US2971916A - Microscopic capsules containing magnetizable material - Google Patents

Microscopic capsules containing magnetizable material Download PDF

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Publication number
US2971916A
US2971916A US637270A US63727057A US2971916A US 2971916 A US2971916 A US 2971916A US 637270 A US637270 A US 637270A US 63727057 A US63727057 A US 63727057A US 2971916 A US2971916 A US 2971916A
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United States
Prior art keywords
capsules
magnetic
material
capsules containing
magnetizable material
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Expired - Lifetime
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US637270A
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Schleicher Lowell
Charles S Baughman
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NCR Corp
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NCR Corp
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Priority to US637270A priority Critical patent/US2971916A/en
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Publication of US2971916A publication Critical patent/US2971916A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J13/00Colloid chemistry, e.g. the production of colloidal materials or their solutions, not otherwise provided for; Making microcapsules or microballoons
    • B01J13/02Making microcapsules or microballoons
    • B01J13/06Making microcapsules or microballoons by phase separation
    • B01J13/10Complex coacervation, i.e. interaction of oppositely charged particles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41MPRINTING, DUPLICATING, MARKING, OR COPYING PROCESSES; COLOUR PRINTING
    • B41M5/00Duplicating or marking methods; Sheet materials for use therein
    • B41M5/124Duplicating or marking methods; Sheet materials for use therein using pressure to make a masked colour visible, e.g. to make a coloured support visible, to create an opaque or transparent pattern, or to form colour by uniting colour-forming components
    • B41M5/165Duplicating or marking methods; Sheet materials for use therein using pressure to make a masked colour visible, e.g. to make a coloured support visible, to create an opaque or transparent pattern, or to form colour by uniting colour-forming components characterised by the use of microcapsules; Special solvents for incorporating the ingredients
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03GELECTROGRAPHY; ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHY; MAGNETOGRAPHY
    • G03G19/00Processes using magnetic patterns; Apparatus therefor, i.e. magnetography
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03GELECTROGRAPHY; ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHY; MAGNETOGRAPHY
    • G03G9/00Developers
    • G03G9/08Developers with toner particles
    • G03G9/083Magnetic toner particles
    • G03G9/0831Chemical composition of the magnetic components
    • G03G9/0833Oxides
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03GELECTROGRAPHY; ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHY; MAGNETOGRAPHY
    • G03G9/00Developers
    • G03G9/08Developers with toner particles
    • G03G9/083Magnetic toner particles
    • G03G9/0839Treatment of the magnetic components; Combination of the magnetic components with non-magnetic materials
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03GELECTROGRAPHY; ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHY; MAGNETOGRAPHY
    • G03G9/00Developers
    • G03G9/08Developers with toner particles
    • G03G9/093Encapsulated toner particles
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F1/00Magnets or magnetic bodies characterised by the magnetic materials therefor; Selection of materials for their magnetic properties
    • H01F1/44Magnets or magnetic bodies characterised by the magnetic materials therefor; Selection of materials for their magnetic properties of magnetic liquids, e.g. ferrofluids
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S101/00Printing
    • Y10S101/37Printing employing electrostatic force
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/29Coated or structually defined flake, particle, cell, strand, strand portion, rod, filament, macroscopic fiber or mass thereof
    • Y10T428/2982Particulate matter [e.g., sphere, flake, etc.]
    • Y10T428/2991Coated
    • Y10T428/2998Coated including synthetic resin or polymer

Description

Feb. 14, 19.61 L. SCHLEICHER ETAL 2,971,916

MICROSCOPIC CAPSULES CONTAINING MAGNETIZABLE MATERIAL Filed Jan. 30, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG. I

INVENTORS LOWELL SCHLEICHER CHARLES S. BAUGHMAN BY Wm Ma THEIR ATTORNEYS Feb. 14, 1961 L. SCHLEICHER ET'AL 2,971,915

' MICROSCOPIC CAPSULES cormmmc MAGNETIZABLE. MATERIAL Filed Jan. 30. 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 3

THEIR ATTORNEYS United States Patent MICROSCOPIC CAPSULES CONTAINING MAG- NETIZABLE MATERIAL Filed In. 30, 1957, Ser. No. 637,270

1 Claim. (Cl. 252-625) This invention relates to pressure-rupturable microscopic capsules having contained therein, suspended in a liquid vehicle, micro fine particles of magnetic material.

The magnetic material may be of any desired kind. Some examples of magnetic material are black or redmagnetic iron oxide, carbonyl iron, ferro magnetic alloys, nickel and its magnetic alloys, cobalt and its magnetic alloys, or any mixture of the aforementioned. The naming of these materials is not to be deemed to limit the invention, as other solid magnetic powders will do. These magnetic powders may be permanently magnetized in the capsules, or they may be magnetized by magnetic fields applied to the capsules.

In the preferred form of the invention hydrophyllic colloid capsule walls enclose an oily vehicle, in which vehicle the magnetic particles are suspended. Among the preferred oils, because of their inertness, are chlorinated diphenyl, light petroleum fractions, or any equivalent nonpolar oily solvent, which will not attack the particles of magnetic material.

As much as 50% by volume of the magnetic powder, as compared to the oil, may be included within the capsule walls. The oily vehicle may also have included therein dyes and pigments for purposes to be stated later on.

The microscopic capsules have been made from individual diameters of 3 microns to 150 microns, although this is not to be deemed to limit the diametrical size of these magnetic-material-containing capsules.

These capsules may be used in connection with printing by magnetic means. lta sheet of record material having a magnetizable coating is magnetized in spots to represent data, the capsules provided by this invention, it applied to the coating, will cling to the magnetized spots. The sheet may then be placed on a receiving sheet of paper and pressure applied. The capsules will rupture leaving an imprint of the data on the receiving sheet by virtue of the intrinsic color of the magnetic powder or by virtue of any dye or pigment carried by the oily vehicle.

With these and incidental objects in view, the invention includes certain novel features, a preferred form or embodiment of which is hereinafter described with reference to the drawings which accompany and form a part of this specification.

Of the drawings:

Figs. 1 to 4 inclusive each show the same array of capsules, as viewed under a microscope wherein the magnification was of the order of 1000 diameters, the larger capsules being of the order of 150 microns and the smaller capsules of the order of 50 to 75 microns in diameter. In Figs. 1 to 4 the orientation of the magnetic material within has been changed by use of a magnetic field to four different directions, showing the mobility of the magnetic material within the capsules.

First, the method of making the capsules shown in the drawings will be described, and it may be considered the preferred method. The magnetic material 20 to 25,

2,971,916 Patented Feb. 14, 1961 inclusive, shown in the figures of the drawings, are chains of magnetic iron oxide particles, the individual magnetic material particles being of the order of one micron in diameter. The fluid vehicle is trichloro-diphenyl, which bears the reference numerals 26 to 31 inclusive in the various figures of the drawings. The capsule walls which have been given the reference numbers 32 to 37, inclusive, are of a complex of gelatin and gum arabic, which being treated by the process to be described, is oil-impermeable. The liquid vehicle has dissolved in it certain wetting and dispersing agents. The particular wetting and dispersing agents used in making the capsules shown in the drawings are oleic acid, zinc stearate, and dioctylphthalate.

In making these capsules shown in the drawings, the liquid with the magnetic iron oxide suspension is prepared first in the following manner:

Mill thoroughly together 160 grams of trichloro-diphenyl 30 grams of black magnetic iron oxide of an average particle size of one micron 1 gram of oleic acid A gram of zinc stearate 1 gram of dioctylphthalate until the agglomerate size of the magnetic iron oxide particles averages about three microns. Next, a first solution of pigskin gelatin in water is made, the gelatin having its isoelectric point at pH 8. The solution is made and kept at a temperature of approximately degrees Fahrenheit. The first solution contains 20 grams of the pigskin gelatin and grams of water. Next, a second solution is made, consisting of gum arabic in water at 135 degrees Fahrenheit, there being used 20 grams of gum arabic and 160 grams of water. Both of the colloid solutions are adjusted to pH 6.5.

The previously prepared magnetic oxide-containing mixture is emulsified into the gelatin solution until the drop size is of the order of 10 microns; that is to say, the drop size of the oil phase. Next, the solution of gum arabic is added to the emulsion, still keeping the temperature at approximately 135 degrees Fahrenheit. About 400 grams of the resulting'mixture is placed in a container, in a water bath at 135 degrees Fahrenheit, and water at 135 degrees Fahrenheit is added to bring the total volume to one liter. The water-diluted mixture then has its pH adjusted downwardly to approximately 4.7, to bring about coacervation, so that the colloid material will deposit in oriented fashion around each of the oil droplets containing the magnetic particle suspension. This phenomenon of coacervation is clearly explained in application for United States Patent Serial No. 365,105, filed June 20, 1953, by Barrett K. Green and applicant Lowell Schleicher of this application. This application was allowed as of November 26, 1956, and issued July 23, 1957, as United States Patent No. 2,800,457. resulting coacervate mixture is added 2.7 cubic centimeters, of a 37% solution of formaldehyde in water. The foregoing additions of materials to each other is done with constant stirring, to keep the mixtures uniform. While still being stirred, the coacervate mixture is lowered in temperature to near 32 degrees Fahrenheit, approximately, so the deposited colloid material will gel to form capsule walls around each of the included oil droplets. Next, ten grams of a 5% aqueous solution of the polyvinyl-methyl ether of maleic anhydride is added, with continued stirring for a period of several hours, maintaining the temperature below 50 degrees Fahrenheit, to prevent the capsules from agglomerating in the hardening step described next. The capsules are complete at this time, but are dispersed in a substantially colloidtree excess of water. So the capsules will withstand temperatures higher than the ordinary melting point of Into the I the colloid, the pH is then adjusted to 9 or 10 with sodium hydroxide to cause the formaldehyde to react with the colloid to harden it. This dispersion of capsules and the aqueous medium can be coated directly on paper and dried, the individual capsules maintaining their integrity and each having within it the magnetic powder, as described. If desired, the water in which the capsules are dispersed may be eliminated by spray-drying in a hot atmosphere, the resulting product being a very fine powder containing the discrete capsules with the magnetic oxide-floating in the included vehicle.

The capsules shown in the drawings and the described method of making them have not included the addition of coloring matter to increase the marking color of the capsule because to do so would have rendered it impossible to show the magnetic material in the drawings. Any

4 oil soluble dye or oil dispersible pigment can be used as an addition agent to the vehicle in which the magnetic iron oxide is suspended.

What is claimed is:

A microscopic capsule having a wall of hardened organic colloid material enclosing an oily liquid containing a dispersion of magnetic powder.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,106,882 Betz Feb. 1, 1938 2,671,451 Bolger Mar. 9, 1954 2,680,079 Huebner June 1, 1954 2,730,456 Green et al. Ian. 10, 1956 2,730,457 Green et al. Jan. 10, 1956 2,800,457 Green et a1. July 23, 1957

US637270A 1957-01-30 1957-01-30 Microscopic capsules containing magnetizable material Expired - Lifetime US2971916A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US637270A US2971916A (en) 1957-01-30 1957-01-30 Microscopic capsules containing magnetizable material

Applications Claiming Priority (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
NL224379D NL224379A (en) 1957-01-30
NL108169D NL108169C (en) 1957-01-30
US637270A US2971916A (en) 1957-01-30 1957-01-30 Microscopic capsules containing magnetizable material
GB3982257A GB828983A (en) 1957-01-30 1957-12-23 Pressure-rupturable microscopic fluid-containing capsules
CH5498558A CH375384A (en) 1957-01-30 1958-01-22 microscopic capsule may be broken by pressure and using said capsule
FR1190499D FR1190499A (en) 1957-01-30 1958-01-29 microscopic capsules may be broken by pressure

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US2971916A true US2971916A (en) 1961-02-14

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US (1) US2971916A (en)
CH (1) CH375384A (en)
FR (1) FR1190499A (en)
GB (1) GB828983A (en)
NL (2) NL224379A (en)

Cited By (82)

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US3042616A (en) * 1958-08-26 1962-07-03 Ibm Process of preparing magnetic ink
US3092553A (en) * 1959-01-30 1963-06-04 Jr Carl E Fisher Pharmaceutical preparations and method and apparatus for making same
US3147991A (en) * 1962-11-13 1964-09-08 Sr Edward N Heinz Checkbook
US3221315A (en) * 1962-06-25 1965-11-30 Ncr Co Magnetic recording medium utilizing microscopic capsules containing magnetic material
US3249458A (en) * 1962-12-10 1966-05-03 Brunswick Corp Pressure responsive material
US3281669A (en) * 1963-04-02 1966-10-25 Lyne S Trimble Means and method for indicating and visibly permanently recording a magnetic field utilizing a magnetostrictive material and a chemical reaction
US3316119A (en) * 1960-09-29 1967-04-25 Litton Systems Inc Recording member for visibly recording radio frequency microwaves
US3320523A (en) * 1965-02-01 1967-05-16 Lyne S Trimble Method for visibly indicating and recording magnetic fields
US3330693A (en) * 1962-10-29 1967-07-11 Pateco Method of making a magnetic record member with encapsulated ferromagnetic particles in a binder and resulting product
US3415758A (en) * 1960-03-09 1968-12-10 Ncr Co Process of forming minute capsules en masse
US3415186A (en) * 1966-02-10 1968-12-10 Xerox Corp Duplicating system
US3451545A (en) * 1967-07-13 1969-06-24 Shell Oil Co Method for separating micro-organisms from earth samples
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US3683382A (en) * 1969-05-29 1972-08-08 Honeywell Inc Recording medium responsive to force fields and apparatus for recording and reproducing signals on the medium
US3927930A (en) * 1972-07-10 1975-12-23 Polaroid Corp Light polarization employing magnetically oriented ferrite suspensions
US3954678A (en) * 1974-07-11 1976-05-04 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Semipermeable microcapsules containing a silica gel
US3954666A (en) * 1974-07-11 1976-05-04 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Semipermeable microcapsules containing heterogeneous catalysts and ferromagnetic materials
DE2602176A1 (en) * 1976-01-21 1977-08-04 Omnitechnic Gmbh Microencapsulated hardeners and vulcanising agents - contg. basic metal cpds. treated with hydrophobising agent
US4099186A (en) * 1976-03-31 1978-07-04 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Magnetic printing process and apparatus
US4101435A (en) * 1975-06-19 1978-07-18 Meito Sangyo Kabushiki Kaisha Magnetic iron oxide-dextran complex and process for its production
US4105572A (en) * 1976-03-31 1978-08-08 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Ferromagnetic toner containing water-soluble or water-solubilizable resin(s)
US4115534A (en) * 1976-08-19 1978-09-19 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company In vitro diagnostic test
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US4169804A (en) * 1976-08-19 1979-10-02 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Magnetically responsive composite microparticle
US4247406A (en) * 1979-04-23 1981-01-27 Widder Kenneth J Intravascularly-administrable, magnetically-localizable biodegradable carrier
US4331654A (en) * 1980-06-13 1982-05-25 Eli Lilly And Company Magnetically-localizable, biodegradable lipid microspheres
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US4770183A (en) * 1986-07-03 1988-09-13 Advanced Magnetics Incorporated Biologically degradable superparamagnetic particles for use as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging agents
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US5629020A (en) * 1994-04-22 1997-05-13 Emisphere Technologies, Inc. Modified amino acids for drug delivery
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Cited By (103)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3042616A (en) * 1958-08-26 1962-07-03 Ibm Process of preparing magnetic ink
US3092553A (en) * 1959-01-30 1963-06-04 Jr Carl E Fisher Pharmaceutical preparations and method and apparatus for making same
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CH375384A (en) 1964-02-29
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GB828983A (en) 1960-02-24

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