Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Method of treating a petroleum producing formation

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2906340A
US2906340A US57648656A US2906340A US 2906340 A US2906340 A US 2906340A US 57648656 A US57648656 A US 57648656A US 2906340 A US2906340 A US 2906340A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
formation
petroleum
producing
combustion
well
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Herzog Gerhard
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Texaco Inc
Original Assignee
Texaco Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/16Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons
    • E21B43/24Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons using heat, e.g. steam injection
    • E21B43/243Combustion in situ

Description

G. HERZOG Sept. 29, 1959 METHOD OF TREATING A PETROLEUM PRODUCING FORMATION vFiled April 5, 1956 Tlzll.

M//M/g United States Patent Oce Patented Sept. 29, 19,512

METHOD F TREATIN G A PETROLEUM PRODUCING FORMATION Gerhard Herzog, Houston, Tex., assigner to Texac'o Inc., a corporation of Delaware Application April 5, 1956, Serial No. '576,486

7 Claims. (Cl. 16639) This invention relates to the production of petroleum from underground petroleum producing form-ations. More particularly, this invention relates to the treatment of underground petroleum producingformations.

Various techniques have been proposed for the recovery of petroleum from underground formations and for the treatment of petroleum producing formations. For the recovery of petroleum from petroleum producing formations secondary recovery operations which involve water ooding o-r thermal recovery methods, in situ combustion, involving at least one injection well and at least one production well have been proposed. Further, it has also been proposed to increase the productivity of a given well by blasting, acidizing or hydraulically fracturing the petroleum producing formation traversed by the well bore. Various other methods have also been proposed to improve the oil permeability of underground petroleum producing formations. In general, however, all these proposed methods have not always yielded the sought for results.

Many petroleum producing formations are not satisfactorily treated by acidizin-g or by hydraulic fracturing. Blasting an underground producing formation to increase its porosity and/ or permeability in the vicinity of the well bore is a relatively dangerous operation. Secondary recovery methods employing water flooding or thermal recovery methods employing in situ combustion in combination with an injection well and a production well involve at least two or more wells as well as the expenditure of co-nsiderable capital, equipment, material and time before appreciable tangible results are observable.

In accordance with the practice o-f this invention that portion of a petroleum producing formation inv the vicinity of or surrounding a well bore is treated to effect in situ combustion of a combustible material therein. Subsequently petroleum is produced via the -Well bore through that portion of the petroleum producing formation wherein in situ combustion was effected.

Explanatory of in situ combustion as employed in the practice of this invention, a high temperature zone is established in the petroleum producing formation `in vthe vicinity of the well bore by suitable heating means. -Suitable heating means may comprise an electrical heating device or a `gas red bottom hole igniter or heater;r` A suitable device for initiating in situ combustion withina bore hole is described in U.S. 2,722,278. Upon introducing a combustion-supporting or an oxygen-containing gas such as air into the petroleum producing formation vi-a the well bore a high temperature combustion orireaction zone created by the reaction between ythe oxygen and combustible residues within the formation, such-as combustible residues resulting from the distillation and/ or thermal cracking of crude oil originally in place or introduced therein, will commence to move into the formation outwardly from the well bore.

Leaving this high temperature zone is a relatively high temperature gas stream which, as it moves outwardly into the formation, losses heat to the formation. By this method the high temperature reaction zone is moved for a considerable distance, for example a distance in the range 3'-25 feet, more or less, radially outwardly from the well bore without further direct application of heat to the area immediately surrounding the Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to prol vide an improved method for the treatment of underground petroleum producing formations to enhance or otherwise improve -the recovery of petroleum therefrom.

It is another object of this invention to provide a generally applicable method for the treatment ofv underground petroleum producing formations.

I t is still another object of this invention to provide a method for increasing the oil permeability of anundergroundproducing formation in that portion of the producing formation surrounding a well bore.

f Still another object of this invention is vto provide a method for dissipating or removing a lwater block and for otherwise improving the petroleuminormally gaseous and/or normally liquid hydrocarbons) permeability of that portion of thepetroleum producing formation surrounding a well bore through which petroleum is produced.- Y

How these and other objects of this invention are achieved will become apparent inthe light of the accompanying disclosure and drawings wherein Fig. 1 schematically illustrates a method in accordance with the practice of this invention as applied to an underground petroleum producing formation and Fig. 2 is anexplana-` well bore. Continued direct application of heat to the area immediately surrounding the well bore may be desirable however. The distance the high temperature reaction zone moves radially outwardly and as a result the volume of the petroleum producing formation swept by or comprised within the in situ combustion zone is determined by the relative magnitude of the rate of heat generation (combustion of combustible residues) and the rate of heat loss to the surrounding formations.

It has been postulated that the following mechanisms are important in the movement of the high temperature reaction zone radially outwardly from a well bore into the petroleum producing formation during in situ cornbustion. Although 4the exact mechanism of in situr'combustion is not definitely known, the following sequence of events in an underground in situ combustion operation are postulated and are presented hereinv for the purpose of enabling one skilled in the art'to better lunder'- stand this invention and are not to be construed as limiting this invention in any way.

As the high temperature reaction zone approaches any.` given volume of the petroleum producing formation the temperature of this volume of formation rises. This results in first a reduction in the viscosity ofthe formation liquids due to their temperature increase. These liquids may then be moved more readily under the influence of the gas stream continuously emanating from the high temperature reaction zone. As the temperature continues to rise, distillations of the formation liquids begins. The

. products of these distillations condense in cooler regions of the formation removed from the high temperature reaction zone. The distillations continue as 'the 'tern-l perature continues to rise until the heavier componentsv remaining from the crude toil originally in place within the formation or introduced thereinto prior 'to effecting in situ'combustion begin to crack yielding hydrocarbon gases, hydrogen and :the like'and coke-'or similar solid'l carbonaceous residues. As the tempearture continues to rise and the oxygen content of the incoming gas vincreases due to depletion ofrvcombustibleresidues ,in preceding.

regions of the formation, a point will be reached at which the coke or other combustible residue will begin to react with oxygen with the resulting release of heat to the formation and the gas stream. This heat is carried away by the on-moving gas stream and also to some extent by conduction to adjoining regions of the formation. When the coke or combustible residue has been burned away there remains a volume of liquid-free formation which, unless otherwise treated, is gradually cooled by the relatively cool combustion supporting gas entering the formation via the well bore.

From the above considerations it is obvious that the rate of heat energy released within the formation should be some function of the quantity of the fuel present therein, which is dependent upon the type and quantity of crude originally in place and/ or combustible material or fuel caused to be deposited therein, and that the rate of release should also be dependent upon the rate at which oxygen is supplied to the combustion zone. The rate at which heat can be transferred ahead of the high temperature reaction or combustion zone should be dependent on the rate at which combustion gas leaves the reaction zone and should be to some extent dependent upon conduction through the formation itself. Accordingly, some control of the in situ combustion process can be exercised by controlling the composition, such as oxygen content, of the injected combustion supporting oxygencontaining gas.

The physical characteristics and properties of the formation swept by the high temperature reaction or combustion zone and other portions of the formation otherwise influenced by the high temperature gas stream emanating from the reaction zone will probably be favorably altered with respect to oil permeability. That portion of the petroleum producing formation swept by the high temperature combustion zone will exhibit improved porosity and/or permeability values with respect to the production of petroleum therethrough. It is believed that the high temperature developed within the reaction zone will cause clays subjected thereto to lose water and otherwise become dehydrated with resulting volume shrinkage. It is also believed that some thermal fracturing of the formation swept or otherwise influenced by the high temperature reaction zone will also be accomplished, e.g., by sheer expansion of the formation along formation discontinuities and the like, leading to fractures and fissures and increasing the porosity of the formation in the portion swept by in situ combustion. Further, it is believed that the high temperatures generated at the high temperature reaction zone in the range 70D-2500a F., usually in the range 800-1500 F., will eventually effect calcination or thermal decomposition of many of the minerals, such as limestone or dolomite, present within the formation exposed to these high temperatures, with the resultant production of gaseous or water-soluble decomposition products. Accordingly, when the formation is again produced through that portion swept by the high temperature reaction zone the resulting gaseous and/or water-soluble decomposition products, such as CO2 or CaO, are swept out, dissolved and otherwise removed by the return 'of liquid water accompanying the produced petroleum.

Referring now to the drawing which schematically illustrates one embodiment of the practice of this invention, there is illustrated a well bore 11 penetrating substantially impermeable formations 12 and 14 which, respectively, adjoin the upper and lower boundaries of petroleum producing formation 15. A casing 16 is positoned Within well bore 11 and is provided with perforations 17 adjacent the petroleum producing formation 15. A packer 13 is provided in the lower part of casing 16 such as at aboutA the lower portion of petroleum Vproducing formation 15.

As previously indicated, the practice of this invention is particularly applicable to the treatment of petroleum producing formations which evidence a substantially reduced oil permeability in the vicinity of the well bore through which the formation is produced. The reduced oil permeability of the formation in a zone surrounding the well bore may be caused by the deposition of detritus or solid hydrocarbonaceous material (paraffin) within the interstices of the formation surrounding the well bore. Particularly adaptable for treatment in accordance with the practice of this invention is a petroleum producing formation which evidences or has experienced a water block in the vicinity of the producing well bore. This water block or zone of reduced oil permeability may have been brought about, after the well has `been shut in, by the dumping of a water column back into the producing formation. In which event a producing formation in the zone immediately adjacent or surrounding the well bore will contain a substantial amount of water or will be substantially saturated therewith, and will evidence a low oil permeability.

In accordance with one practice of this invention, especially if the amount of petroleum originally in place in the zone immediately surrounding the well bore within the petroleum producing formation, is insuicient to support in situ combustion therein, there is introduced into the formation via production casing 16 and perforations 17 an amount of a combustible fluid, preferably a liquid, such as a crude oil or fraction thereof, which when subjected to a relatively elevated temperature or upon thermal cracking tends to deposit a solid combustible carbonaceous residue, such as asphalt or coke and the like. The amount of liquid thus introduced into the petroleum producing formation usually is equivalent to at least about the pore volume of that portion of the petroleum producing formation undergoing treatment extending for a distance in the range l-Sfeet, more or less, radially outwardly from well bore 11. The limit of that zone of the petroleum producing formation surrounding the well bore and into which the combustible liquid is injected or otherwise occupied by a combustible liquid such as crude oil originally in place or injected thereinto is indicated by dashed line 18.

After a suitable amount of combustible liquid is present within zone 18 of petroleum producing formation 16 the liquid is ignited in situ in the region immediately adjacent the well bore 11 by suitable means, such as by radiant heating and/or by the injection of a high temperature oxygen-containing stream of air or by means of hot combustion gases introduced via casing 16 and perforations 17.

After in situ combustion in the area of the producing formation immediately adjacent Well bore 11 has been initiated there is introduced via casing 16 and the perforations 17 a combustion supporting stream such as an oxygen-containing stream, oxygen content in the range 1.5-20%, for example in the range 3-10% by vol., more or less, to effect continued in situ combustion of the injected combustible liquid and/or petroleum originally in place within the producing formation. The introduction of the oxygen-containing stream is continued until the in situ combustion Within the petroleum producing formation has been carried out to the desired extent. The forward limit of the in situ combustion zone or high temperature combustion zone is indicated by dashed line 19. Generally, effective results will be obtained by carrying out in situ combustion within the petroleum producing formation within that volume of the formation encompassed by about 5-50, more or less, radial feet from well bore 11.

After a sufficient volume of producing formation 15 has been swept by in situ combustion the supply of oxygencontaining gas is stopped and production from the thustreated producing formation can be resumed. At first, it is postulated, as the liquid-produced petroleum and accompanying Water invades the zone of in situ combustion the water and the more volatile constituents of the protending to thermally decompose the thus-produced petro' leum leading to the deposition of carbonaceous, preferentially oil-wettable materials or otherwise coat the interstices Yof the formation with preferentially oil-wettable carbonaceous material. This deposition of solid carbonaceous, preferentially oil-wettable material will tend to.

enhance or otherwise improve the oil permeability of the formation surrounding the well bore.

In accordance with one feature of this invention, in order to further enhance the permeability and/ or porosity of the producing formation in the vicinity ofthe well bore after termination of the in situ combustion, there is introduced linto the zone wherein in situ combustion was carried out a relatively cool liquid stream, such as a LPG fraction, a liquid naphtha fraction or a relatively refrac tory gas oil or high boilingV petroleum fractionor crude so as to subject the hot portions Yof the zone swept by in situ combustion to thermal shock, leading to thermal fracturing.

AIn accordance with still another feature of this invention, particularly in the case of a formation wherein prior to treatment by in situ combustion the area immediately surrounding the well 'bore is water blocked, the water block is dissipated from the immediate vicinity of the well bore by injection of a gas such as natural gas, ethane, methane, propane, butane, or a liquid hydrocarbon such as naphtha,v kerosene, gas oil or lube oil fraction, or a hydrocarbon fraction containing finely divided solid combustible material (carbon black) dispersed therein, preferably a hydrocarbon fraction containing dissolved or dispersed therein a surface active agent eifective to reduce the interfacial tension between water and oil, so as to substantially reduce the Water saturation, eg. to a value below about 50% of the pore volume in that portion of the formation immediately surrounding the .well bore. Then there is injected into the formation vvia the well bore the desired combustible material or combustible petroleum fraction to provide the desired fuel for effecting subsequent in situ combustion within that portion of the producing formation.

Any suitable combustible fluid may be employed in the practice of this invention such as a liquid petroleum fraction, e.g. a heavy asphaltic fuel oil or residium orcrude oil previously produced from the formation undergoing treatment. Desirably the injected combustible liquid is an .asphaltic hydrocarbon fraction or one which tends' to deposit a solid carbonaceous material or coke when subjected to thermal cracking or an elevated temperature of about 1000 F., more or less.

As already indicated, the rate and extent of in situ combustion can be altered or controlled by adjusting the oxygen content of the combustible gases being supplied to the in situ combustion zone. Although air is satisfactory, it may be desirable to employ a combustion supporting gas having an oxygen content substantially greater than or substantially less than 20% by Volume, for example, a combustion supporting gas having an oxygen content in the range l-%, such as in the range 1.5- 5% by volume. A suitable combustion supporting gas having the desired oxygen content may be obtained from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine or from hot combustion or ilue gases admixed with varying amounts of air or substantially pure oxygen to obtain the desired oxygen content in the resulting admixture.

In accordance with still another feature of this invention that portion of the formation swept by in situ combustion is suitably treated other than by the deposition of preferentially oil-wettable Ycarbonaceousl material therein to render the formation preferentially oilfwettable.

A vsuitable treatment to render that portion of the forma-v tion preferentially oil-wettable would be to introduce 'into the formation a halosilane such as an aryl, alkaryl or alkyl halosilane, e.g. monomethyl dichloro-monosilane, dimethyl dichloromonosilane, and the like, which readily hydro-A lyzes upon contact with water to form a hydrophobic lm Within the interstices of the formation. f f

The following is explanatory of the practice of this jinvention. Referring now to Fig. 2 of the drawing there is schematically illustrated thereinka brine-free Berea sand? stone core containing a relatively high saturation of a 20 A.P.I. crude. 13% long with a diameter of 1%6". j The core surface was sealed with several brushedcoats of a Plexiglas solution. Sections ofthe core 7zv' long were marked oiiz and, as indicated in Fig. 2, numbered consecutively start-- ing from the end where in situV `combustion was started.v

Sections I-1 yand O-Z were cut from the core for determination of original nitrogen permeability and porosity.

The results are set forth in Table I below.

A 20 A.P.I. crude was obtained from the Hogg Lease, West lColumbia Field, Texas and injected into the core. A gas permeability of 27 md. was established by applying avacuum to section O-1. Sections L2 and O-l were then removed from the core and initial loil saturations of these sections were determined, see Table l.

Thermocouples were wired to the surface ofthe core at the centers of the sections 1-10. A length of stainless steel tubing was placed over the core and the annular space between the tubing and the core was packed with magnesium oxide as an insulator. Air was drawn through the core by placing a vacuum on section 11.

Temperaturedistributions within the core approximating those expected during an in situ combustionY operation` an indication of liquid saturation present in the sectionsA after the simulated in situ combustion. Oil permeabilities were determined using a reiined white oil.` The v.o il.

permeabilities in all sections remained constant after 10 pore volumes of oil were passed through the section being tested and it is these steady-state values which are reported in Table I.

Table I Ng Relative Max. N1 Oil permeoil satn tempermeperme- Core Porosity, ability before perature ability ability section percent before comduring after after combustion, comcomcombnstion percent bustion bustion bustion (md.) F.) (md.)1 (md.)

I1 19. 3 610 I- 19.8 66 i 445 1- l, 000 670 2- 0 536 483 3- 930 568 450 4 880 570 490 780 508 430 690 492 432 520 428 430 350 332 400 9 250 264 340 10 170 165 420 11 49 380 0-1- 19. 9 75 2 466 Ow 19. 6 628 1 Demeasing values indicate increasing liquid saturation.y 2 Cores not subjected to combustion. l Crushed and lost.

The Berea sandstone core used was' If the white oil employed in the permeability test can dissolve out carbonaceous residues not soluble in the inplace crude there would be some question as to the validity of the determination of oil permeability. In order to demonstrate the validity of these tests and to further demonstrate the practicality of this invention as a remedial well treatment operation a rough determination of the coking characteristics of the West Columbia crude employed in the test indicated that 12% by weight of the crude remained as residue after heating in an open vessel at a temperature of 750 F. Core sections I-2 and O-Z whichv were not previously subjected to high temperatures were saturated with a 20 A.P.I. West Columbia crude. Core section I2 was held at 40G-450 F, for 35 minutes and core section O-Z was held at 695-740" F. for minutes. Permeability data obtained on the thus-treated core sections using both West Columbia crude and a refined white oil are listed in Table 1I.

Table II Permeability to Core section Treatment West Columbia crude (md.)

I-2 None.- 490 I-2 400-450 F. (35 min.) 510 O2 None-- 362 0-2 695-740 F. (10 min.) 470 As Table II indicates, there is no reason to believe that the use of a refined white oil rendered the results reported in Table I anomalous.

As will be apparent to those skilled in the art in the light of the foregoing disclosure, many changes, substitutions and alterations are possible without departing from the spirit and scope of this invention.

I claim:

l. A process for treating an underground petroleum producing formation penetrated by a well bore which comprises introducing via said well bore into a petroleum producing formation -a liquid petroleum oil which uponl 2. A method of treating a petroleum producing forma-l tion traversed by a well bore which comprises introducing via said Well bore into said petroleum producing formation a combustible liquid which when subjected to thermal cracking tends to deposit a solid carbonaceous material, subsequently introducing via said well bore a combustion supporting gas via said well bore into that portion of said petroleum producing formation containing said liquid, effecting combustion of said liquid within said petroleum producing formation, discontinuing the introduction of said combustion supporting gas into said formation so as to terminate the in situ combustion process therein and subsequently producing petroleum from said formation via said well bore.

3. A method in accordance with claim 2 wherein said combustible liquid comprises a liquid petroleum fraction recovered from said petroleum producing formation.

4. A method in accordance with claim 2 wherein said combustible liquid comprises an asphaltic petroleum oil.

5. A method of treating a petroleum producing formation traversed by a well bore which comprises introducing into said petroleum producing formation via said well bore a combustible liquid which, when subjected to thermal cracking, tends to deposit a solid carbonaceous maten'al such as coke, subsequently introducing via said well bore an oxygen-containing gas into that portion of said petroleum producing formation containing said liquid, effecting in situ combustion of said liquid within said lpetroleum producing formation, terminating the combustion of said liquid within said petroleum producing formation by discontinuing the introduction of said oxygen-containing gas into said petroleum producing formation, introducing a relatively cool hydrocarbon stream via said well bore into that portion of said petroleum producing formation wherein combustion of said liquid was effected and subsequently producing petroleum from said formation via said well bore.

6. A method in accordance with claim 5 wherein said combustible liquid comprises an asphaltic petroleum fraction.

7. A method in accordance with claim 5 wherein said relatively cool hydrocarbon stream comprises a hydrocarbon liquid which when subjected to thermal cracking tends to deposit a solid carbonaceous, preferentially oilwettable material within the interstices of the formation.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,457,479 Wolcott June 5, 1923 2,642,943 Smith June 23, 1953 2,685,930 Albaugh Aug. 10, 1954 2,761,512 Bond Sept. 4, 1956 2,793,696 Morse May 28, 1957

Claims (1)

1. A PROCESS FOR TREATING AN UNDERGROUNG PETROLEUM PRODUCING FORMATION PENETRATED BY A WELL BORE WHICH COMPRISES INTRODUCING VIA SAID WELL BORE INTO A PETROLEUM PRODUCING FORMATION A LIQUID PETROLEUM OIL WHICH UPON THERMAL CRACKING TENDS TO DEPOSIT A SOLID COMBUSTIBLE CARBONACCEOUS RESIDUE, SUBSEQUENTLY INTRODUCING VIA SAID WELL BORE A COMBUSTION SUPPORTING GAS INTO THAT PORTION OF SAID PETROLEUM PRODUCING FORMATION COTAINING SAID LIQUID PETROLEUM OIL, EFFECTING COMBUSTION OF THE INJECTED LIQUID PETROLEUM OIL THUS INTRODUCED WITHIN SAID PETROLEUM PRODUCING FORMATION, DISCONTINUING THE INTRODUCTION OF SAID COMBUSTION SUPPORTING GAS INTO SAID FORMATION SO AS TO TERMINATE THE IN SITU COMBUSTION PROCESS THEREIN, AND SUBSEQUENTLY PRODUCING PETROLEUM VIA SAID WELL BORE FROM SAID FORMATION THROUGH THE PORTION OF SAID FORMATION WHEREIN SAID INTRODUCED LIQUID PETROLEUM OIL WAS SUBJECTED TO COMBUSTION.
US2906340A 1956-04-05 1956-04-05 Method of treating a petroleum producing formation Expired - Lifetime US2906340A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2906340A US2906340A (en) 1956-04-05 1956-04-05 Method of treating a petroleum producing formation

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2906340A US2906340A (en) 1956-04-05 1956-04-05 Method of treating a petroleum producing formation

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2906340A true US2906340A (en) 1959-09-29

Family

ID=24304614

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US2906340A Expired - Lifetime US2906340A (en) 1956-04-05 1956-04-05 Method of treating a petroleum producing formation

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2906340A (en)

Cited By (57)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3003555A (en) * 1956-09-18 1961-10-10 Jersey Prod Res Co Oil production from unconsolidated formations
US3024840A (en) * 1958-06-16 1962-03-13 Texaco Inc In situ combustion
US3026937A (en) * 1957-05-17 1962-03-27 California Research Corp Method of controlling an underground combustion zone
US3032103A (en) * 1958-08-11 1962-05-01 Phillips Petroleum Co Increasing fluid flow thru an injection borehole
US3057403A (en) * 1958-10-17 1962-10-09 Gulf Research Development Co In-situ combustion process for the recovery of oil
US3080919A (en) * 1960-09-16 1963-03-12 Texaco Inc Method for closing down an injection well during thermal recovery operations
US3104705A (en) * 1960-02-08 1963-09-24 Jersey Prod Res Co Stabilizing a formation
US3113619A (en) * 1959-03-30 1963-12-10 Phillips Petroleum Co Line drive counterflow in situ combustion process
US3155161A (en) * 1959-11-13 1964-11-03 Shell Oil Co Method of fracturing a formation traversed by a well
US3163218A (en) * 1960-03-14 1964-12-29 Jersey Prod Res Co Method of consolidating a formation using a heater within a liner which is thereafter destroyed
US3163745A (en) * 1960-02-29 1964-12-29 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc Heating of an earth formation penetrated by a well borehole
US3171482A (en) * 1961-07-31 1965-03-02 California Research Corp Method of increasing the production of petroleum from subterranean formations
US3208527A (en) * 1961-07-10 1965-09-28 Exxon Production Research Co Method and apparatus for controlling flow of well fluids
US3233671A (en) * 1962-12-18 1966-02-08 Sinclair Research Inc Recovery of heavy crude oils by in situ combustion
US3250329A (en) * 1963-05-13 1966-05-10 Shell Oil Co Consolidation using free radicals
US3332482A (en) * 1964-11-02 1967-07-25 Phillips Petroleum Co Huff and puff fire flood process
US3349847A (en) * 1964-07-28 1967-10-31 Gulf Research Development Co Process for recovering oil by in situ combustion
US3379254A (en) * 1966-08-25 1968-04-23 Mobil Oil Corp Method for initiating in situ combustion within a subterranean formation
US3457995A (en) * 1967-01-03 1969-07-29 Phillips Petroleum Co Igniting an underground formation
US4397352A (en) * 1980-11-03 1983-08-09 Mobil Oil Corporation In situ combustion of tar sands with injection of gases
WO2001081239A2 (en) * 2000-04-24 2001-11-01 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030080604A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US20030079877A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation in a reducing environment
US20030098149A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US6588504B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US20030155111A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-21 Shell Oil Co In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US20030173081A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US20030173085A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Upgrading and mining of coal
US20030196810A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US6698515B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6715548B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US6715546B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US20050269093A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US7011154B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US7051808B1 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7073578B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-07-11 Shell Oil Company Staged and/or patterned heating during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7090013B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US7096953B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
US7104319B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US7121342B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7165615B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-23 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US20070045266A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Sandberg Chester L In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US20070095536A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-05-03 Vinegar Harold J Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20070108201A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-17 Vinegar Harold J Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase wye configuration
US20080035348A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Vitek John M Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
US20080128134A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-05 Ramesh Raju Mudunuri Producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US20090071652A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-03-19 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US20090189617A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-07-30 David Burns Continuous subsurface heater temperature measurement
US20090260824A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 David Booth Burns Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100089586A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-15 John Andrew Stanecki Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100258290A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Ronald Marshall Bass Non-conducting heater casings
US8631866B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-01-21 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8701769B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology
US8820406B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-02 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore
US9016370B2 (en) 2011-04-08 2015-04-28 Shell Oil Company Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US9033042B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-19 Shell Oil Company Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US9309755B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2016-04-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1457479A (en) * 1920-01-12 1923-06-05 Edson R Wolcott Method of increasing the yield of oil wells
US2642943A (en) * 1949-05-20 1953-06-23 Sinclair Oil & Gas Co Oil recovery process
US2685930A (en) * 1948-08-12 1954-08-10 Union Oil Co Oil well production process
US2761512A (en) * 1954-11-08 1956-09-04 Pure Oil Co Combustion and halosilane reaction treatment of a formation to increase production
US2793696A (en) * 1954-07-22 1957-05-28 Pan American Petroleum Corp Oil recovery by underground combustion

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1457479A (en) * 1920-01-12 1923-06-05 Edson R Wolcott Method of increasing the yield of oil wells
US2685930A (en) * 1948-08-12 1954-08-10 Union Oil Co Oil well production process
US2642943A (en) * 1949-05-20 1953-06-23 Sinclair Oil & Gas Co Oil recovery process
US2793696A (en) * 1954-07-22 1957-05-28 Pan American Petroleum Corp Oil recovery by underground combustion
US2761512A (en) * 1954-11-08 1956-09-04 Pure Oil Co Combustion and halosilane reaction treatment of a formation to increase production

Cited By (439)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3003555A (en) * 1956-09-18 1961-10-10 Jersey Prod Res Co Oil production from unconsolidated formations
US3026937A (en) * 1957-05-17 1962-03-27 California Research Corp Method of controlling an underground combustion zone
US3024840A (en) * 1958-06-16 1962-03-13 Texaco Inc In situ combustion
US3032103A (en) * 1958-08-11 1962-05-01 Phillips Petroleum Co Increasing fluid flow thru an injection borehole
US3057403A (en) * 1958-10-17 1962-10-09 Gulf Research Development Co In-situ combustion process for the recovery of oil
US3113619A (en) * 1959-03-30 1963-12-10 Phillips Petroleum Co Line drive counterflow in situ combustion process
US3155161A (en) * 1959-11-13 1964-11-03 Shell Oil Co Method of fracturing a formation traversed by a well
US3104705A (en) * 1960-02-08 1963-09-24 Jersey Prod Res Co Stabilizing a formation
US3163745A (en) * 1960-02-29 1964-12-29 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc Heating of an earth formation penetrated by a well borehole
US3163218A (en) * 1960-03-14 1964-12-29 Jersey Prod Res Co Method of consolidating a formation using a heater within a liner which is thereafter destroyed
US3080919A (en) * 1960-09-16 1963-03-12 Texaco Inc Method for closing down an injection well during thermal recovery operations
US3208527A (en) * 1961-07-10 1965-09-28 Exxon Production Research Co Method and apparatus for controlling flow of well fluids
US3171482A (en) * 1961-07-31 1965-03-02 California Research Corp Method of increasing the production of petroleum from subterranean formations
US3233671A (en) * 1962-12-18 1966-02-08 Sinclair Research Inc Recovery of heavy crude oils by in situ combustion
US3250329A (en) * 1963-05-13 1966-05-10 Shell Oil Co Consolidation using free radicals
US3349847A (en) * 1964-07-28 1967-10-31 Gulf Research Development Co Process for recovering oil by in situ combustion
US3332482A (en) * 1964-11-02 1967-07-25 Phillips Petroleum Co Huff and puff fire flood process
US3379254A (en) * 1966-08-25 1968-04-23 Mobil Oil Corp Method for initiating in situ combustion within a subterranean formation
US3457995A (en) * 1967-01-03 1969-07-29 Phillips Petroleum Co Igniting an underground formation
US4397352A (en) * 1980-11-03 1983-08-09 Mobil Oil Corporation In situ combustion of tar sands with injection of gases
US6866097B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-03-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to increase a permeability/porosity of the formation
WO2001081239A3 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-05-23 Shell Oil Co In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
GB2379469A (en) * 2000-04-24 2003-03-12 Shell Int Research In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7011154B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US6997255B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a reducing environment
US6994168B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Scott Lee Wellington In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen to carbon ratio
US6994160B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6994161B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Kevin Albert Maher In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected moisture content
US6991031B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to convert a selected total organic carbon content into hydrocarbon products
US7036583B2 (en) * 2000-04-24 2006-05-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a porosity of the formation
US6973967B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-12-13 Shell Oil Company Situ thermal processing of a coal formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US6923258B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-08-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processsing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US6581684B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-06-24 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce sulfur containing formation fluids
US7086468B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US6588503B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a coal formation to control product composition
US6588504B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US6591906B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected oxygen content
US6591907B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US7096941B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with heat sources located at an edge of a coal layer
US6715548B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US7096953B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
WO2001081239A2 (en) * 2000-04-24 2001-11-01 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6959761B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-11-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US6953087B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-10-11 Shell Oil Company Thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a permeability of the formation
US6948563B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-09-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen content
US6913078B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-07-05 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively impermeable formation
US6910536B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US6902003B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation having a selected total organic carbon content
US6902004B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a movable heating element
US6607033B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-08-19 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce a condensate
US6896053B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-05-24 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US6609570B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-08-26 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation and ammonia production
US6889769B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-05-10 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected moisture content
US20090101346A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2009-04-23 Shell Oil Company, Inc. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6966372B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-11-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce oxygen containing formation fluids
US8789586B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2014-07-29 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7798221B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2010-09-21 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6880635B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-04-19 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio
US20110088904A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2011-04-21 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6688387B1 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-02-10 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a hydrocarbon condensate
US6698515B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US8225866B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2012-07-24 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6702016B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with heat sources located at an edge of a formation layer
US6708758B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US6712135B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation in reducing environment
US6712136B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a selected production well spacing
US6712137B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6715549B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected atomic oxygen to carbon ratio
US8485252B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2013-07-16 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6715546B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US6715547B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to form a substantially uniform, high permeability formation
US6719047B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-13 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a hydrogen-rich environment
US6722431B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively permeable formation
US6722429B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US6722430B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected oxygen content and/or selected O/C ratio
US6725921B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6725920B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to convert a selected amount of total organic carbon into hydrocarbon products
US6725928B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a distributed combustor
US6729395B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US6729396B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6729397B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6729401B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation and ammonia production
US6732795B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6732794B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US6732796B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio
US6736215B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-18 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation, in situ production of synthesis gas, and carbon dioxide sequestration
US6739394B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-25 Shell Oil Company Production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6739393B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation and tuning production
US6742589B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US6742593B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat transfer from a heat transfer fluid to heat the formation
US6742588B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce formation fluids having a relatively low olefin content
US6742587B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to form a substantially uniform, relatively high permeable formation
US6745831B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6745837B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a controlled heating rate
US6745832B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to control product composition
US6749021B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a controlled heating rate
US6752210B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US6758268B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6761216B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-13 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US6763886B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US6769485B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-08-03 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation through a heat source wellbore
US6769483B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-08-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor in conduit heat sources
US6789625B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-09-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using exposed metal heat sources
GB2379469B (en) * 2000-04-24 2004-09-29 Shell Int Research In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6805195B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-10-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US6877554B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-04-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US6871707B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-03-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US6820688B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-11-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of coal formation with a selected hydrogen content and/or selected H/C ratio
US7017661B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-28 Shell Oil Company Production of synthesis gas from a coal formation
US20040211557A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2004-10-28 Cole Anthony Thomas Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US6877555B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-04-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking
US20040211554A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2004-10-28 Vinegar Harold J. Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20100270015A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2010-10-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US6880633B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-04-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product
US7735935B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2010-06-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation containing carbonate minerals
US20030164239A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-09-04 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment
US20030155111A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-21 Shell Oil Co In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US20030146002A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-07 Vinegar Harold J. Removable heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20030148894A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-07 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20030141067A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Rouffignac Eric Pierre De In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to increase permeability of the formation
US20030141066A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Karanikas John Michael In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking
US6915850B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections
US6918442B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment
US6918443B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US7013972B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-03-21 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a natural distributed combustor
US6923257B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-08-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a condensate
US6929067B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-08-16 Shell Oil Company Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7225866B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2007-06-05 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US20030141068A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Pierre De Rouffignac Eric In situ thermal processing through an open wellbore in an oil shale formation
US6948562B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-09-27 Shell Oil Company Production of a blending agent using an in situ thermal process in a relatively permeable formation
US6951247B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-10-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources
US20030142964A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate
US20030136559A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation
US6964300B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-11-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with backproduction through a heater wellbore
US20030136558A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product
US6966374B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-11-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US7096942B1 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation while controlling pressure
US20030131996A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections
US20030131993A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 Etuan Zhang In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property
US20030131995A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation to increase permeability of the formation
US20030116315A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-26 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation
US7066254B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US7055600B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate
US7051811B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing through an open wellbore in an oil shale formation
US20030111223A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-19 Rouffignac Eric Pierre De In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources
US7040398B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation in a reducing environment
US7040400B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation using an open wellbore
US20030102126A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Sumnu-Dindoruk Meliha Deniz In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate
US6981548B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US20030102125A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation in a reducing environment
US20030102124A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a blending agent from a relatively permeable formation
US7032660B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-04-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US6991032B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US6991036B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company Thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation
US6991033B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation
US6994169B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property
US20030102130A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control
US20030098605A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US20030098149A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US20030079877A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation in a reducing environment
US6997518B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and solution mining of an oil shale formation
US7004251B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and remediation of an oil shale formation
US7004247B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-28 Shell Oil Company Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20030080604A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US7040399B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate
US7051807B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control
US6991045B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company Forming openings in a hydrocarbon containing formation using magnetic tracking
US8627887B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2014-01-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030173085A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Upgrading and mining of coal
US20050092483A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2005-05-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20030196810A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US7051808B1 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20070209799A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2007-09-13 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7077199B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-07-18 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US20030196801A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well
US7063145B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-06-20 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation in situ with an opening contacting the earth's surface at two locations
US20030173081A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US7066257B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-06-27 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from lean and rich zones in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7165615B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-23 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US7077198B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-07-18 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers
US7104319B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US7156176B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-02 Shell Oil Company Installation and use of removable heaters in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6932155B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-08-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well
US7090013B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US20040040715A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2004-03-04 Wellington Scott Lee In situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7461691B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2008-12-09 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6969123B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-11-29 Shell Oil Company Upgrading and mining of coal
US7100994B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-05 Shell Oil Company Producing hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon containing materials when treating a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030201098A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-30 Karanikas John Michael In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using one or more simulations
US7114566B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-10-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US7086465B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-08 Shell Oil Company In situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7128153B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-10-31 Shell Oil Company Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US20030205378A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-11-06 Wellington Scott Lee In situ recovery from lean and rich zones in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8224163B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US8224164B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Insulated conductor temperature limited heaters
US7073578B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-07-11 Shell Oil Company Staged and/or patterned heating during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8238730B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-08-07 Shell Oil Company High voltage temperature limited heaters
US7121341B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Conductor-in-conduit temperature limited heaters
US7219734B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2007-05-22 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting wellbore deformation during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7121342B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7640980B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2010-01-05 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7942203B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2011-05-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7360588B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2008-04-22 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US8579031B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2013-11-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US20050269094A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Harris Christopher K Triaxial temperature limited heater
US7424915B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-09-16 Shell Oil Company Vacuum pumping of conductor-in-conduit heaters
US7490665B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-02-17 Shell Oil Company Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US20050269093A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US20050269088A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Inhibiting effects of sloughing in wellbores
US20050269313A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heaters with high power factors
US20050269077A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Start-up of temperature limited heaters using direct current (DC)
US20050269090A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heaters with thermally conductive fluid used to heat subsurface formations
US7370704B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-05-13 Shell Oil Company Triaxial temperature limited heater
US7481274B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-01-27 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with relatively constant current
US8355623B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2013-01-15 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with high power factors
US20050269091A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Guillermo Pastor-Sanz Reducing viscosity of oil for production from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20050269089A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Temperature limited heaters using modulated DC power
US7320364B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-01-22 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting reflux in a heated well of an in situ conversion system
US20050269092A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Vacuum pumping of conductor-in-conduit heaters
US20050269095A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Fairbanks Michael D Inhibiting reflux in a heated well of an in situ conversion system
US20060005968A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2006-01-12 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heaters with relatively constant current
US7383877B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-06-10 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with thermally conductive fluid used to heat subsurface formations
US7353872B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-04-08 Shell Oil Company Start-up of temperature limited heaters using direct current (DC)
US7357180B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-04-15 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting effects of sloughing in wellbores
US7431076B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-10-07 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters using modulated DC power
US20060289536A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2006-12-28 Vinegar Harold J Subsurface electrical heaters using nitride insulation
US7510000B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-03-31 Shell Oil Company Reducing viscosity of oil for production from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20070045265A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Mckinzie Billy J Ii Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes
US20070133961A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-14 Fairbanks Michael D Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US7942197B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-05-17 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US20070144732A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-28 Kim Dong S Low temperature barriers for use with in situ processes
US20070137856A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-21 Mckinzie Billy J Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process
US8230927B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-31 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US8233782B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-31 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
US20070133960A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-14 Vinegar Harold J In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
US7527094B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-05-05 Shell Oil Company Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process
US8224165B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor
US7575052B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-08-18 Shell Oil Company In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US7546873B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-06-16 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barriers for use with in situ processes
US8070840B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-12-06 Shell Oil Company Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process
US8027571B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-09-27 Shell Oil Company In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
US20080217321A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2008-09-11 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor
US7986869B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-07-26 Shell Oil Company Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US7831134B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-11-09 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
US20070119098A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-31 Zaida Diaz Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process
US20070108201A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-17 Vinegar Harold J Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase wye configuration
US7435037B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2008-10-14 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes
US20070108200A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-17 Mckinzie Billy J Ii Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing
US7575053B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-08-18 Shell Oil Company Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers
US20070045268A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Vinegar Harold J Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US20070045267A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Vinegar Harold J Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US20070045266A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Sandberg Chester L In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US7831133B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-11-09 Shell Oil Company Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration
US7500528B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-03-10 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing
US7860377B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-12-28 Shell Oil Company Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US20070131420A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-14 Weijian Mo Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products
US7559368B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-14 Shell Oil Company Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20110168394A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2011-07-14 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US8151880B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2012-04-10 Shell Oil Company Methods of making transportation fuel
US8606091B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2013-12-10 Shell Oil Company Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates
US7562706B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-21 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations
US20080107577A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2008-05-08 Vinegar Harold J Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations
US20070221377A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-09-27 Vinegar Harold J Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090301724A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2009-12-10 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US20070131419A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-14 Maria Roes Augustinus W Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US20070131427A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-14 Ruijian Li Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations
US7591310B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-09-22 Shell Oil Company Methods of hydrotreating a liquid stream to remove clogging compounds
US7584789B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-09-08 Shell Oil Company Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products
US7581589B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-09-01 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US20070127897A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-07 John Randy C Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates
US20070125533A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-07 Minderhoud Johannes K Methods of hydrotreating a liquid stream to remove clogging compounds
US7549470B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-06-23 Shell Oil Company Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US7556096B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-07 Shell Oil Company Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations
US20070095536A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-05-03 Vinegar Harold J Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US7559367B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-14 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation
US7635025B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-12-22 Shell Oil Company Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US7556095B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-07 Shell Oil Company Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent
US7631689B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-12-15 Shell Oil Company Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US20080035705A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Menotti James L Welding shield for coupling heaters
US7785427B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-08-31 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US8857506B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2014-10-14 Shell Oil Company Alternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes
US20100272595A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2010-10-28 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US20080173444A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Francis Marion Stone Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US20080174115A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Gene Richard Lambirth Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
US20080173449A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Thomas David Fowler Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment
US20080173442A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Vinegar Harold J Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US7683296B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-03-23 Shell Oil Company Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters
US20080035346A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Vijay Nair Methods of producing transportation fuel
US7673786B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-03-09 Shell Oil Company Welding shield for coupling heaters
US7912358B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-03-22 Shell Oil Company Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US7533719B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-05-19 Shell Oil Company Wellhead with non-ferromagnetic materials
US20080038144A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Maziasz Phillip J High strength alloys
US7597147B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-10-06 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
US7604052B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-10-20 Shell Oil Company Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process
US8192682B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2012-06-05 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US7866385B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
US7610962B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-11-03 Shell Oil Company Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment
US8083813B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-12-27 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing transportation fuel
US7635023B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-12-22 Shell Oil Company Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20080173450A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Bernard Goldberg Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7793722B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-09-14 Shell Oil Company Non-ferromagnetic overburden casing
US20080035348A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Vitek John M Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
US7631690B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-12-15 Shell Oil Company Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence
US7635024B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-12-22 Shell Oil Company Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures
US7845411B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-12-07 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US7562707B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-07-21 Shell Oil Company Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process
US8191630B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2012-06-05 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US20100276141A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2010-11-04 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US20080277113A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-11-13 George Leo Stegemeier Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US7540324B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-06-02 Shell Oil Company Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a checkerboard pattern staged process
US7673681B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-09 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones
US7677310B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-16 Shell Oil Company Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations
US7677314B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-16 Shell Oil Company Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations
US7681647B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-23 Shell Oil Company Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US20080135254A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-12 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US20080142217A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-19 Roelof Pieterson Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process
US20080142216A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-19 Vinegar Harold J Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US20080135253A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-12 Vinegar Harold J Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones
US7644765B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-01-12 Shell Oil Company Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US7730947B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US7841401B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process
US20080217004A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a checkerboard pattern staged process
US20080185147A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-08-07 Vinegar Harold J Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US7717171B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-05-18 Shell Oil Company Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
US7730946B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US20080135244A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-12 David Scott Miller Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process
US7730945B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process
US8555971B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2013-10-15 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US7703513B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-04-27 Shell Oil Company Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US20090014181A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2009-01-15 Vinegar Harold J Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations
US20080128134A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-05 Ramesh Raju Mudunuri Producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US20080217003A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 Myron Ira Kuhlman Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process
US20090014180A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2009-01-15 George Leo Stegemeier Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
US20080217015A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 Vinegar Harold J Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence
US7841408B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US7798220B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-09-21 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US20090095478A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 John Michael Karanikas Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities
US8662175B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-03-04 Shell Oil Company Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities
US7931086B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-04-26 Shell Oil Company Heating systems for heating subsurface formations
US8791396B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-07-29 Shell Oil Company Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations
US9181780B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2015-11-10 Shell Oil Company Controlling and assessing pressure conditions during treatment of tar sands formations
US20090090509A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-09 Vinegar Harold J In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20090095479A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 John Michael Karanikas Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation
US20090084547A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-02 Walter Farman Farmayan Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations
US20090078461A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-03-26 Arthur James Mansure Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures
US7832484B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-16 Shell Oil Company Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US20090095480A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US7841425B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures
US20090321075A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-12-31 Christopher Kelvin Harris Parallel heater system for subsurface formations
US20090095476A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 Scott Vinh Nguyen Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US7849922B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-12-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20090071652A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-03-19 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US8381815B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-02-26 Shell Oil Company Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation
US7950453B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-05-31 Shell Oil Company Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations
US20090120646A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-05-14 Dong Sub Kim Electrically isolating insulated conductor heater
US8459359B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-06-11 Shell Oil Company Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones
US20090126929A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-05-21 Vinegar Harold J Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones
US8327681B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2012-12-11 Shell Oil Company Wellbore manufacturing processes for in situ heat treatment processes
US8042610B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-10-25 Shell Oil Company Parallel heater system for subsurface formations
US20090095477A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 Scott Vinh Nguyen Heating systems for heating subsurface formations
US8196658B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-06-12 Shell Oil Company Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US7866386B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company In situ oxidation of subsurface formations
US20090189617A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-07-30 David Burns Continuous subsurface heater temperature measurement
US8240774B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-08-14 Shell Oil Company Solution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds
US8011451B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-09-06 Shell Oil Company Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US8536497B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2013-09-17 Shell Oil Company Methods for forming long subsurface heaters
US20090194333A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Macdonald Duncan Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US20090194282A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Gary Lee Beer In situ oxidation of subsurface formations
US8272455B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-09-25 Shell Oil Company Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations
US8113272B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-02-14 Shell Oil Company Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations
US8146669B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-03 Shell Oil Company Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation
US8146661B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-03 Shell Oil Company Cryogenic treatment of gas
US20090194329A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Rosalvina Ramona Guimerans Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations
US20090194524A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Dong Sub Kim Methods for forming long subsurface heaters
US20090194269A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Vinegar Harold J Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations
US8162059B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-24 Shell Oil Company Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations
US7866388B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel
US20090200031A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-13 David Scott Miller Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090200025A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-13 Jose Luis Bravo High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel
US20090200854A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-13 Vinegar Harold J Solution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds
US8276661B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-10-02 Shell Oil Company Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier
US20090260824A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 David Booth Burns Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090260823A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 Robert George Prince-Wright Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090272535A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-11-05 David Booth Burns Using tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8162405B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-04-24 Shell Oil Company Using tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8151907B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-04-10 Shell Oil Company Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US20090272578A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-11-05 Macdonald Duncan Charles Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US8636323B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2014-01-28 Shell Oil Company Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8562078B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2013-10-22 Shell Oil Company Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8177305B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-05-15 Shell Oil Company Heater connections in mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8752904B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2014-06-17 Shell Oil Company Heated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8172335B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-05-08 Shell Oil Company Electrical current flow between tunnels for use in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090272533A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-11-05 David Booth Burns Heated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US9528322B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2016-12-27 Shell Oil Company Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US20100101783A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-29 Vinegar Harold J Using self-regulating nuclear reactors in treating a subsurface formation
US8261832B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-11 Shell Oil Company Heating subsurface formations with fluids
US8281861B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-10-09 Shell Oil Company Circulated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8256512B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-04 Shell Oil Company Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8267185B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-18 Shell Oil Company Circulated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation
US8353347B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2013-01-15 Shell Oil Company Deployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations
US8220539B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US8881806B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2014-11-11 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors
US9051829B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-06-09 Shell Oil Company Perforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
US20100096137A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-22 Scott Vinh Nguyen Circulated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8267170B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-18 Shell Oil Company Offset barrier wells in subsurface formations
US20100101784A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-29 Vinegar Harold J Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US9129728B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods of forming subsurface wellbores
US9022118B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-05-05 Shell Oil Company Double insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations
US20100224368A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-09-09 Stanley Leroy Mason Deployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations
US20100206570A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-08-19 Ernesto Rafael Fonseca Ocampos Circulated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation
US20100147522A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-06-17 Xueying Xie Systems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors
US20100147521A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-06-17 Xueying Xie Perforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
US20100089586A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-15 John Andrew Stanecki Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100108379A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-05-06 David Alston Edbury Systems and methods of forming subsurface wellbores
US20100108310A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-05-06 Thomas David Fowler Offset barrier wells in subsurface formations
US20100089584A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-15 David Booth Burns Double insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations
US20100258290A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Ronald Marshall Bass Non-conducting heater casings
US20100258265A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 John Michael Karanikas Recovering energy from a subsurface formation
US20100258291A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Everett De St Remey Edward Heated liners for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20110042084A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2011-02-24 Robert Bos Irregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation
US8448707B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2013-05-28 Shell Oil Company Non-conducting heater casings
US8434555B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2013-05-07 Shell Oil Company Irregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation
US20100258309A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Oluropo Rufus Ayodele Heater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US8851170B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2014-10-07 Shell Oil Company Heater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US8327932B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2012-12-11 Shell Oil Company Recovering energy from a subsurface formation
US8875788B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-11-04 Shell Oil Company Low temperature inductive heating of subsurface formations
US8833453B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-16 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with tapered copper thickness
US9399905B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2016-07-26 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US9127523B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Barrier methods for use in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US9022109B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-05 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US9033042B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-19 Shell Oil Company Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8820406B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-02 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore
US8739874B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-06-03 Shell Oil Company Methods for heating with slots in hydrocarbon formations
US8701769B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology
US9127538B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Methodologies for treatment of hydrocarbon formations using staged pyrolyzation
US8631866B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-01-21 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8701768B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations
US9016370B2 (en) 2011-04-08 2015-04-28 Shell Oil Company Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US9309755B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2016-04-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
USRE27252E (en) Thermal method for producing heavy oil
US3382922A (en) Production of oil shale by in situ pyrolysis
US3150715A (en) Oil recovery by in situ combustion with water injection
US3139928A (en) Thermal process for in situ decomposition of oil shale
US3241611A (en) Recovery of petroleum products from oil shale
US3062282A (en) Initiation of in situ combustion in a carbonaceous stratum
US3061009A (en) Method of recovery from fossil fuel bearing strata
US6758268B2 (en) In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6588504B2 (en) In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US6715548B2 (en) In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US6715546B2 (en) In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US3106244A (en) Process for producing oil shale in situ by electrocarbonization
US2897894A (en) Recovery of oil from subterranean reservoirs
US6969123B2 (en) Upgrading and mining of coal
US6782947B2 (en) In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation to increase permeability of the formation
US3127935A (en) In situ combustion for oil recovery in tar sands, oil shales and conventional petroleum reservoirs
US3456721A (en) Downhole-burner apparatus
US2801089A (en) Underground shale retorting process
US2642943A (en) Oil recovery process
US6948562B2 (en) Production of a blending agent using an in situ thermal process in a relatively permeable formation
US3048221A (en) Hydrocarbon recovery by thermal drive
US3097690A (en) Process for heating a subsurface formation
US4324291A (en) Viscous oil recovery method
US4384613A (en) Method of in-situ retorting of carbonaceous material for recovery of organic liquids and gases
US3275076A (en) Recovery of asphaltic-type petroleum from a subterranean reservoir