US3022968A - Railway frog - Google Patents

Railway frog Download PDF

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US3022968A
US3022968A US797359A US79735959A US3022968A US 3022968 A US3022968 A US 3022968A US 797359 A US797359 A US 797359A US 79735959 A US79735959 A US 79735959A US 3022968 A US3022968 A US 3022968A
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Prior art keywords
frog
metal
wear
rails
work
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US797359A
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William A Mcgrath
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Frog Switch & Manufacturing Co
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Frog Switch & Manufacturing Co
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE BY DECARBURISATION, TEMPERING OR OTHER TREATMENTS
    • C21D7/00Modifying the physical properties of iron or steel by deformation
    • C21D7/02Modifying the physical properties of iron or steel by deformation by cold working
    • C21D7/04Modifying the physical properties of iron or steel by deformation by cold working of the surface
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01BPERMANENT WAY; PERMANENT-WAY TOOLS; MACHINES FOR MAKING RAILWAYS OF ALL KINDS
    • E01B7/00Switches; Crossings
    • E01B7/10Frogs
    • E01B7/12Fixed frogs made of one part or composite
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49758During simulated operation or operating conditions

Description

Feb. 27, 1962 INVENTOR. WILLIAM A. Me GRA H BY I WififlWMJi Ar-rvs.

S vitch & Manufacturing 60., Carlisie, Pa-, a corp r tron of Pennsylvania Filed Mar. 5, 1959, Ser. No. 797,359 5 (Iiaims. (Cl. 246- 368) The present invention relates to railway frogs and the like and more particularly to such frogs which are formed of work-hardenable metal such as manganese steel.

A railway frog is a joint, used where two tracks cross one another at an angle, which enables the flanged rail wheels on one rail to cross another rail of the intersectmg track. The material of which railway frogs should be made must possess qualities of toughness, hardness, strength and durability required in withstanding the repeated and severe impact to which such frogs are subected by the Wheels of passing railway vehicles. It has been found in practice that various work-hardenable metals are particularly Well adapted for this purpose, one of the most popular being manganese steel.

A conventional practice is to initially cast or other- Wise form the frog of manganese steel and then, prior to placing it in service, to subject the frog point and adjacent wing rails with which the rolling stock wheels will be in contact to surface work-hardening to obtain the required toughness and hardness properties. Surface hardening is usually accomplished by cold working the metal, i.e. plastically deforming the metal at a temperature below that at which spontaneous recrystallization takes place. it is well known that such cold Working results m a forced recrystallization of the metal grains into finer grain sizes with a resulting enhancement of certain mechanical properties of the metal, especially hardness, toughness, and wear resistance. Common methods of cold working involve subjecting the metal surface to repeated impacting by hammering, pressing, rolling, shot blasting or the like. As noted, the metal undergoes actual flow or displacement in the process of hardening. As hardening progresses, the rate of metal flow diminishes until a desired degree of hardening is efiected.

As indicated, cold working of the frog point and wing rail surfaces is conventionally carried out in the factory before the frog is placed in service. Because of the surface metal flow which takes place during work hardening, the usual practice is to initially provide an additional thickness (cf. /8 inch) of metal on the point and wing surfaces to be Work-hardened. in this way provision is made for bringing the working or tread surfaces of the point and wings to the desired rail level after the initial metal excess has been flattened by the cold working process. Some of the excess metal undergoes migratory cold flow to edge areas where peening over is possible, necessitating a further grinding of the frog to give the desired final dimensions.

These and other conventional practices are expensive both in terms of the materials and equipment which must be used, and the labor that must be expended. Very serious disadvantages inhere in the time consuming nature of the operations.

It is a primary object of this invention to overcome the many disadvantages of the conventional practices decribed above and others by providing a frog having wear surfaces which are work-hardenable in situ after the formed but unhardened frog has been placed in service at a rail crossing. It is thus an object of this invention to eliminate the necessity for carrying out work hardening of rail frogs in the factory and to provide instead for such treatment to take place after the frog is in place in the railroad track.

3,ZZ,%8 Patented Feb. 27, 1962 An ancillary object is to provide a rail frog having wear surfaces which need not be pre-hardened but are work-hardenable in use as a result of passage of the rail vehicle wheels over the frog wear surfaces.

A further object of the invention is to provide a usehardenable frog which, once placed in service, undergoes rapid hardening of its Wear surfaces during the initial period of use and which need not be further ground or otherwise shaped to the desired cross-section. Still another and allied object is to provide such a use-hardenable frog having wear members which retain their overall dimensional uniformity during the in use Work-hardening process and indefinitely thereafter. Ancillary to these it is an object to provide such a frog in which the final cross-sections or shape of the various wear members in use may be accurately prescribed prior to work hardening of the members.

Other objects and advantages will become apparent upon reading the attached detail description and upon reference to the drawings in which:

FIGURE 1 is a plan view of a railroad track crossing in which a frog embodying the features of the present invention is installed at each intersection of two rails.

.FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view of a frog employed in practicing the present invention, showing the frog wear surfaces prior to work hardening.

FIG. 3 is mainly an enlarged plan view, slightly in perspective, showing the frog point and adjacent wing portions of the frog shown in FIG. 3.

FIG. 4 is a fragmentary, enlarged transverse crosssectional view of the illustrative frog point taken along the line 4-4 of FIG. 3, again showing the frog wear surfaces prior to work hardening.

While the invention has been described in connection with a preferred embodiment, it will be understood that it is not intended to limit the invention thereto, but it is intended to cover all modifications and alternative constructions and methods falling within the spirit and scope of the invention as expressed in the appended claims.

Turning now to the drawings there is shown in FIG. 1

a two track crossing including at the junction of each pair of intersecting rails a frog 10 of the type employed in practicing the present invention. For details of the frog structure employed at each pair of intersecting rails, reference may be had to FIG. 2.

There it will be seen that the general framework of the frog is defined by a pair of ordinary rolled rails bent or forged into the shapes shown so as to form opposing and spaced apart wing rails 12 and 14. As will be seen, the integral wing rails include straight and approximately parallel mid-portions 12a, tea, which house the actual rail crossover therebetween, and end portions 121) and 12c, 14]) and 140, formed to converge toward the midportion of the frog. The wing rail end portions 12b, 14b thus define the toe of the frog.

Short ordinary straight rails 16, 18 are provided in the usual manner between the converging wing rail end portions 12c, 140, thus serving as the point rails and thereby defining the heel of the frog. The respective short rails 16, 18 are generally parallel to and spaced from the wing rail portions 120, to define therebetween fiangeways 20, 22 for accommodating the railwheel flanges. As will be observed, the short rails 16, 18, made of ordinary rail steel, terminate short of the frog midportion defined between the wing rail portions 12a, 14a.

There is thus defined a generally rectangular opening Within the rails 12a, 14a, and the converging ends of the straight rails 16, 18. Disposed in this opening is a central frog member 21, cast in this instance of manganese steel and sized and shaped to fit between and form the actual junction or crossover for the intersecting rails. As will be seen, the frog member 21 is railbound to the opepsaess posing wing rails 12, 14 by means of suitable throughbolts 22.

The structure of the frog member 21 is well illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3. 'It'will be seen that the casting as shown is of integral construction and comprises a frog point 24, and two adjacent but spaced opposing frog wing portions 26, 28, respectively. The opposing vertical surfaces 24a of the frog point and 26a, 28a of the wing portions are spaced suitably to define therebetween a continuation toward the frog point of the flangeways 2G, 22. The sharpness angle of the frog point 24 is dependent, of course, upon the angle of intersection of the rails.

As shown, the frog member 21 presents generally horizontal, fiat wear or tread surfaces 24h at the frog point and 26b, 28b on the adjacent wing portions for engagement by the wheels of passing rail vehicles.

In carrying out the invention, the rail frog member 21 is provided with means facilitating complete work-hardening of its wear surfaces while in use, is. after the frog has been installed at the rail crossing; yet the overall dimensional profile of the member is maintained during such work-hardening. By such means the basic objectives of the invention are accomplished, pre-hardening of the frog before track installation is no longer necessary and once the frog is placed in service no further grinding, trimming or other shaping of the frog metal is necessary.

In this instance, each of the wear surfaces in the region of the frog point, i.e. surfaces 24b, 26b, 28b, is fluted or provided across its face with a series of spaced grooves or troughs 30 defining upraised ridge-like por tions 32 of metal which ridges are primarily engaged by the wheels of moving rail vehicles during the initial period of use of the frog. The work-hardenable but initially unhardened wear surfaces of the frog, and more particularly the upraised metal ridges 32 thereon, undergo cold flow under the high velocity pounding of the moving 7 rail wheels, resulting in work-hardening of the frog Wear surfaces.

Upon particular reference to FIGS. 3 and 4 the nature of the wear surfaces of the frog employed in practicing the invention will be apparent. As shown, the grooves 30 in the frog point surface 245 are in a V-formation paralleling the side Walls 24a of the point. This arrangement orients the grooves and ridges 32 generally in the same direction as that of the vehicle wheels in passing over the rails. In this same manner the grooves 30 provided in the faces 26b, 28b of the frog wing portions are arranged to run in the direction of motion of the wheels along the rails. It should be understood, of course, that other orientations of the grooves and ridges may also be employed in keeping with the spirit and scope of the invention described herein.

As the rail wheels pass over the frog wear surfaces 24b, 26b, 2817, the metal ridges 32 tend to flatten out under the pounding and pressure resulting from the heavy loadings supported by the vehicle wheels and transmitted to the rails. This flattening out of the metal ridges 32 constitutes cold flow of the metal and hardening thereof takes place incident to the cold flow as discussed above.

An important feature of the invention resides in pro vision in the frog wear surfaces of the grooves 30 adjacent the ridges 32 which grooves provide low areas into which the upraised metal portions 32 will flow during the cold working process. This provision of relieved areas in the wear faces of the frog facilitates ready cold flow of the ridge metal 32 at a high rate, thus accomplishing hardening of the frog wear surfaces in situ in a minimum of time.

By use of the present invention, it is now possible to be assured that cold fiow of metal is'directed into the grooves as desired during the work-hardening process, and that metal will not peen'over the topedges of the fr g wear members and flow into undesirable areas such as the fiangeways as so often occurs with conventional 'rogs now in service. a

It is desirable to initially form the frog wear surfaces such that the top surfaces of the metal ridges 32 are disposed in a flat plane somewhat higher than the level of the surrounding ordinary rails. The magnitude of the initial difference in the levels of the ridges 32 and rails may be selected such that cold flow of the ridge metal gradually reduces the ridges down to the normal or working level of the rails. The structure shown and described is particularly advantageous in view of the fact that the ridges 32 may be of approximately equal height thus avoiding abrupt peaks in the wear surface contour which might disrupt flow of trafiic over the frog or otherwise present maintenance problems. The outline or profile of the frog wear members 24, 26, 28 is generally fiat both before work hardening and afterward when the ridges 32 have at least partially flowed into the grooves 33. importantly no overhang of metal results in the open flangeway due to fiow of metal that has nowhere else to go.

The present invention is found to constitute a great boon to the railroads in that the costs of manufacture of railway frogs have been materially reduced and the problem of battering and peening over of metal in the area of the frog point into the fiangeways which must be kept clear has been solved.

I claim as my invention:

1. A railroad frog member comprising a point and adjacent wings having wear surfaces formed of work hardenable but initially 'unhardened metal, the wear surfaces of said point and wings having a series of spaced grooves therein defining upraised metal portions therebetween positioned for rolling engagement by the wheels of passing railway vehicles, said spaced grooves and upraised metal portions being elongated, of uniform cross section throughout their length, and being alined in the direction of travel of the railway vehicle wheels along the rails, and said upraised metal portions being adapted to plastically flow at least partially into said grooves during rolling engagement of the upraised metal portions by said vehicle wheels to thereby work harden the wear surfaces in use.

2. A railroad frog member comprising a frog point having a wear surface formed of work hardenable but initially unhardened metal, the wear surface of said frog point having a series of spaced grooves therein defining upraised metal portions thcrebetween positioned for rolling engagement by the wheels of passing railway vehicles, said spaced grooves and upraised metal portions being elongated, of uniform cross section throughout their length, and being alined in the direction of travel of the railway vehicle wheels along the rails, and said upraised metal portions being adapted to plastically fiow at least partially into said grooves during rolling engagement of the upraised metal portions by said vehicle wheels to therebywork harden the Wear surface in use,

3. A railroad frog member comprising a point and adjacent wings having wear surfaces formed of work hardenable but initially unhardened metal, the wear surfaces of said point and wings having spaced relieved areas therein defining rows of upraised metal portions therebetween positioned for rolling engagement by the wheels of passing railway vehicles, said spaced grooves and upraised metal portions being elongated, of uniform cross section throughout their length, and being alined in the direction of travel of the railway vehicle wheels along the rails, and said upraised metal portions being adapted to plastically flow at least partially into said relieved areas during rolling engagement of the upraiscd metal portions by said vehicle wheels to thereby work harden the wear surfaces in use.

4. The process for producing a surface hardened railroad frog which comprises forming a frog member ineluding a frog point and adjacent wings having wear surfaces of work hardenable but initially unhardened metal, forming a series of spaced grooves in each of said wear surfaces thus defining upraised metal portions therebetween positioned for engagement by the wheels of passing railway vehicles said spaced grooves and upraised metal portions being elongated, of uniform cross section throughout their length, and being alined in the direction of travel of the railway vehicle wheels along the rails, and plastically deforming said upraised metal portions at least partially into said spaced grooves to thus work harden the wear surfaces by installing the frog member in a rail crossing in use by railway vehicles so that the vehicle wheels exert pressure upon said upraised portions to thus work harden the wear surfaces.

5. The process for producing a surface hardened railroad frog which comprises forming a frog member including a frog point having a wear surface of work hardenable but initially unhardened metal, forming spaced relieved areas in said wear surface thus defining rows of upraised metal portions therebetween positioned for engagement by the wheels of passing railway vehicles,

said spaced grooves and upraised metal portions being elongated, of uniform cross section throughout their length, and being alined in the direction of travel of the railway vehicle wheels along the rails, and plastically deforming said upraised metal portions at least partially into said spaced relieved areas by installing the frog member in a rail crossing in use by railway vehicles so that the vehicle wheels exert pressure upon said upraised portions to thus work harden the wear surfaces.

References Cited in the tile of this patent UNlTED STATES PATENTS

US797359A 1959-03-05 1959-03-05 Railway frog Expired - Lifetime US3022968A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3755670A (en) * 1971-12-15 1973-08-28 S Damy Railroad frog assembly
US3893643A (en) * 1974-01-30 1975-07-08 Abex Corp Shock-protected railway crossing
US4169745A (en) * 1977-08-19 1979-10-02 Vereinigte Osterreichische Eisen- Und Stahlwerke-Alpine Montan Aktiengesellschaft Method of joining frogs of wear-resisting manganese steel castings to rails of carbon steel
US20040124316A1 (en) * 2002-12-13 2004-07-01 Gerald Marron Railroad crossing apparatus having improved rail connection and improved flangeway floor geometry and method incorporating the same

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1784866A (en) * 1927-03-24 1930-12-16 American Manganese Steel Co Method of strain-hardening steel
US1784865A (en) * 1926-12-13 1930-12-16 American Manganese Steel Co Method of strain hardening manganese steel
US1929356A (en) * 1931-02-17 1933-10-03 Emanuel J Janitzky Treating austenitic steel
US2003398A (en) * 1933-09-19 1935-06-04 Ramapo Ajax Corp Railroad cross-over
US2369285A (en) * 1943-05-01 1945-02-13 Daniels Murtaugh Company Dipper tooth
GB568573A (en) * 1943-02-27 1945-04-11 Alfred Gordon Evans Robiette Improvements in and relating to the decarburisation of austenitic manganese steel
US2703297A (en) * 1951-03-26 1955-03-01 Kelly L Taulbee Method of hardening manganese steel

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1784865A (en) * 1926-12-13 1930-12-16 American Manganese Steel Co Method of strain hardening manganese steel
US1784866A (en) * 1927-03-24 1930-12-16 American Manganese Steel Co Method of strain-hardening steel
US1929356A (en) * 1931-02-17 1933-10-03 Emanuel J Janitzky Treating austenitic steel
US2003398A (en) * 1933-09-19 1935-06-04 Ramapo Ajax Corp Railroad cross-over
GB568573A (en) * 1943-02-27 1945-04-11 Alfred Gordon Evans Robiette Improvements in and relating to the decarburisation of austenitic manganese steel
US2369285A (en) * 1943-05-01 1945-02-13 Daniels Murtaugh Company Dipper tooth
US2703297A (en) * 1951-03-26 1955-03-01 Kelly L Taulbee Method of hardening manganese steel

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3755670A (en) * 1971-12-15 1973-08-28 S Damy Railroad frog assembly
US3893643A (en) * 1974-01-30 1975-07-08 Abex Corp Shock-protected railway crossing
US4169745A (en) * 1977-08-19 1979-10-02 Vereinigte Osterreichische Eisen- Und Stahlwerke-Alpine Montan Aktiengesellschaft Method of joining frogs of wear-resisting manganese steel castings to rails of carbon steel
US20040124316A1 (en) * 2002-12-13 2004-07-01 Gerald Marron Railroad crossing apparatus having improved rail connection and improved flangeway floor geometry and method incorporating the same
US6994299B2 (en) * 2002-12-13 2006-02-07 Cmi-Promex, Inc. Railroad crossing apparatus having improved rail connection and improved flangeway floor geometry and method incorporating the same

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