US2921309A - Surface wave omnidirectional antenna - Google Patents

Surface wave omnidirectional antenna Download PDF

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Publication number
US2921309A
US2921309A US461261A US46126154A US2921309A US 2921309 A US2921309 A US 2921309A US 461261 A US461261 A US 461261A US 46126154 A US46126154 A US 46126154A US 2921309 A US2921309 A US 2921309A
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Prior art keywords
antenna
waveguide
revolution
dielectric
neck
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Expired - Lifetime
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US461261A
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Elliott Robert Stratman
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Raytheon Co
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Hughes Aircraft Co
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q13/00Waveguide horns or mouths; Slot antennas; Leaky-waveguide antennas; Equivalent structures causing radiation along the transmission path of a guided wave
    • H01Q13/20Non-resonant leaky-waveguide or transmission-line antennas; Equivalent structures causing radiation along the transmission path of a guided wave
    • H01Q13/28Non-resonant leaky-waveguide or transmission-line antennas; Equivalent structures causing radiation along the transmission path of a guided wave comprising elements constituting electric discontinuities and spaced in direction of wave propagation, e.g. dielectric elements or conductive elements forming artificial dielectric
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q13/00Waveguide horns or mouths; Slot antennas; Leaky-waveguide antennas; Equivalent structures causing radiation along the transmission path of a guided wave
    • H01Q13/02Waveguide horns
    • H01Q13/04Biconical horns
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T74/00Machine element or mechanism
    • Y10T74/21Elements
    • Y10T74/2133Pawls and ratchets
    • Y10T74/2136Pivoted pawls
    • Y10T74/2137Single tooth

Description

Jan. 12, 1960 R. s. ELLIOTT SURFACE WAVE ONNIDIRECTIONAL ANTENNA Filed 001;. 8, 1954 United States Patent SURFACE WAVE oMNIDIRECTIoNAL ANTENNA Robert Stratman Elliott, Pacific Palisades, Calif., assignor to Hughes Aircraft Company, Culver City, Calif., a corporation of Delaware Application October 8, 1954, Serial No. 461,261
6 Claims. (Cl. 343-781) This invention relates to microwave omnidirectional antennas, and more particularly to omnidirectional antennas of the end-lire type capable of transmitting and receiving a microwave signal of any desired polarization.
symmetrically excited end-fire omnidirectional antennas heretofore known are capable of transmitting and receiving microwave signals Vof only one polarization. An example of such antennas is the symmetrically excited annular corrugated-surface antenna, which is described in the article, An Annular Corrugated-Surface Antenna, by E. M. T. Jones, Proceedings of the I.R.E., Volume 40, Number 6, June 1952. This antenna establishes a major lobe at the periphery of the corrugated surface, such lobe being directed slightly above the plane of the antenna an polarized in a direction perpendicular to the antenna surface. The corrugations act as a trap for the microwave energy for one direction of polarization only. In other words, such an antenna being polarization sensitive requires spacial orientation with respect to the reception of signals and also will suffer varying losses of sensitivity if the echo pulse changes its direction of polarization due to reliection and/ or transmission.
It is an object of this invention to obtain an omnidirectional antenna capable of'being symmetrically excited to receive and transmit microwave beams of any desired polarization.
It is a further object of this invention to provide an end-firev omnidirectional antenna with which a major lobe can be directed in, above or below the plane of the antenna.
It is still a further object of this invention to provide an omnidirectional antenna of the end-lire type which can be symmetrically excited, is iiush mounted, and simple in design.
One embodiment of the antenna of this invention is a surface of revolution which is connected at its center to a cylindrical waveguide by way of a feed. Any waves which can be excited in the cylindrical waveguide such as E or H modes of any order are suitable for transmission or reception. These Waves are trapped or confined in a dielectric film deposited on the antenna Which extending from inside the feed covers the whole surface of revolution. Above the feed and symmetrically located with respect to the curved surface is a concave conoid cap which acts as a reliector and whose function is to facilitate the launching of a surface wave in the dielectric lilm. After the electromagnetic waves leave the central waveguide or feed, they emerge as surface waves guided equally in all directions by the dielectric clad surface. The radiation pattern is end-fired and omnidirectional in a plane transverse to the axis of symmetry of the antenna. The direction of the main lobe can be directed in, above, or below the plane of the antenna by providing the surface of revolution with a suitable curvature.
The novel features which are believed to be characteristic of the invention, both as to its organization and method of operation, together with further objects and ICC advantages thereof, will be better understood from the following description considered in connection with the accompanying drawing, in which an embodiment of the invention is illustrated by way of example. The scope of the invention is pointed out in the appended claims. Referring to the drawing, which is made part of this specification.
Fig. l is a perspective view of an antenna in accordance with this invention; and
Fig. 2 is a sectional View taken along line 2--2 of Fig. l.
Referring to Figs-l and 2, one example of an omnidirectional antenna 'in accordance with this invention includes a portion which is a symmetrical surface of revolution 10 which flares outward from the upper portion of a neck member 12 of circular cross section. Neck 12 is adapted at its lower end to be fixed, as by a seat 14 or other connection means, to one end of a standard circular waveguide 16. Although the surface of revolution 10 is illustrated as having a parabolic cross section, it will be evident that surfaces of various cross sections-circular, hyperbolic, or even straight lineswill be suitable. The upper part of the surface of revolution 10 is covered with a thin dielectric lilm or layer 18 which extends well into the neck 12 of the surface of revolution. The dielectric is provided with a taper 20 near the edge of the surface of revolution 10. The main purpose of the taper is to improve the electrical match from the antenna to free space; the degree of taper is not critical. Above the neck 12 and concentric with it is a dellector 22 which has the shape of a concave conoid with its vertex facing towards the neck 12. The detiector 22 can be supported in any arbitrary fashion as, for instance, by means of some struts 24 and 24.
The function ofthe invention is as follows: Electro magnetic waves are fed into the waveguide 16. These waves may be polarized in any desired manner. As the electromagnetic waves enter the neck 12, they are captured by or trapped in the dielectric film 18 and guided through film 18 along the surface of revolution 10.
The waves emerge or are launched from the dielectric at the tapered end 20 to be freely radiated into space. The deflector 22 serves to intercept any small fraction of the energy not effectively captured by the film 18 and to deect it onto the film, thereby insuring that substantially all the energy will be trapped in and guided through film 18.
The antenna described in this invention, not being polarization sensitive, is suitable for transmitting as well as receiving of microwave signals of all polarization. Its band width is determined solely by the central waveguide 16. The band width of the antenna therefore stretches from a low end, at which cutoff in the feeding waveguide occurs, to a high end at which the feeding waveguide is excited to the next higher mode of propagation.
The antenna described above is a preferred embodiment of this invention and has a large number of modifications. First, the surface of revolution 10 can be of any cross section so as to obtain a radiation pattern having the desired characteristics of a directed main lobe and a low side lobe level. Second, the beacon antenna instead of being a surface of revolution may only comprise a section of the surface of revolution, that is a sector anywhere between 0 and 360. Thirdly, since the main part of this invention comprises the utilization of a dielectric clad metal conducting surface to capture electromagnetic waves and then launch them into space, another modification may be envisioned by providing the end of a waveguide with a tongue or launching platform comprising a dielectric coated conductor. The same principle that made possible the omnidirectional antenna will apply to this and similar antennas, namely, to utilization of a dielectric coating to generate a surface wave from a free space wave which can be guided over metallic surfaces and conveniently launched again as a free space wave.
What is claimed is:
1. An omnidirectional surface wave antenna comprising a hollow circular waveguide adapted to propagate electromagnetic waves through its interior, a radiating element aixed t0 said waveguide having an external surface defining a surface of revolution about the centerline of said waveguide, non-polarization sensitive means juxtaposed with said surface of said element and extending into the interior of said waveguide to confine and guide electromagnetic waves adjacent thereto over said surface of said element, a deflector, said deflector having a substantially concave conoidal shape, the vertex of said deector being disposed to face said waveguide, and means for connecting said deiiector to said surface.
2. An antenna as defined in claim 1, where the means juxtaposed with said surface is a layer of dielectric material.
3. A surface wave omnidirectional antenna comprising a surface of revolution with an opening in its center, said surface having a cylindrical neck which registers with said opening, a dielectric lm, said film being deposited on said surface, said dielectric lm tapering near the extremity of said surface to provide a match to free space, said dielectric extending into said neck, a deflector, said detiector having substantially the shape of a concave conoid and being supported above said neck with its vertex facing said neck.
4. A surface wave omnidirectional antenna comprising a surface of revolution having a substantially parabolic cross section with an opening in its center, said surface having a cylindrical neck which registers with said opening, said neck extending in the direction of the focal point of said surface, a dielectric lm, said film being deposited on the surface of said surface of revolution facing away from the focal point, said dielectric extending into said neck, a deliector, said deflector substantially having the shape of a concave conoid and being supported above said neck with its vertex facing said neck.
5. An antenna comprising' a hollow waveguide adapted to propagate electromagnetic waves through its interior; a radiating element affixed to said waveguide and having an external surface, said external surface defining a surface of revolution of parabolic cross-section about said waveguide; non-polarization sensitive means juxtaposed with said surface of said element and extending into the interior of said waveguide to confine and guide electromagnetic waves adjacent thereto over said surface of said element, a detiector, said deflector having a substantially concave conoidal shape, the vertex of said deflector being` .iisposed to face said guide; and means for connecting said deector to said surface.
6. An omnidirectional surface wave antenna for the interchange of electromagnetic energy between a waveguide and surrounding space, said antenna comprising a hollow waveguide for propagating electromagnetic waves through its interior and having a centerline therein, a radiating element defining a surface of revolution about the centerline axed to said waveguide and having an external surface, at least a portion of which extends in a radially outward direction with respect to the centerline, and a nonpolarization sensitive layer of dielectric material disposed on the surface of the radiating element and extending into the interior of the waveguide, the layer being tapered at its circumferential extremity to provide a free space match and confining energy adjacent to the external surface of the radiating element for providing an interchange of energy between said waveguide and surrounding space.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,416,698 King Mar. 4, 1947 2,433,368 Johnson et al Dec. 30, 1947 2,588,610 Boothroyd Mar. 11, 1952 2,685,068 Goubau July 27, 1954 2,688,732 Kock Sept. 7, 1954 2,783,467 Gutton et al Feb. 26, 1957 FOREIGN PATENTS 685,073 Great Britain Dec. 31, 1952
US461261A 1954-10-08 1954-10-08 Surface wave omnidirectional antenna Expired - Lifetime US2921309A (en)

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3055004A (en) * 1958-12-18 1962-09-18 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Horn radiator for spherical reflector
US3189744A (en) * 1962-11-05 1965-06-15 Westinghouse Electric Corp Optical communications transmitter
US3434146A (en) * 1966-08-03 1969-03-18 Us Army Low profile open-ended waveguide antenna with dielectric disc lens
DE3210895A1 (en) * 1982-03-25 1983-09-29 Licentia Gmbh Microwave directional antenna
DE3217437A1 (en) * 1982-03-25 1983-11-10 Licentia Gmbh MICROWAVE DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA FROM A DIELECTRIC LINE
US4516129A (en) * 1982-06-04 1985-05-07 Canadian Patents & Dev. Ltd. Waveguide with dielectric coated flange antenna feed
US4689629A (en) * 1982-09-27 1987-08-25 Rogers Corporation Surface wave antenna
US4819003A (en) * 1984-03-24 1989-04-04 Naohisa Goto Flat circular unidirectional microwave antenna
US6219004B1 (en) * 1999-06-11 2001-04-17 Harris Corporation Antenna having hemispherical radiation optimized for peak gain at horizon
WO2002056418A1 (en) * 2001-01-12 2002-07-18 France Telecom Electromagnetic probe
US8773319B1 (en) 2012-01-30 2014-07-08 L-3 Communications Corp. Conformal lens-reflector antenna system

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2416698A (en) * 1938-04-29 1947-03-04 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Radiation and reception of microwaves
US2433368A (en) * 1942-03-31 1947-12-30 Sperry Gyroscope Co Inc Wave guide construction
US2588610A (en) * 1946-06-07 1952-03-11 Philco Corp Directional antenna system
GB685073A (en) * 1950-05-25 1952-12-31 Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co Improvements in or relating to radio aerial systems for use on ultra short wave lengths
US2685068A (en) * 1950-03-21 1954-07-27 Surface Conduction Inc Surface wave transmission line
US2688732A (en) * 1949-05-05 1954-09-07 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Wave guide
US2783467A (en) * 1951-07-03 1957-02-26 Csf Ultra-short wave aerials

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2416698A (en) * 1938-04-29 1947-03-04 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Radiation and reception of microwaves
US2433368A (en) * 1942-03-31 1947-12-30 Sperry Gyroscope Co Inc Wave guide construction
US2588610A (en) * 1946-06-07 1952-03-11 Philco Corp Directional antenna system
US2688732A (en) * 1949-05-05 1954-09-07 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Wave guide
US2685068A (en) * 1950-03-21 1954-07-27 Surface Conduction Inc Surface wave transmission line
GB685073A (en) * 1950-05-25 1952-12-31 Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co Improvements in or relating to radio aerial systems for use on ultra short wave lengths
US2783467A (en) * 1951-07-03 1957-02-26 Csf Ultra-short wave aerials

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3055004A (en) * 1958-12-18 1962-09-18 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Horn radiator for spherical reflector
US3189744A (en) * 1962-11-05 1965-06-15 Westinghouse Electric Corp Optical communications transmitter
US3434146A (en) * 1966-08-03 1969-03-18 Us Army Low profile open-ended waveguide antenna with dielectric disc lens
DE3210895A1 (en) * 1982-03-25 1983-09-29 Licentia Gmbh Microwave directional antenna
DE3217437A1 (en) * 1982-03-25 1983-11-10 Licentia Gmbh MICROWAVE DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA FROM A DIELECTRIC LINE
US4536767A (en) * 1982-03-25 1985-08-20 Licentia Patent-Verwaltungs-Gmbh Microwave directional antenna employing surface wave mode
US4516129A (en) * 1982-06-04 1985-05-07 Canadian Patents & Dev. Ltd. Waveguide with dielectric coated flange antenna feed
US4689629A (en) * 1982-09-27 1987-08-25 Rogers Corporation Surface wave antenna
US4819003A (en) * 1984-03-24 1989-04-04 Naohisa Goto Flat circular unidirectional microwave antenna
US6219004B1 (en) * 1999-06-11 2001-04-17 Harris Corporation Antenna having hemispherical radiation optimized for peak gain at horizon
WO2002056418A1 (en) * 2001-01-12 2002-07-18 France Telecom Electromagnetic probe
FR2819640A1 (en) * 2001-01-12 2002-07-19 France Telecom ELECTROMAGNETIC PROBE
US8773319B1 (en) 2012-01-30 2014-07-08 L-3 Communications Corp. Conformal lens-reflector antenna system

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