 456,290 Italy Mar. 29, 1950
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3145608A (en) * 1961-08-31 1964-08-25 Hohner Inc M Mouthpiece operated wind musical instrument with piano keyboard
US3715448A (en) * 1970-07-15 1973-02-06 Nippon Musical Instruments Mfg Keyboard type wind musical instrument having removable mouthpiece securing removable air filter
US6329582B1 (en) 2001-06-16 2001-12-11 Frank K. Catalano, Jr. Electronic musical keyboard attachment for a saxophone

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US683320A (en) * 1901-02-18 1901-09-24 Hiram Mccrea Musical instrument.
US963827A (en) * 1908-09-10 1910-07-12 Swan N Swan Reed-organ.
US1995751A (en) * 1933-03-23 1935-03-26 Sampietro Cornelius Musical instrument
US2167582A (en) * 1937-12-28 1939-07-25 Hugh A Mccord Musical instrument
US2197773A (en) * 1939-12-29 1940-04-23 Rosenfield Louis Toy organ
US2478474A (en) * 1946-04-05 1949-08-09 Wurlitzer Co Piano key mounting
US2764907A (en) * 1956-10-02 Key mounting for accordions

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2764907A (en) * 1956-10-02 Key mounting for accordions
US683320A (en) * 1901-02-18 1901-09-24 Hiram Mccrea Musical instrument.
US963827A (en) * 1908-09-10 1910-07-12 Swan N Swan Reed-organ.
US1995751A (en) * 1933-03-23 1935-03-26 Sampietro Cornelius Musical instrument
US2167582A (en) * 1937-12-28 1939-07-25 Hugh A Mccord Musical instrument
US2197773A (en) * 1939-12-29 1940-04-23 Rosenfield Louis Toy organ
US2478474A (en) * 1946-04-05 1949-08-09 Wurlitzer Co Piano key mounting

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3145608A (en) * 1961-08-31 1964-08-25 Hohner Inc M Mouthpiece operated wind musical instrument with piano keyboard
US3715448A (en) * 1970-07-15 1973-02-06 Nippon Musical Instruments Mfg Keyboard type wind musical instrument having removable mouthpiece securing removable air filter
US6329582B1 (en) 2001-06-16 2001-12-11 Frank K. Catalano, Jr. Electronic musical keyboard attachment for a saxophone

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