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US2929412A - Multi-ply fabric - Google Patents

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Publication number
US2929412A
US2929412A US49476255A US2929412A US 2929412 A US2929412 A US 2929412A US 49476255 A US49476255 A US 49476255A US 2929412 A US2929412 A US 2929412A
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Prior art keywords
warp
threads
fabric
weft
binder
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Thomas C Abendroth
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Thomas C Abendroth
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D1/00Woven fabrics designed to make specified articles
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D11/00Double or multi-ply fabrics not otherwise provided for
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D2700/00Woven fabrics; Methods of weaving; Looms
    • D03D2700/01Woven fabrics; General weaving methods
    • D03D2700/0107Woven fabrics; General weaving methods for collars or cuffs
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2401/00Physical properties
    • D10B2401/06Load-responsive characteristics
    • D10B2401/062Load-responsive characteristics stiff, shape retention
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2501/00Wearing apparel
    • D10B2501/06Details of garments

Description

March 22, 1960 T. c. ABENDROTH MULTI-PLY FABRIC 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 16, 1955 U6 0 U5 mg.

an r

IIH U6 INVENTOR. v TfiOlfiC/S C- .jefla ro/k ATTORNEYS.

March 22, 1966 c ABEN-DROTH 0 2,929,412

MULTI-PLY FABRIC Filed March 16, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 'l'fin arm-- IT ml i "a an an an 1 I Y Hll /@l Hll I ll I III INVENTOR- ,Tfiomas 61/60/2090 //z W BY /6 30 20 AV ATTORNEY s This invention relates to improvements in a multiple ply woven fabric, particularly a fabric adapted for use for making shirt collars and is a continuation in part of my application Serial No. 443,790, filed July 16, 1954, now abandoned.

Fabrics of the above character which have been used heretofore are generally composed of two layers or plies of fabric which are similar to each other and are conuected or bound to each other by an interweave or binder warp thread. The wefts of the upper and lower ply are engaged by the binder threads which are separate and extend ptrlllel to the warp threads of the plies and are visible in the outer surfaces of the said plies. The appearanee of the binder threads may be minimized by using fine "ount yarn for the binder thread but even then there will appear on the surface little ridges warpwise of the fabric. There is also a tendency in this fabric when cut to curl facewardly at the marginal edge of the cut ends, which is an undesirable characteristic of this type of fabric.

An object of this invention is to improve generally on fabric of the above character.

Another object is to provide a multiple ply fabric in which the respective warps and wefts of one of the fabric plies will be arranged in a manner to counteract the innate tendency of the other ply to curl facewardly, especia ly at the corners of cut ends of the fabric.

Another object is to provide a multiple ply fabric in which those elements of the fabric structure upon which the unification of the plies and desired rigidity of the fabric depends are confined to the mid region or core of the fabric.

Another object of the invention is to provide a method of interlacing the binder warp threads tov obtain the advantage of using relatively coarse binder threads.

Another object of the invention is to provide a multiple ply fabric in which the obverse surface of the face ply may be substantially in identical textural characteristic as well as weave pattern with that of commonly used single ply shirting fabric, both of which fabrics commonly form part of the same garment, especially in the shirt making industry.

With these and other objects in view, the invention consists of certain novel features of construction as will be more fully described and particularly pointed out in the appended claims. The terms warp and weft as hereinafter employed are the terms commonly used in the weaving art for distinguishing between the set of yarns or threads which passes in a longitudinal direction from end to end of the fabric or cloth and the set of yarns or threads which crosses and intersects the warp threads at right angles thereto, respectively. The term shed as hereinafter employed is the term commonly used in the weaving art when referring to the space between two groups of warp threads When separated to form an opening for passing the weft thread therebetween. The fell of the cloth is that location at which the last the previously laid pick of weft.

atent 2 In the drawings: Figure 1 isa section taken warpwise of the fabric and showing one form thereof; 7

Figure -2 is a section taken on lines 2-2 of Figure 4.; Figure 3 is a sectional view of another form of the fabric taken warpwise;

Figure 4 is a section taken on lines 4-4 of Figure 3;

Figure 5 is a sectional view taken warpwise of still another formo'f the fabric;

Figure 6 is a sectional view taken on line 66 of Figure 5;

Figure 7 is a sectional view of a further form of the fabricshown warpwise;

Figure 8 is a sectional view "taken on lines -88 of Figure 7;

Figure 9 is a sectional view taken on lines 9T9 {of FigureV;

Figure 10 is a sectional view taken weftwis'e o'fthe fabric and illustrating a modification of "the fabric shown in Figures l and 2;

Figure 11 is a sectional view taken warpwise of a still further modification of the fabric;

Figure 12 is a sectional view taken on lines 12---12 of Figure 11;

Figure 13 is a sectional view taken on lines -13-'13of Figure 11;

Figure 14 is a sectional viewtaken warpwise of another modification of the fabric;

Figure 15 is a sectional view taken 'on lines l515 of Figure 14; and v Figure 16 is a sectional view taken weftwise of "a portion of the fabric showing a fold zone that may be placed therein.

The basic fabric structure according to the invention comprises weaving a cloth by employing two distinct sets of warp threads interlaced with weft threads in a manner such as to form two separate plies of cloth tn back-to-back engagement and interlocking said plies by a third set of interwoven or hinder warp threads in a manner so as to conceal the binder threads from view in at least the obverse surface of the face ply of the cloth. This may be accomplished by a manipulation of the warp threads in such a manner that in each successive warp shed formed, two separate picks of wefts are laid. Subsequent to the laying of one of said picks of wefts, the binder warp thread is moved from the lower part of the shed to the upper part of the shed and then the second of said picks of wefts is laid. Thus, the binder warp thread is positioned between said picks of wefts, When the binder warp thread is crossed over into the other layer, it moves the said second pick of weft to beneath the first pick of weft, which results in burying or concealing the said binder warp thread and second pick of weft beneath the first of said wefts and the warp threads interlaced therewith. The warp for the face ply is arranged substantially in the same order as the warp of the shirting cloth to be matched and the threads of the warp are manipulated in the same order and sequence as that of the warp threads of the said shirting fabric, which results in a collar fabric having the desired rigidity and with at least one side thereof smooth and matching the surface texture of a single ply shirting fabric.

Several different examples of multiple ply fabric structures embodying my invention are illustrated in the drawing in Figures 1 to 16, respectively,- the fabric being shown diagrammatically drawn on a very much enlarged scale both in warpwise and weftwise section.

The fabric shown in Figures 1 and 2 has upper and lower plies 10 and 11. The upper or face ply 10 comprises warp threads 1:2 {311C113 ,whichare interlaced :with

twefts 1 4 and 1-5. The lower ply-11 comprises warp threads 16 and 17 which are interlaced with wefts 18 and 19. An interweave or binder warp thread 20 is alternately interlaced with-wefts 15, 19 and interlocks the piles 10, 11 in back-to-back engagement with each other. In warpwise direction the weave pattern repeats at each eight picks of weft. In weftwise direction (see Figure 2 the binder Warp threads 2 are equally spaced,

and four warp threads 12, 13, 1'6, and 17 are interposed in the space between threads 20. Each group of these warp threads forms a so-called chord or repeat in weftwise direction.

In order that the above fabric or cloth may be better visualized, a description of the order of the warps and their shedding for a repeat warp-wise will be described. It will be understood that the loom action at each pick will consist of shedding of warps (forming the shed),

"laying of a pick of weft and a beat of the loom lay to beat up the laid pick of weft to the fell of the cloth.

"Each group of warp threads l2. 13. 16. 17, and 20 is drawn through a dent D of the loom reed in the order above given, the debt being represented between the dashed lines in Figures 2, 4, 6. and 8. At the first pick of the loom at the beginning of a repeat, the upper por- 'tion of the shed consists of only warp threads 12. the

other warp threads being in the lower portion of the shed.

A pick a of weft 14 (see Figure l) is laid in the shed.

On the second pick of the loom, the shed is changed to 'the extent of moving the warp threads 20 into the upper portion of the shed. The upper portion of the shed now consists of warp threads 12 and 20. A pick h of weft 15 is laid in the new shed. This places the pick b betneath the warp threads 20. On the third pick, the upper portion of the shed is composed of'the warp thre ds 12,

13. and 17. The warp threads 20 have been lowered into the lower portion of the shed. and this action, in addition to the beat of the lay. has moved pick [1 beneath .pick a. A pick 0 of weft 19 is laid in'the third shed formed, which pick c is over the warp threads 20. At

r the fourth pick of the loom'the upper portion of the shed "remains the same withthe exception of warp threads 20 being raised into the said upper portion.

The upper portion of the'shed now consists of warp threads 12, 13,

117, and20. A pick d of weft 18 is laid. 'the warp threads 20 into the upper portion of the said In moving fourth shed. the pick 0 of weft is moved against'the pick b of weft.

On the fifth pick of the loom. the upper por- :of weft 15 is laid. the pick f lving beneath warp threads 20. On the seventh pick of the .loom. the upper portion of the shed formed is composed of the warp threads 12, .-13, and 16. The crossing of the warp threads 20 in moving into the lower portion'of the shed moves pick f beneath pick 2.

A pick g of weft 19 is laid in the seventh -shed formed, the pick g being under warp threads 20. At the eighth and last pick for the repeat, the upper portion of the shed is composed of warp threads 12. 13, 16,

' and 20. A pick 11 of weft 18 is laid in the eighth shed formed and completes one repeat warpwise.

It will, of course, be understood that the warp 20 is under sufiicient tension during the above to relate the plies and 11 in back-to-back engagement.

Itwill be apparent from the above that the picks b, c,

. f, and g will lay in the space between rows of picks of ;Wefts 14 and 18 interlaced with their respective. warp threads 12, 13 and 16, 17. In the weftwise direction it will be apparent (see Figure 2) that warp threads 12, 13

will be crowded in a weftwise direction towards each other due to the reed action to present a smooth outer surface and effectively conceal the weft and warp "threads 20. Similarly the warp threads 16 and 17 will' i be crowded toward each other weftwise andpresent a smooth outer surface and effectively conceal the weft 19 and warp threads 20. The fabric so far described is of a reversible character in that both outer surfaces may be similar to each other having smooth outer surfaces free of hollows and ridges. When matching a particular shirting fabric, the warp sheds of the upper ply 10 of the present fabric must be formed in the same order and sequence as the warp sheds of the fabric to be matched.

In some instances it may be desirable to additionally stiffen the fabric, and this may be readily accomplished by the addition of stuifer warp threads S which may be floated between the wefts 15 and 19. A similar stuffer warp thread S may be floated between the wefts 18, 19 of the outer ply 11. This latter stuffer thread is effectively concealed by the interlacing of warp threads 16, 17 with the Weft 18.

The fabric shown in Figures 3 and 4 is similar to that shown in Figure l with the exception that weft 19 has been omitted. In this weave structure the weft 15 and warp 20 are concealed froiriview in the face layer 10 and the warp 20 appears in the obverse surface of layer 11. In some instances warp 16 and 17 may be entered singly or in multiples between successive binder warp threads 20 and stuifer threads S may be added thereto as in the fabric of Figure 1 if desired.

In Figures 5 and 6 the layers 10 and 11 are similar to that of Figure 1, but the binder warp thread 20 is interlaced with the weft 15 of ply 10 as in Figure 1 and with both wefts 18 and 19 of ply 11.

in the fabric structure of Figures 7 and 8, the warp threads 12 and 13 of the face ply 10 are interlaced with the wefts 14, 15 as above described, and the warp threads 16, 17 of the lower ply 11 are interlaced with a single weft thread 18 as in Figure 3. There is, however, a binder warp thread 20a in addition to the binder warp 20, and these alternate with each other in the interlacing thereof with the wefts 15 and 18 as to binding relation.

Thus. two alternating binder warp threads are employed for binding the plies 10 and 11 together. These binder warps 20, 20a alternate to engage the Weft thread 15 and alternate to engage the wefts 18 in what is commonly known as a two and two weave. Thus. at each pick of Weft adjacent binder warp threads are separated by two pairs of warp threads 12, 13, and 16, 17 (see Figure 8).

The fabric of Figures ll, 12, and l3 is similar to that of Figure 5 but adds a binder warp 200 as in Figure 7, and alternates to interlace with the weft threads 18, 19 in a two and two weave.

There is shown in Figures 14 and 15 a further modified multiple ply fabric in which three binder warp threads 20, 20a, and 20b are employed for binding the plies 10 and 11 together, the ply 11 in the present instance having only the weft 18. The binder warp threads 20, 20a, and 2015 are arranged to each in turn engage the weft 15 of the face ply 10 and the weft 18 of the lower ply 11 as shown in the manner of a three and three weave. Thus, there is a further spacing of the binder warps weftwise at each pick of weft.

It will also be readily seen that in each structure hereinabove described, it is possible to insert stuffer threads between the interwoven threads so as to increase the thickness of the fabric. In some instances where it may be desirable to lighten the weight of the fabric or to reduce material cost, or both, binder warp threads 20 may be omitted from the repeat at intervals throughout the width of the fabric without affecting the surface ap pearance (see Figure 10) since binder warp threads 20 in adjoining chords will satisfactorily bind the upper and lower layers together. Thus, between successive binder warp threads 20 there may be any practical plurality of upper layer warp threads 12 and 13 but not less than two. 7

As previously described, the invention is illustrated and described as-embodied in a shirt'collar fabric. Ac cordingly a fold line or fold area indicated generally at new.

21 in Figure 16 is provided whereby the collar made of such fabric will readily fold along the line provided by this area. This area 21 is made thinner such as by omitting warp threads in the central portion thereof. The warps 12, 13 in this fold area are similarly spaced and woven as above described. In the layer or ply 11 the warps 16 and 17 as well asthe stuffer threads S are omitted in this fold area and the wefts 18 and 19 are floated across the space defined by the fold area 21. At the mid portion of this area 21 a single connector thread 20' is interwoven with the wefts 15 and 18 as shown. Thus, the fabric has an area lengthwise of the fabric wherein the lower layer is composed of floated wefts tied to the upper layer with but a single connector thread 20' and the fabric will readily fold along the area.

From the hereinabove description it will be readily seen that binder warp threads may be interlaced with the weft of the fabric in a manner to conceal the said binder warp threads and the weft interlaced therewith so as to be hidden from view at least on one side of the fabric. Since the binder warp threads are concealed from view, they may be made of relatively coarse count and may be made equal in size to the other warp threads and thus have greater tensile strength to better withstand the strain placed thereon withhout breakage under usual weaving conditions than the finer size binder threads employed in the prior art.

It has heretofore been mentioned that in prior art collar fabrics there is an undesirable tendency of the fabric to curl facewardly at the marginal edge at the cut ends. In the fabric of the present invention the warp threads of the lower ply are placed under greater tension in Weaving the fabric. This causes less deflection of the said warp threads from a straight line than the warp threads of the face ply. Therefore, the lower ply warp threads are shorter in the finished fabric and tend to cause a rearward curl in the fabricwhich is a highly desirable characteristic in the present fabric.

I claim:

1. A multiple layer interwoven collar fabric comprising upper and lower outer layers of interlaced warp and weft connected together in back-to-back engagement with each other by laterally spaced binder warp threads in successive warp sheds, a pair of adjacent warp threads of each of said layers being interposed in the space between adjacent binder warp threads, said fabric having two weft threads laid separately in each of the warpsheds of at least one layer, and having one of said two weft threads in said one layer in each adjacent warpshed engaged by the same binder warp thread to pull said engaged weft under the other weft laid in the same shed.

2. A multiple layer interwoven collar fabric comprising upper and lower outer layers of interlaced warp and weft connected together in back-to-back engagement with each other by binder warp threads, said fabric having two weft threads laid in successive warp-sheds of both outer layers, and having one of said weft threads in one of the outer layers and both of said weft threads in the other outer layer engaged by the same binder warp thread. I

3. A multiple layer interwoven collar fabric comprising upper and lower outer layers of interlaced warp and weft connected together in back-to-back engagement with each other by binder warp threads, said fabric having two weft threads laid separately in each successive warp-shed of one outer layer, and a single weft thread laid in each successive warp-shed of the other outer layer, and having one of saidtweft threads in each of said warp-sheds engaged by binder warp threads.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 425,437 Lister et a1 Apr. 15, 1890 870,697 Stevenson Nov. 12, 1907 943,557 Marti Dec. 14, 1909 1,812,602 Mellor June 30, 1931 2,180,054 Hindle et al Nov. 14, 1939 2,230,182 Eaton Jan. 28, 1941 2,329,739 Baker Sept. 21, 1943 2,502,101 Morgan et al Mar. 28, 1950 2,658,535 Lawton Nov. 10, 1953 FOREIGN PATENTS 325,624 Great Britain Feb. 27, 1930

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3053287A (en) * 1960-11-14 1962-09-11 Phillips Van Heusen Corp Multi-ply fabric having a blocked appearance
US4922969A (en) * 1988-09-22 1990-05-08 Hitco Multi-layer woven fabric having varying material composition through its thickness
US20070068731A1 (en) * 2005-09-28 2007-03-29 Sturges Manufacturing Co., Inc. Energy absorber for personal fall arrestor
US20070068730A1 (en) * 2005-09-28 2007-03-29 Sturges Manufacturing Co. Energy absorber for personal fall arrestor
US20100323574A1 (en) * 2006-10-18 2010-12-23 Messier-Dowty Sa 3d composite fabric
US20110042165A1 (en) * 2009-08-18 2011-02-24 Griffith Richard R Energy absorber for personal fall arrestor

Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US425437A (en) * 1890-04-15 Limited
US870697A (en) * 1905-08-05 1907-11-12 William M Stevenson Woven fabric.
US943557A (en) * 1907-09-04 1909-12-14 Juan Marcet Y Marti Woven wrapper for tires.
GB325624A (en) * 1928-12-10 1930-02-27 Thomas Hindle Improvements in dryer felts for use on paper making machines
US1812602A (en) * 1929-12-30 1931-06-30 Sanford Mills Pile fabric and method of making the same
US2180054A (en) * 1937-08-23 1939-11-14 Hindle Thomas Paper maker's drier felt
US2230182A (en) * 1935-12-24 1941-01-28 Eaton Frank Textile fabric
US2329739A (en) * 1942-04-21 1943-09-21 Joseph L Baker Process of making pile fabrics
US2502101A (en) * 1949-03-02 1950-03-28 Woonsocket Falls Mill Fabric and method of making same
US2658535A (en) * 1950-06-07 1953-11-10 Phillips Jones Corp Folding multiply fabric construction

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US425437A (en) * 1890-04-15 Limited
US870697A (en) * 1905-08-05 1907-11-12 William M Stevenson Woven fabric.
US943557A (en) * 1907-09-04 1909-12-14 Juan Marcet Y Marti Woven wrapper for tires.
GB325624A (en) * 1928-12-10 1930-02-27 Thomas Hindle Improvements in dryer felts for use on paper making machines
US1812602A (en) * 1929-12-30 1931-06-30 Sanford Mills Pile fabric and method of making the same
US2230182A (en) * 1935-12-24 1941-01-28 Eaton Frank Textile fabric
US2180054A (en) * 1937-08-23 1939-11-14 Hindle Thomas Paper maker's drier felt
US2329739A (en) * 1942-04-21 1943-09-21 Joseph L Baker Process of making pile fabrics
US2502101A (en) * 1949-03-02 1950-03-28 Woonsocket Falls Mill Fabric and method of making same
US2658535A (en) * 1950-06-07 1953-11-10 Phillips Jones Corp Folding multiply fabric construction

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3053287A (en) * 1960-11-14 1962-09-11 Phillips Van Heusen Corp Multi-ply fabric having a blocked appearance
US4922969A (en) * 1988-09-22 1990-05-08 Hitco Multi-layer woven fabric having varying material composition through its thickness
US20070068731A1 (en) * 2005-09-28 2007-03-29 Sturges Manufacturing Co., Inc. Energy absorber for personal fall arrestor
US20070068730A1 (en) * 2005-09-28 2007-03-29 Sturges Manufacturing Co. Energy absorber for personal fall arrestor
US7815013B2 (en) * 2005-09-28 2010-10-19 Sturges Manufacturing Co. Energy absorber for personal fall arrestor
US20100323574A1 (en) * 2006-10-18 2010-12-23 Messier-Dowty Sa 3d composite fabric
US8061391B2 (en) * 2006-10-18 2011-11-22 Messier-Dowty Sa 3D composite fabric
US20110042165A1 (en) * 2009-08-18 2011-02-24 Griffith Richard R Energy absorber for personal fall arrestor
US8356691B2 (en) * 2009-08-18 2013-01-22 Sturges Manufacturing Co., Inc. Energy absorber for personal fall arrestor

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