US2895894A - Electrolytic cell arrangement - Google Patents

Electrolytic cell arrangement Download PDF

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Publication number
US2895894A
US2895894A US624439A US62443956A US2895894A US 2895894 A US2895894 A US 2895894A US 624439 A US624439 A US 624439A US 62443956 A US62443956 A US 62443956A US 2895894 A US2895894 A US 2895894A
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base
mercury
electrolytic cell
anode
covering
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US624439A
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Conforto Gaetano
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Pintsch Bamag AG
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Pintsch Bamag AG
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25BELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COMPOUNDS OR NON-METALS; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25B11/00Electrodes; Manufacture thereof not otherwise provided for
    • C25B11/04Electrodes; Manufacture thereof not otherwise provided for characterised by the material
    • C25B11/042Electrodes formed of a single material
    • C25B11/045Mercury or amalgam

Description

July 2l, 1959 G. CONFORTO ELECTROLYTIC CELL ARRANGEMENT Filed Nov. 26. 1956 Inventor.' Gae'f'q P16 CGHFoFfo Bl: Lame ,im
Patented July 21, 1959 ice ELECTROLYTIC CELL ARRANGEMENT Gaetano Conforto, Genoa, Italy, assgnor to Pintsch Bamag Aktiengesellschaft, Berlin, Germany l Application November 26, 1956, Serial No. 624,439
Claims priority, application Italy November 25, 1955 2 Claims. (Cl. 204-219) The present invention relates to an electrolytic cell arrangement. More particularly, the present invention relates to an electrolytic cell having a mercury cathode.
Conventional electrolytic cells using mercury cathodes are formed with a flat bottom portion which have a fairly limited width. The mercury `is disposed on the flat bottom portion to form a substantial planar layer of mercury. In electrolytic cells wherein a owing stream of mercury is used as the cathode, it is very difficult to maintain an even mercury layer in the bottom of the cell. It is clear that Where a broad planar layer of mercury is used it is possible to obtain therein small inhomogeneities.
In addition, where the planar layer of mercury is continuously llowing in the electrolytic cell, certain inclinations and unevenness of the mercury layer results. Therefore, in order to insure a suicient covering for the bottom of the electrolytic cell, it is necessary to provide a substantial amount of mercury. It is quite clear that the larger the Width of the electrolytic cell, the greater will be the amount of mercury needed in order to insure an even mercury cathode.
The present invention overcomes the disadvantages of the conventional type electrolytic cells by dividing up the bottom of the electrolytic cell into a plurality of stripshaped portions which are separated from one another and by disposing the mercury cathode within the stripshaped portions.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to overcome the above-described disadvantages of conventional electrolytic cells.
A second object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved electrolytic cell arrangement.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved electrolytic cell arrangement using mercury cathodes.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide a new and improved electrolytic cell arrangement wherein the mercury used for the mercury cathode thereof is utilized in a highly efficient manner.
With the above objects in view the present invention mainly consists of an electrolytic cell arrangement including a base member, a plurality of spaced electrical insulating members arranged on one face of the base member, an anode mounted on the electrical insulating members spaced from the face of the base member, and electrically conductive cathode material disposed on the face of the base member between the spaced electrical insulating members and spaced from the anode to form a cathode for the electrolytic cell.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, each of the insulating members has a polygonal crosssection with a planar surface portion attached to the base member. The insulating members also have-knifeedged portions spaced from the base member so that the anode can be mounted on these knife-edged portions of the insulating members to be spaced from the `face of the base member,
In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the insulating members divide the face of the base member into a plurality of parallel elongated stripshaped portions and the material used for the cathode is mercury which flows through the electrolytic cell along the strip-shaped portions, substantially covering the same.
The novel features which are considered as charactcristic for the invention are set forth in particular in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, both Vas to its construction and its method of operation, together with additional objects and advantages thereof, will be best understood from the following description of specific embodiments when read in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. l is a transverse sectional View of an electrolytic cell constructed in accordance with the present invention; and
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1 with the top anode portion removed.
Referring to the drawings it can be seen that the electrolytic cell is formed with a base member 1 made of an electrically conductive material. The upper face of the base member 1 is formed with a plurality of parallel elongated undercut grooves 4. The grooves 4 shown in Figs. l and 2 are dovetail grooves.
Slidably mounted in each of the grooves 4 is an electrical insulating member 3 having a triangular crosssection. The insulating members 3 may be made from glass or porcelain or similar types of insulating material. It can be seen that each of the insulating members 3 is arranged in its respective groove 4 so that the insulating member 3 cannot be moved away from the base member 1 due to the dovetail groove arrangement. However, it is clear that the insulating members 3 may be easily moved along the base member 1 to be removed or replaced.
Mounted on the upper-knife-edged portions of the insulating members 3 is the anode 2 of the electrolytic cell. The anode 2 as shown is a planar electrode with the lower face portion thereof resting along the upper edge portions of the insulating members 3. These insulating members selve to space the anode from the base member 1.
As can best be seen in Fig. l, the facing side por tions of each pair of adjacent insulating members 3 form together with the surface portion of the base member 1 therebetween a substantially U-shaped channel 5. These channels 5 are parallel to one another and are elongated. Disposed in each of these channels is an electrically conductive material 6 which serves as the cathode for the electrolytic cell arrangement. This material is preferably mercury.
In electrolytic cells, wherein mercury is used as the cathode and wherein the mercury flows through the electrolytic cell to form an amalgam with material liberated from the electrolytic solution, it can be seen that with the construction as shown in Figs. 1 and 2 the mercury is most efficiently used. That is, the mercury cathode of the electrolytic cell is broken up into a plurality of flowing mercury streams. Each of these mercury streams substantially cover the surface portion of the base member l on which it is respectively disposed.
The upper surface of each of the mercury streams 6 is in the form of a meniscus so that the maximum surface area is provided opposite the lower surface of the anode 2.
The anode 2 is preferably made movable towards and away from the base member l as well as in a direction parallel to the base member. In operation, therefore, an electrolyte is introduced between the cathode 6 and the anode 2. Proper sources of energization and operatingllpotential are -applied between the anode 2 and the base member 1 so that proper operating potentials are developed between the anode 2 and the cathode 6 across the electrolyte which is disposed in the channel 5.
As'the electrolytic processV continues it is possible for a portion of the anode to wear away as is shown -by theI arcuate surface portion 7 inthe-lower surface of the anode 2. anode 2 rest on the upper knife edges of the insulating members 3, these narrow strip-shaped portions will not come directly into contact with the electrolyte and therefore will not be worn away as much as the remainder of the anode which does come directly into contact with the electrolyte.
Accordingly, with the electrolytic cell arrangementI The electrolytic process can continue and when the` anode wears away again, the anode 2 can be shifted back the same amount in the direction ofthe arrow B. This shifting arrangement can be carried out until the anode 2 has to be replaced or the electrolytic process is` completedf It is apparent that such an arrangement provides a highly efficient electrolytic cell.
The means for moving the anode 2 in the variousl directions have not been shown in order to avoid unnecessarily complicating the drawing; Similarly, thev means 4for introducing the mercury when streams of flow'- ing mercury arc used and the means for removing the amalgam formed with the mercury have not been shown since these features would also unnecessarily complicate the drawing.
With the present invention the cells can have any desired width since the thickness and arrangement ofthe mercury cathode no longer is limited by the overall width'of the-cell. Rather for a wider cell, it is merely necessary to have an additional number of insulating members 3 mounted on the base member 1A so that addi-V tional stripsofcathode material are provided. Also with4r the triangular cross-section of the insulating members 3, it is clear that a substantial portion of the anode surface is left free for the electrolytic process.
Normally, whenthe cathode currentintensity is i11- creased, the over voltage at the anode increases by a greater amount than Would be the case if the anode current intensity were increased by the same amount.y However, `with the present arrangement, this increase in' scribed above, or two or more together, may also find a useful `application in other types of electrolytic arrangements differing from the types described above.
Since certain strip-shaped portions of the While the invention has been illustrated and described as embodied in an electrolytic cell having a mercury cathode, it is not intended to be limited to the details shown, since various modifications and structural changes may be made without departing in any way from the spirit of the present invention.
Without further analysis, the foregoing will so lfully reveal the gist of the present invention that others can by applyingcur'rent knowledge readily adapt it'for various applications without omitting features that, from the standpoint of prior art, fairly constitute essentialcharacteristics of the generic or specific aspects of this invention, and, therefore; such adaptations should and are intended to be comprehended within the meaning and range of equivalence of the following claims.
What is claimed-as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
1. In an electrolytic cell, in combination, a base member; a plurality of elongated parallel electrical insulating ridges arranged-on one facel of said base member and covering a substantial portion of said face, each of said insulating ridges having a wide base portion covering a-portion'of said one face of said base member and a narrow elongate top edge, said insulating ridges being i edge, said insulating ridges defining with uncovered p0r-l transversely spaced'from each other and dening with uncovered portions of said face of said base member a plurality of elongate parallel channels; an anode extending` over said top edges of said electrical insulating channels formed between adjacent insulating ridges; and a'mercury cathode formed by a plurality of flowing mercury streams, each of said mercury streams flowingthrough Vone of said elongated parallel channels and substantially covering said respective portion of said face of said base member forming part of said respective channel.
2. In an electrolytic` cell, in combination, a base' member; a plurality of elongated electricalinsulating ridges arranged on one face of said base member and covering a substantial portion of said face, said insulating ridges having a wide base portion covering a portion of saidone face of said base member and a narrow top tions of said face of saidbase members a` plurality of channels; an anode extending over said electrical insulating ridges spaced from said face of'said base member and substantially-enclosing each of said channels formed between adjacent insulating ridges, said anode being movable towards and away from said face of said base member and in a direction parallel to said face of said base member; and a mercury cathode formed by a pluralityvof owing mercury streams, each of said mercury streams flowing through one of said channels and substantially covering said respective portion of said'face of said base member forming part of said respective channel.
Rfrences Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 627,193 Kelly June 20, 1899'V 2,551,248 Deprez et al. May 1, 1951 2,576,553 Andreasen Nov. 27, 1951 2,596,583 Meiklejohn May 13, 1952 2,649,411 Shaw et al. .'Aug. 18, 1953 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,047,182 France July 22, 1953

Claims (1)

1. IN AN ELECTROLYTIC CELL, IN COMBINATION, A BASE MEMBER, A PLURALITY OF ELONGATED PARALLEL ELECTRICAL INSULATING RIDGES ARRANGED ON ONE FACE OF SAID BASE MEMBER AND COVERING A SUBSTANTIAL PORTION OF SAID FACE, EACH OF SAID INSULATING RIDGES HAVING A WIDE BASE PORTION COVERING A PORTION OF SAID ONE FACE OF SAID BASE MEMBER AND A NARROW ELONGATE TOP EDGE, SAID BASE INSULATING RIDGES BEING TRANSVERSELY SPACED FROM EACH OTHER AND DEFINING WITH UNCOVERED PORTIONS OF SAID FACE OF SSID BASE MEMBER A PLURALITY OF ELONGATE PARALLEL CHANNELS; AB ANODE EXTENDING OVER SAID TOP EDGES OF SAID ELECTRICAL INSULATING RIDGES SPACED FROM SAID FACE OF SAID BASE MEMBER AND SUBSTANTIALLY ENCLOSING EACH OF SAID ELONGATED PARALLEL CHANNELS FORMED BETWEEN ADJACENT INSULATING RIDGES; AND A MERCURY CATHODE FORMED BY A PLURALITY OF FLOWING MERCURY STREAMS, EACH OF SAID MERCURY STREAMS FLOWING THROUGH ONE OF SAID ELONGATED PARALLEL CHANNELS AND SUBSTANTIALLY COVERING SAID RESPECTIVE PORTION OF SAID FACE SAID BASE MEMBER FORMING PART OF SAID RESPECTIVE CHANNEL.
US624439A 1955-11-25 1956-11-26 Electrolytic cell arrangement Expired - Lifetime US2895894A (en)

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DE (1) DE1123652B (en)
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GB (1) GB803197A (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3390069A (en) * 1963-05-24 1968-06-25 Asahi Denka Kogyo Kk Horizontal mercury cathode cell with bottom mounted anode support members

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
IT1393235B1 (en) * 2009-10-29 2012-04-11 Bertaso Notice board hang documents with a single movement of the hand, without the aid of clips.

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US627193A (en) * 1899-06-20 Amalgam-wash ing chamber
US2551248A (en) * 1944-02-09 1951-05-01 Solvay Apparatus for the decomposition of alkali amalgams
US2576553A (en) * 1947-10-18 1951-11-27 Power Gas Ltd Electrolytic cells
US2596583A (en) * 1947-04-21 1952-05-13 Ici Ltd Electrolytic cell
US2649411A (en) * 1949-02-07 1953-08-18 Ici Ltd Mercury cathode electrolytic cell
FR1047182A (en) * 1950-06-22 1953-12-11 Electrolytic cell anode gap adjustment device

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB601439A (en) * 1946-01-21 1948-05-05 Krebs & Company As Improvements in or relating to electrolytic cells
NL84353C (en) * 1954-05-25

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US627193A (en) * 1899-06-20 Amalgam-wash ing chamber
US2551248A (en) * 1944-02-09 1951-05-01 Solvay Apparatus for the decomposition of alkali amalgams
US2596583A (en) * 1947-04-21 1952-05-13 Ici Ltd Electrolytic cell
US2576553A (en) * 1947-10-18 1951-11-27 Power Gas Ltd Electrolytic cells
US2649411A (en) * 1949-02-07 1953-08-18 Ici Ltd Mercury cathode electrolytic cell
FR1047182A (en) * 1950-06-22 1953-12-11 Electrolytic cell anode gap adjustment device

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3390069A (en) * 1963-05-24 1968-06-25 Asahi Denka Kogyo Kk Horizontal mercury cathode cell with bottom mounted anode support members

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FR1160601A (en) 1958-07-22
DE1123652B (en) 1962-02-15
CH346209A (en) 1960-05-15
GB803197A (en) 1958-10-22

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