US2890755A - Apparatus for recovering combustible substances from subterraneous deposits in situ - Google Patents

Apparatus for recovering combustible substances from subterraneous deposits in situ Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2890755A
US2890755A US40197254A US2890755A US 2890755 A US2890755 A US 2890755A US 40197254 A US40197254 A US 40197254A US 2890755 A US2890755 A US 2890755A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
casing
combustion
fuel
tubular
heating
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Eurenius Malte Oscar
Persson Bengt
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Svenska Skifferolje AB
Husky Oil Co
Original Assignee
Svenska Skifferolje AB
Husky Oil Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B36/00Heating, cooling, insulating arrangements for boreholes or wells, e.g. for use in permafrost zones
    • E21B36/02Heating, cooling, insulating arrangements for boreholes or wells, e.g. for use in permafrost zones using burners
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/285Melting minerals, e.g. sulfur

Description

June 1959 M. o. EURENIIUS ETAL APPARATUS FOR RECOVERING 00 2 Sheets-Shet 1 MBUSTIBLE SUBSTANCE FROM SUBTERRANEOUS DEPOSITS IN SITU Filed Jan. 4, 1954 Fig.1

INVENTORS MALT E OSCAR EURENIUS BENGT PERSSON ATTORNEY June 16, 1959 2,890,755 ZTANCES M. O. EURENIUS ET AL APPARATUS FOR RECOVERING COMBUSTIBLE SUB FROM SUBTERRANEOUS DEPOSITS IN SIT 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jan. 4, 1954 Fig.4

INVENTORS MALTE OSCAR EURENIUS BENGT PERSSON ATTORNEY United States Patent APPARATUS FOR RECOVERING COMBUSTIBLE SUBSTANCES FROM SUBTERRANEOUS DEPOS- ITS lN SITU Malte Oscar Eurenius and Bengt Persson, Kumla, Sweden,

assignors, by direct and mesne assignments, of onehalf to Svenska Skiiierolie Aktiebolaget, Orebro, Sweden, a joint-stock company of Sweden, and one-half to Husky Oil Company, Cody, Wyo., a corporation of Delaware Application January 4, 1954, Serial No. 401,972

Claims priority, application Sweden December 19, 1953 3 Claims. (Cl. 16659) This invention relates to a heating device for heating deposits in the ground in situ, i.e. in their natural location. In the treatment of geological deposits in the ground for recovery of valuable products in a liquid and/or gaseous state it has sometimes proved possible to avoid mining by heating the deposit in situ. Said heating method can be employed when exploiting, for example, shale formations, tar sand deposits or sulphur deposits. Heating of geological deposits in their natural location has been practised in prior art on a large scale, at least as far as oil shale deposits are concerned, by means of heating elements or members introduced down into the deposit as is disclosed in the French patent specification No. 1,013,679 which is referred to for a more detailed description of the method. As in the treatment of fuelcarrying deposits considerable quantities of combustible gas are recovered normally, it is easy to understand that efiort should be made for developing a heating method in which said gas can be used directly as fuel. In this method the losses and additional expenses caused by the indirect way over a steam power plant, can be avoided or at least considerably reduced.

The deposits to be treated in situ should preferably be covered by an overburden of, for example, limestone. Such overburden reduces the risk of valuable products formed by the heating operation escaping due to leakage. If such covering overburden does not exist, the deposit intended to be exploited is not allowed to be heated in the portion thereof adjacent the surface of the ground. But even if a cover of overburden exists, it is often not desirable that heat be supplied to said cover. With respect to the underlying deposit the rule is that a uniform yield of heat to the entire deposit is desirable, but sometimes it is more advantageous initially to heat a minor zone of the deposit only and subsequently to displace'said heating zone successively.

The most practicable method of heating in situ appears to consist in introducing tubular heating members vertically downwards from the surface of the ground into the deposit. If the heat is supplied in the form of electrical energy it does not involve any specific difiiculties to attain the desired distribution of the heat yielded, since it is quite sufficient to dispose resistance coils at those portions of the heating device which are to be heated. There are, however, considerable difficulties to be met if the heat is desired to be generated by combustion. Introduction of a convenient gas burner downwards into the tubular heating device results in a very unequal distribution of heat, a marked zone of the heating curve appearplurality of flames on various levels in the long tubular heating device. This expedient is, however, associated With several inconveniences caused by theobvious difliu culties in obtaining the most suitable proportion between the quantities of fuel and oxygen supplied to each individual flame.

One principal object of the present invention is to provide a heating device permitting supply of an intermixture of fuel and oxygen from the surface of the ground to the places within the device where the combustion is desired to be started and maintained.

A further object of the invention is to provide a heating device of considerably simplified construction compared with the prior heating devices mentioned above.

A still further object of the invention is to provide a heating device which is both economical in manufacture and reliable in operation.

A still further object of the invention is to provide a heating device permitting in a simple manner the creation of a limited heating zone displaceable along the device.

Further objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description considered in connection with the accompanying drawings, which form part of this specification, and of which:

Figs. 1 to 4 are longitudinal sectional views of heating devices constructed according to four embodiments of the invention, and of surrounding geological formations into which the heating devices have been introduced.

The drawings present the heating devices on diiferent scales with respect to their longitudinal and lateral dimensions. In reality the devices have a length of 20 to metres, for example, whereas their exterior diameter normally does not surpass l decimetre.

As will be seen from the drawings, the heating device comprises a tubular casing 10 and an inner tube substantially concentric with said casing. The casing 10 is introduced into a vertical hole or channel bored or otherwise formed in a downward direction from the surface of the ground. Said hole or channel penetrates for a little distance into a geological stratum 11 located below the fuel-carrying deposit 12 to be exploited. The heating of the boundary layer of the stratum 11 adjacent the deposit 12 is adapted to counteract collection due to gravity of valuable products generated by the heating process. Said heating also prevents heat from becoming transferred from the deposit 12 to the underlying stratum 11 whereby uniform heating of the lower part also of said deposit is assured.

According to the embodiments presented in the, drawings, the deposit 12 is assumed to be covered by a stratum 13 of limestone, above which is a layer 14 of earth the upper surface of which forms the surface of the ground. The interspace between the wall of the hole or channel and the casing 10 is filled with a granular material 15 such as sand, for example, in a manner disclosed in the aforecited French patent.

Above the surface of the ground the casing 10 is provided with a discharge tube 16 and a sealing cover 17 on which a stufiing box 18 is placed. By means of said stufiing box 18 the casing 10 is connected with the inner tube the lower open end of which is on a level higher than the bottom of the casing 10.

Referring to the embodiment shown in Fig. l, the inner tube consists of two parts, a Wider lower part 19 and a narrower upper part 20. Said two parts are interconnected by a conical part 21 disposed on a level coinciding with the upper boundary surface of the deposit 12.

A mixture of fuel and oxygen is introduced into the device through the opening located above the surface of the ground of the upper tube part 20. Said mixture of fuel and oxygen upon having filled the whole heating device and reached the discharge tube 16 is ignited at that tube. Now, the velocity of the mixture of fuel and oxygen is adjusted so as to cause the flame to recede,

i.e. to migrate in a backward direction relative the direction of flow of said mixture, said flame thus first being displaced downwards within the interspace between the casing and the inner tube 19, 20 and then upwards within the wider tube part 19. It is of essential importance that the linear flow velocity of the mixture is less than the linear propagation velocity of the flame which is dependent on, inter alia, the composition of the fuel. The cross-section of the narrower tube part 20 is dimensioned so as to cause the velocity of flow of the mixture to surpass the velocity of combustion thereof. This feature keeps the flame stationary in the conical part 21 and prevents it from proceeding further upwards towards the surface of the ground. The narrower portion 20 of the inner tube thus acts as a kind of flame trap.

If the flame should be extinguished after the heating device has been in operation for some time and the casing has become heated, an application of the ignition method just described is not suitable. At such occasions it has proved diflicult to adjust the quantity of the mixture of fuel and oxygen so as to force the flame to proceed in the desired way. In such a case the ignition is preferably performed by introducing a burning body such as a rocket, for example, down into the device through the inner tube 19, 20. The rocket must be of such type as to be totally consumed without leaving any residue. During introduction of the rocket, the supply of the fuel-oxygen mixture is interrupted, but it must then be started again with a minimum of delay. This will result in an ignition of the mixture at the bottom of the casing 10 whereupon the flame will proceed upwards within the wider tube part 19 in a direction toward the narrower tube part 20. If the re-ignition must be done during so early a period of the heating process as not to have caused heating of the whole casing 10, there is a possibility of water having been collected in the lower part of said casing. In order to prevent the introduced rocket from becoming extinguished by said water, it may be suitable to provide a rocket-catching member 30 at a sufiicient distance from the bottom of .the casing 10. Said member 30 may be a net located in such spaced relation to the stationary flame as not to be burnt and destroyed thereby.

The hot flue gases formed by combustion will flow through the wider tube part 19 toward the bottom of the casing 10. There they are forced to turn and then to pass through the interspace between the casing 10 and the inner tube 19, 20 to escape finally through the discharge tube 16. The wider tube part 19 will consequently become heated most adjacent the conical part 21 and remain coldest at its lower end near the bottom of the casing 10. Due to their yielding of heat to the casing 10 the ascending flue gases will show an opposite distribution of temperature. By a combined effect of heat radiation and convection from the tube part 19 and heat transfer from the ascending flue gases, the total heat yielded to a unit of length will be approximately the same as far as that portion of the casing 10 is concerned which is located within the deposit 12. The heating of that portion of the casing, however, which is located on a higher level than the upper surface of the deposit 12, will remain insignificant, as any additional heat will not be yielded from the upper part 20 of the inner tube. On the contrary, the escaping flue gases will be cooled by the entering fuel-oxygen mixture which in turn will be preheated. The conditions governing the heat yielding phenomena have been described in detail in the copending application Serial No. 377,952, filed September 1, 1953, which is referred to for a fuller explanation thereof. The means described in said application for varying the area open to the flow and for applying protection against radiation and heat insulating layers are applicable also to the device constructed in accordance with the present invention.

In the embodiment shown in Fig. 2 the inner tube 22 4 has equal diameter over its total length. A throttle flange 23 is located within said tube on a level coinciding with the upper boundary surface of the deposit 12. As the velocity of flow of the fuel-oxygen mixture is considerably higher when the mixture passes through the narrow channel in flange 23 than below said flange 23, the flame is prevented from continuing its path upwards past the flange and will become stationary in the desired position coinciding with the upper boundary surface of the deposit 12.

Fig. 3 shows an embodiment comprising in the same manner as the embodiment according to Fig. 2 an inner tube 24 of equal diameter over its entire length, the throttling valve 23, however, having been replaced by a cylindrical body 25 having an external diameter somewhat less than the interior diameter of the tube 24. In this way, a narrow or restricted passage or channel is created along the interior wall of the inner tube, said passage or channel ensuring the desired throttling etfect. The cylindrical body 25 may be made as a convenient flame trap, i.e. it may be of a type permitting passage of gas through its interior. For example, it may be a basket having a perforated bottom and being filled with a highly porous substance such as gravel, for example. It is essential only that the body have a throttling effect sufiicient to create the required high velocity of flow of the fuel-oxygen mixture. The body 25 is suspended on a wire 26 allowing easy raising and lowering of said body and thereby causing the throttling effect on the fuel-oxygen mixture on any desired level within the tube 24. Due to the construction just described it will be a simple task to obtain heating of a predetermined larger or smaller portion of the casing 10. It is possible to start, for example, with the heating of a minor zone of the deposit 12 adjacent the stratum 11 and successively to widen said zone until the whole deposit 12 has become heated. When proceeding in this way the gaseous and liquid products formed during the heating process are driven upwardly against the lime stone stratum 13 where they may be collected and recovered by means of specific outlet tubes.

A further device embodying the invention with a displaceable heating zone is illustrated in Fig. 4. In the same manner as in the embodiment shown in Fig. 1, the inner tube consists of a wider part 27, a narrower part 28 and a conical transition part 29. The length of the wider tube part 27 corresponds, however, to a minor portion only of the height of the deposit 12 to be heated. Consequently, a minor portion only of the casing 10 will be heated at one time. Said minor portion may be shifted by longitudinally displacing the narrower tube part 28 within the stufling box 18. Normally, the portion of the casing 10 located below the Wider tube part 27 will not be heated to a considerable extent. If it is desired further to limit yielding of heat in a downward direction, the bottom portion of the casing 10 may be filled to a desired level with sand 39 or any other suitable pulverulent fireproof material. Prevention of the heating effect in a downward direction may also be brought about by an additional bottom displaceable within the casing 10 in a lengthwise direction. The means and members just mentioned make possible the creation of a movable heating zone successively proceeding from the lower boundary surface of the deposit 12 toward the upper boundary surface thereof, by correspondingly lifting the inner tube 27, 28 and filling in sand 39 to a corresponding extent. It is also possible to cause a displacement of the heating zone in the opposite direction. In such a case sand must be extracted successively from the casing, for example by means of an emergency tube for air under high pressure. The means intended to limit the heating in a downward direction are applicable also to the embodiment of the heating device shown in Fig. 3.

The following specific example will illustrate more in detail the invention.

A deposit of tar sand having a height of 40 metres is covered by a layer of a height or" metres and composed of lime stone, earth and gravel. Through said strata and further to a depth of 2 metres below the bottom of the tar sand deposit a vertical hole is bored from the surface of the ground and of a width of 56 millimetres. The total depth of the borehole is thus 52 metres.

A heating device constructed according to Fig. 1, for example, is introduced into said hole. The casing 10 has a length of 53 metres, an exterior diameter of 47.5 millimetres and an interior diameter of 41 millimetres. The space between the wall of the hole and the casing 10 is filled with sand 15. The narrower part 20 of the inner tube has a length of 10.5 metres, an exterior diameter of 12 millimetres and an interior diameter of 8 millimetres. The wider lower tube part 19 has a length of 425 metres, an exterior diameter of 31 millimetres and an interior diameter of 27 millimetres.

A mixture of a combustible gas and air is fed into the device from the surface of the ground through the narrower tube part 20. The gas has an eifective heat value of about 4000 kcal. per cubicmetre, and its approximate composition is:

25% of hydrogen, 35% of methane, ethane and ethylene, 40% of nitrogen.

Prior to ignition, the mixture is supplied with an intensity of 0.2 cubic metre of :gas and 0.7 cubic metre of air per hour. Said mixture upon having occupied the entire device so as to reach the discharge tube 16 is ignited there. The flame will initially be displaced in a downward direction within the interspace between the casing 10 and the inner tube 19, 20 and subsequently in an upward direction through the Wider tube part 19 to the conical part 21 where the flame will become stationary. The quantity of supplied mixture is now successively increased to 7.5 cubic metres combustible gas and 26.5 cubic metres air per hour. The period of successive increase of the fiow velocity of the gas mixture comprises about two hours, the proportion between the combustible gas and the air constantly being maintained at the ratio of 1:3.5. Finally the quantity of supplied air is further increased to about 32 cubic metres of air supplied per hour, the proportion between the gas and the air thus being changed to 114.25.

The stationary combustion will yield a total heating eifect of about 30,000 kcal. per hour to be distributed over a difference of level of 43 metres. The heat yielded will thus amount, when calculated for one metre of length of the heating device to about 700 kcal. per hour. The heating device constructed according to the invention is capable of developing considerably higher effects, but in a continuous operation the heat absorbing capacity of the surrounding deposit must also be taken into consideration. Said capacity depends, inter alia, on the heat transfer coefficient of the deposit consisting of tar sand, for example, and on the distance between individual heating devices introduced into the deposit.

The fuel required for the combustion may be a combustible gas, but also a liquid or finely divided solid fuel may be used together with or instead of gas. The necessary oxygen may be supplied either as pure oxygen or as an oxygen containing gas mixture such as air, for example.

While several more or less specific embodiments of the invention have been shown it is to be understood that this is for purpose of illustration only and that the invention is not to be limited thereby, but its scope is to be deter-- mined by the appended claims.

What we claim is:

1. A tubular heating device for heating sub-surface deposits in their natural location in the ground for recovery of valuable combustible products in liquid or gaseous form, heat being generated in a combustion zone for fuel inside the device when positioned in said deposit, said device comprising external elongated tubular casing at its base and side walls sealed against the deposit and at its top provided with an outlet for the products of combustion projecting above the surface of the ground, and an internal unitary tubular structure located concentrically and longitudinally displaceable within said external casing and including a fuel and oxygen supply casing adapted with its upper end extending to the surface to receive a mixture of fuel and oxygen, a combustion zone conical easing adjacent and merging into the lower end of said supply casing and adapted to receive said fuel and oxygen mixture, and a combustion products tubular casing at its top in open connection with said conical casing and having an open base end located in spaced relation from the closed base of said external casing so as to provide open communication between said combustion zone tubular casing and said external casing for the flow of combustion products from said combustion zone downwards through said combustion products tubular casing and in counter current upwards through the space between said internal unitary tubular structure and said external tubular casing to the outlet, said conical casing being connected to said fuel and oxygen supply casing at its reduced end so as to ensure a velocity of flow of said mixture to the combustion zone casing greater than the velocity of combustion in the zone of combustion.

2. A heating device as set forth in claim 1 in which the length of the combustion zone tubular casing together with the combustion products tubular casing corresponds approximately to the vertical dimension of the deposit.

3. A tubular heating device for heating sub-surface deposits in their natural location in the ground for recovery of valuable combustible products in liquid or gaseous form, heat being generated in a combustion zone for fuel inside the device when positioned in said deposit, said device comprising an external elongated tubular casing at its base and side walls sealed against the deposit and at its top provided with an outlet for the products of combustion projecting above the surface of the ground, an internal tube open at its lower end located concentrically within said casing and substantially coextensive therewith, said open end being spaced from the base of said casing, said tube having gas restriction means therein above its open end defining a fuel and oxygen supply zone thereabove, an ignition zone adjacent said restriction means, and a combustion products zone adjacent said open end, said products of combustion issuing from said open end and circulating upwardly through the space defined between said tube and said casing to said outlet, said space being dimensioned to maintain a flame formed upon ignition of a mixture of fuel and oxygen introduced from outside into the device in such quantity to fill the device and to penetrate out of said discharge outlet in a burning state while proceeding in a direction opposite to that of the flow of the mixture to a predetermined point adjacent said restriction means within the device.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 797,529 Oliphant et al Aug. 15, 1905 1,449,420 Kraeger et al Mar. 27, 1923 1,613,016 Brandt Jan. 4, 1927 1,678,592 Garner et al. July 24, 1928 2,188,737 Hixon Jan. 30, 1940 2,255,540 Dreifein Sept. 9, 1941 2,506,853 Berg et al. May 9, 1950 FOREIGN PATENTS 155,732 Great Britain Dec. 30, 1920 123,137 Sweden Nov. 9, 1948

Claims (1)

1. A TUBULAR HEATING DEVICE FOR HEATING SUB-SURFACE DEPOSITS IN THEIR NATURAL LOCATION IN THE GROUND FOR RECOVERY OF VALUABLE COMBUSTIBLE PRODUCTS IN LIQUID OR GASEOUS FORM, HEAT BEING GENERATED IN A COMBUSTION ZONE FOR FUEL INSIDE THE DEVICE WHEN POSITIONED IN SAID DEPOSIT, SAID DEVICE COMPRISING AN EXTERNAL ELONGATED TUBULAR CASING AT ITS BASE AND SIDE WALLS SEALED AGAINST THE DEPOSIT AND AT ITS TOP PROVIDED WITH AN OUTLET FOR THE PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION PROJECTING ABOVE THE SURFACE OF THE GROUND, AND AN INTERNAL UNITARY TUBULAR STRUCTURE LOCATED CONCENTRICALLY AND LONGITUDINALLY DISPLACEABLE WITHIN SAID EXTERNAL CASING AND INCLUDING A FUEL AND OXYGEN SUPPLY CASING ADAPTED WITH ITS UPPER END EXTENDING TO THE SURFACE TO RECEIVE A MIXTURE OF FUEL AND OXYGEN, A COMBUSTION ZONE CONICAL CASING ADJACENT AND MERGING INTO THE LOWER END OF SAID SUPPLY CASING AND ADAPTED TO RECEIVE SAID FUEL AND OXYGEN MIXTURE, AND A COMBUSTION PRODUCTS TUBULAR CASING AT ITS TOP IN OPEN CONNECTION WITH SAID CONICAL CASING AND HAVING AN OPEN BASE END LOCATED IN SPACED RELATION FROM THE CLOSED BASE OF SAID EXTERNAL CASING SO AS TO PROVIDE OPEN COMMUNICATION BETWEEN SAID COMBUSTION ZONE TUBULAR CASING AND SAID EXTERNAL CASING FOR THE FLOW OF COMBUSTION FROM SAID COMBUSTION ZONE DOWNWARDS THROUGH SAID COMBUSTION PRODUCTS TUBULAR CASING AND IN COUNTER CURRENT UPWARDS THROUGH THE SPACE BETWEEN SAID INTERNAL UNITARY TUBULAR STRUCTURE AND SAID EXTERNAL TUBULAR CASING TO THE OUTLET SAID CONICAL CASING BEING CONNECTED TO SAID FUEL AND OXYGEN SUPPLY CASING AT ITS REDUCED END SO AS TO ENSURE A VELOCITY OF FLOW OF SAID MIXTURE TO THE COMBUSTION ZONE CASING GREATER THAN THE VELOCITY OF COMBUSTION IN THE ZONE OF COMBUSTION.
US2890755A 1953-12-19 1954-01-04 Apparatus for recovering combustible substances from subterraneous deposits in situ Expired - Lifetime US2890755A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
SE2890755X 1953-12-19

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2890755A true US2890755A (en) 1959-06-16

Family

ID=20427696

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US2890755A Expired - Lifetime US2890755A (en) 1953-12-19 1954-01-04 Apparatus for recovering combustible substances from subterraneous deposits in situ

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2890755A (en)

Cited By (49)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3095031A (en) * 1959-12-09 1963-06-25 Eurenius Malte Oscar Burners for use in bore holes in the ground
US3127936A (en) * 1957-07-26 1964-04-07 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Method of in situ heating of subsurface preferably fuel containing deposits
US3181613A (en) * 1959-07-20 1965-05-04 Union Oil Co Method and apparatus for subterranean heating
US3216499A (en) * 1963-07-01 1965-11-09 Pan American Petroleum Corp Fusible bottom-hole igniter
US3216498A (en) * 1962-06-22 1965-11-09 Pan American Petroleum Corp Heating oil-bearing formations
US3244231A (en) * 1963-04-09 1966-04-05 Pan American Petroleum Corp Method for catalytically heating oil bearing formations
US3339978A (en) * 1965-05-14 1967-09-05 Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co Prevention of floor erosion of a solution mining cavity
US3982591A (en) * 1974-12-20 1976-09-28 World Energy Systems Downhole recovery system
US3982592A (en) * 1974-12-20 1976-09-28 World Energy Systems In situ hydrogenation of hydrocarbons in underground formations
US4245701A (en) * 1979-06-12 1981-01-20 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Apparatus and method for igniting an in situ oil shale retort
US20030066642A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2003-04-10 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a coal formation producing a mixture with oxygenated hydrocarbons
US20030080604A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US20030079877A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation in a reducing environment
US20030098605A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US6581684B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-06-24 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce sulfur containing formation fluids
US6588504B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US20030155111A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-21 Shell Oil Co In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US20030173085A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Upgrading and mining of coal
US20030173081A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US20030196810A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US6698515B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6715548B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US6715546B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US20050269077A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Start-up of temperature limited heaters using direct current (DC)
US7011154B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US7051808B1 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7073578B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-07-11 Shell Oil Company Staged and/or patterned heating during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7090013B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US7096953B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
US7104319B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US7121342B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7165615B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-23 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US20070045268A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Vinegar Harold J Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US20070095536A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-05-03 Vinegar Harold J Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20070108201A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-17 Vinegar Harold J Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase wye configuration
US20080038144A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Maziasz Phillip J High strength alloys
US20080128134A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-05 Ramesh Raju Mudunuri Producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US20090071652A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-03-19 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US20090189617A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-07-30 David Burns Continuous subsurface heater temperature measurement
US20090260824A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 David Booth Burns Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100089586A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-15 John Andrew Stanecki Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100258265A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 John Michael Karanikas Recovering energy from a subsurface formation
US8631866B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-01-21 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8701769B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology
US8820406B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-02 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore
US9016370B2 (en) 2011-04-08 2015-04-28 Shell Oil Company Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US9033042B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-19 Shell Oil Company Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US9309755B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2016-04-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations
US10047594B2 (en) 2012-01-23 2018-08-14 Genie Ip B.V. Heater pattern for in situ thermal processing of a subsurface hydrocarbon containing formation

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US797529A (en) * 1905-02-18 1905-08-15 Fidelio H Oliphant Method of treating oil-wells.
GB155732A (en) * 1920-03-20 1920-12-30 Daniel Diver Improved heating means for use in the destructive distillation of oil-bearing materia l in situ
US1449420A (en) * 1921-05-13 1923-03-27 William A J Kreager Apparatus for clearing oil wells of clogging material
US1613016A (en) * 1922-01-31 1927-01-04 Doherty Res Co Process and apparatus for the condensation of vapors
US1678592A (en) * 1923-02-03 1928-07-24 Standard Oil Dev Co Art of treating oil wells
US2188737A (en) * 1939-04-26 1940-01-30 Hiram W Hixon Apparatus for recovering oil from subterranean oil pockets
US2255540A (en) * 1939-03-22 1941-09-09 Henry A Dreffein Combustion apparatus
US2506853A (en) * 1945-05-30 1950-05-09 Union Oil Co Oil well furnace

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US797529A (en) * 1905-02-18 1905-08-15 Fidelio H Oliphant Method of treating oil-wells.
GB155732A (en) * 1920-03-20 1920-12-30 Daniel Diver Improved heating means for use in the destructive distillation of oil-bearing materia l in situ
US1449420A (en) * 1921-05-13 1923-03-27 William A J Kreager Apparatus for clearing oil wells of clogging material
US1613016A (en) * 1922-01-31 1927-01-04 Doherty Res Co Process and apparatus for the condensation of vapors
US1678592A (en) * 1923-02-03 1928-07-24 Standard Oil Dev Co Art of treating oil wells
US2255540A (en) * 1939-03-22 1941-09-09 Henry A Dreffein Combustion apparatus
US2188737A (en) * 1939-04-26 1940-01-30 Hiram W Hixon Apparatus for recovering oil from subterranean oil pockets
US2506853A (en) * 1945-05-30 1950-05-09 Union Oil Co Oil well furnace

Cited By (428)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3127936A (en) * 1957-07-26 1964-04-07 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Method of in situ heating of subsurface preferably fuel containing deposits
US3181613A (en) * 1959-07-20 1965-05-04 Union Oil Co Method and apparatus for subterranean heating
US3095031A (en) * 1959-12-09 1963-06-25 Eurenius Malte Oscar Burners for use in bore holes in the ground
US3216498A (en) * 1962-06-22 1965-11-09 Pan American Petroleum Corp Heating oil-bearing formations
US3244231A (en) * 1963-04-09 1966-04-05 Pan American Petroleum Corp Method for catalytically heating oil bearing formations
US3216499A (en) * 1963-07-01 1965-11-09 Pan American Petroleum Corp Fusible bottom-hole igniter
US3339978A (en) * 1965-05-14 1967-09-05 Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co Prevention of floor erosion of a solution mining cavity
US3982591A (en) * 1974-12-20 1976-09-28 World Energy Systems Downhole recovery system
US3982592A (en) * 1974-12-20 1976-09-28 World Energy Systems In situ hydrogenation of hydrocarbons in underground formations
US4245701A (en) * 1979-06-12 1981-01-20 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Apparatus and method for igniting an in situ oil shale retort
US6820688B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-11-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of coal formation with a selected hydrogen content and/or selected H/C ratio
US20090101346A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2009-04-23 Shell Oil Company, Inc. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7798221B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2010-09-21 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20110088904A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2011-04-21 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8225866B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2012-07-24 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8485252B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2013-07-16 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8789586B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2014-07-29 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7096953B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
US7096941B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with heat sources located at an edge of a coal layer
US7086468B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US6581684B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-06-24 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce sulfur containing formation fluids
US7036583B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-05-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a porosity of the formation
US6588503B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a coal formation to control product composition
US6588504B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US6591906B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected oxygen content
US6591907B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6712135B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation in reducing environment
US7017661B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-28 Shell Oil Company Production of synthesis gas from a coal formation
US7011154B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US6997255B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a reducing environment
US6994161B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Kevin Albert Maher In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected moisture content
US6994168B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Scott Lee Wellington In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen to carbon ratio
US6994160B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6991031B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to convert a selected total organic carbon content into hydrocarbon products
US6973967B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-12-13 Shell Oil Company Situ thermal processing of a coal formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US6966372B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-11-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce oxygen containing formation fluids
US6959761B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-11-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US6607033B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-08-19 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce a condensate
US6953087B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-10-11 Shell Oil Company Thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a permeability of the formation
US6609570B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-08-26 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation and ammonia production
US6948563B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-09-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen content
US6923258B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-08-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processsing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US6913078B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-07-05 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively impermeable formation
US6910536B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US6902004B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a movable heating element
US6902003B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation having a selected total organic carbon content
US6896053B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-05-24 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US6889769B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-05-10 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected moisture content
US6688387B1 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-02-10 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a hydrocarbon condensate
US6698515B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6880635B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-04-19 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio
US6702016B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with heat sources located at an edge of a formation layer
US6877554B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-04-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US20030066642A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2003-04-10 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a coal formation producing a mixture with oxygenated hydrocarbons
US6712137B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6712136B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a selected production well spacing
US6715548B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US6715546B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US6715547B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to form a substantially uniform, high permeability formation
US6715549B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected atomic oxygen to carbon ratio
US6719047B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-13 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a hydrogen-rich environment
US6722431B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively permeable formation
US6722429B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US6722430B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected oxygen content and/or selected O/C ratio
US6725920B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to convert a selected amount of total organic carbon into hydrocarbon products
US6725928B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a distributed combustor
US6725921B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6729397B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6729395B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US6729396B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6729401B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation and ammonia production
US6732796B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio
US6732795B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6732794B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US6736215B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-18 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation, in situ production of synthesis gas, and carbon dioxide sequestration
US6739394B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-25 Shell Oil Company Production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6739393B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation and tuning production
US6742588B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce formation fluids having a relatively low olefin content
US6742589B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US6742593B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat transfer from a heat transfer fluid to heat the formation
US6742587B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to form a substantially uniform, relatively high permeable formation
US6745832B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to control product composition
US6745831B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6745837B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a controlled heating rate
US6749021B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a controlled heating rate
US6752210B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US6758268B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6761216B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-13 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US6763886B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US6769483B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-08-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor in conduit heat sources
US6769485B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-08-03 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation through a heat source wellbore
US6789625B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-09-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using exposed metal heat sources
US6805195B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-10-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US6871707B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-03-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US6866097B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-03-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to increase a permeability/porosity of the formation
US6708758B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US20030131993A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 Etuan Zhang In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property
US20040211554A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2004-10-28 Vinegar Harold J. Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US6877555B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-04-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking
US20030131995A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation to increase permeability of the formation
US20030080604A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US6880633B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-04-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product
US7735935B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2010-06-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation containing carbonate minerals
US20030079877A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation in a reducing environment
US20100270015A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2010-10-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20030098605A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US7225866B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2007-06-05 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US20030173078A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-09-18 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a condensate
US20030098149A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US6915850B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections
US6918443B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6918442B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment
US6923257B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-08-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a condensate
US20030102124A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a blending agent from a relatively permeable formation
US6929067B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-08-16 Shell Oil Company Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20030102125A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation in a reducing environment
US20030164239A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-09-04 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment
US6948562B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-09-27 Shell Oil Company Production of a blending agent using an in situ thermal process in a relatively permeable formation
US6951247B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-10-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources
US20030155111A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-21 Shell Oil Co In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US20030146002A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-07 Vinegar Harold J. Removable heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US6964300B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-11-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with backproduction through a heater wellbore
US6966374B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-11-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US20030148894A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-07 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20030102126A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Sumnu-Dindoruk Meliha Deniz In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate
US20030102130A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control
US7096942B1 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation while controlling pressure
US20030111223A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-19 Rouffignac Eric Pierre De In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources
US7066254B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US7055600B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate
US7051811B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing through an open wellbore in an oil shale formation
US7051807B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control
US7040399B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate
US7040400B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation using an open wellbore
US7040398B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation in a reducing environment
US20030141067A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Rouffignac Eric Pierre De In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to increase permeability of the formation
US6981548B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US20030116315A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-26 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation
US6991036B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company Thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation
US6991032B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US6991033B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation
US20030141066A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Karanikas John Michael In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking
US7032660B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-04-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US20030141068A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Pierre De Rouffignac Eric In situ thermal processing through an open wellbore in an oil shale formation
US20030142964A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate
US6994169B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property
US20030136559A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation
US6997518B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and solution mining of an oil shale formation
US20030136558A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product
US7004247B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-28 Shell Oil Company Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7004251B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and remediation of an oil shale formation
US20030131996A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections
US7013972B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-03-21 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20040211557A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2004-10-28 Cole Anthony Thomas Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7128153B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-10-31 Shell Oil Company Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US7461691B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2008-12-09 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7051808B1 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20070209799A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2007-09-13 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20040040715A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2004-03-04 Wellington Scott Lee In situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030205378A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-11-06 Wellington Scott Lee In situ recovery from lean and rich zones in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030201098A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-30 Karanikas John Michael In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using one or more simulations
US6991045B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company Forming openings in a hydrocarbon containing formation using magnetic tracking
US20030196801A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well
US7063145B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-06-20 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation in situ with an opening contacting the earth's surface at two locations
US20030196810A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US7066257B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-06-27 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from lean and rich zones in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030173081A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US7077198B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-07-18 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers
US20030173085A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Upgrading and mining of coal
US7086465B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-08 Shell Oil Company In situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8627887B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2014-01-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7090013B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US6932155B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-08-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well
US7165615B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-23 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US6969123B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-11-29 Shell Oil Company Upgrading and mining of coal
US7100994B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-05 Shell Oil Company Producing hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon containing materials when treating a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7104319B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US7114566B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-10-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US7156176B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-02 Shell Oil Company Installation and use of removable heaters in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7077199B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-07-18 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US20050092483A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2005-05-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US7219734B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2007-05-22 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting wellbore deformation during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8224164B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Insulated conductor temperature limited heaters
US7121341B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Conductor-in-conduit temperature limited heaters
US8238730B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-08-07 Shell Oil Company High voltage temperature limited heaters
US8224163B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US7073578B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-07-11 Shell Oil Company Staged and/or patterned heating during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7942203B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2011-05-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US8579031B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2013-11-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7360588B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2008-04-22 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7640980B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2010-01-05 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7121342B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US8355623B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2013-01-15 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with high power factors
US20050269089A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Temperature limited heaters using modulated DC power
US7383877B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-06-10 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with thermally conductive fluid used to heat subsurface formations
US20050269094A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Harris Christopher K Triaxial temperature limited heater
US20050269088A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Inhibiting effects of sloughing in wellbores
US20050269091A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Guillermo Pastor-Sanz Reducing viscosity of oil for production from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20050269095A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Fairbanks Michael D Inhibiting reflux in a heated well of an in situ conversion system
US7481274B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-01-27 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with relatively constant current
US20050269077A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Start-up of temperature limited heaters using direct current (DC)
US20050269092A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Vacuum pumping of conductor-in-conduit heaters
US7510000B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-03-31 Shell Oil Company Reducing viscosity of oil for production from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20050269093A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US7490665B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-02-17 Shell Oil Company Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US7320364B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-01-22 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting reflux in a heated well of an in situ conversion system
US20050269090A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heaters with thermally conductive fluid used to heat subsurface formations
US20060005968A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2006-01-12 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heaters with relatively constant current
US7431076B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-10-07 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters using modulated DC power
US7424915B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-09-16 Shell Oil Company Vacuum pumping of conductor-in-conduit heaters
US7353872B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-04-08 Shell Oil Company Start-up of temperature limited heaters using direct current (DC)
US7357180B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-04-15 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting effects of sloughing in wellbores
US20060289536A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2006-12-28 Vinegar Harold J Subsurface electrical heaters using nitride insulation
US20050269313A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heaters with high power factors
US7370704B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-05-13 Shell Oil Company Triaxial temperature limited heater
US20070137856A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-21 Mckinzie Billy J Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process
US7546873B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-06-16 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barriers for use with in situ processes
US7860377B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-12-28 Shell Oil Company Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US20070045268A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Vinegar Harold J Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US8230927B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-31 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US20070045265A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Mckinzie Billy J Ii Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes
US20070045266A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Sandberg Chester L In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US20070133961A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-14 Fairbanks Michael D Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US7831133B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-11-09 Shell Oil Company Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration
US7527094B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-05-05 Shell Oil Company Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process
US7986869B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-07-26 Shell Oil Company Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US7575053B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-08-18 Shell Oil Company Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers
US8027571B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-09-27 Shell Oil Company In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
US20070045267A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Vinegar Harold J Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US8070840B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-12-06 Shell Oil Company Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process
US20080217321A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2008-09-11 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor
US20070108201A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-17 Vinegar Harold J Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase wye configuration
US7575052B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-08-18 Shell Oil Company In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US20070133960A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-14 Vinegar Harold J In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
US7435037B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2008-10-14 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes
US8233782B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-31 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
US7942197B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-05-17 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US20070108200A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-17 Mckinzie Billy J Ii Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing
US8224165B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor
US7831134B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-11-09 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
US20070144732A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-28 Kim Dong S Low temperature barriers for use with in situ processes
US7500528B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-03-10 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing
US20070119098A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-31 Zaida Diaz Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process
US8606091B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2013-12-10 Shell Oil Company Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates
US20070221377A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-09-27 Vinegar Harold J Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20070131419A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-14 Maria Roes Augustinus W Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US8151880B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2012-04-10 Shell Oil Company Methods of making transportation fuel
US20070131427A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-14 Ruijian Li Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations
US20070095536A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-05-03 Vinegar Harold J Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US7562706B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-21 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations
US7581589B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-09-01 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US20110168394A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2011-07-14 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US20070127897A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-07 John Randy C Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates
US7584789B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-09-08 Shell Oil Company Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products
US20070125533A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-07 Minderhoud Johannes K Methods of hydrotreating a liquid stream to remove clogging compounds
US7591310B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-09-22 Shell Oil Company Methods of hydrotreating a liquid stream to remove clogging compounds
US20070131420A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-14 Weijian Mo Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products
US7635025B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-12-22 Shell Oil Company Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20080107577A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2008-05-08 Vinegar Harold J Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations
US7549470B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-06-23 Shell Oil Company Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US7556095B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-07 Shell Oil Company Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent
US7556096B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-07 Shell Oil Company Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations
US7559367B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-14 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation
US7559368B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-14 Shell Oil Company Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090301724A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2009-12-10 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US7866385B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
US7912358B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-03-22 Shell Oil Company Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US7533719B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-05-19 Shell Oil Company Wellhead with non-ferromagnetic materials
US8083813B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-12-27 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing transportation fuel
US20100272595A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2010-10-28 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US8192682B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2012-06-05 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US20080038144A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Maziasz Phillip J High strength alloys
US20080035705A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Menotti James L Welding shield for coupling heaters
US7785427B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-08-31 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US20080035346A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Vijay Nair Methods of producing transportation fuel
US20080035348A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Vitek John M Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
US20080173449A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Thomas David Fowler Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment
US20080173442A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Vinegar Harold J Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US20080174115A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Gene Richard Lambirth Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
US20080173444A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Francis Marion Stone Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US7597147B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-10-06 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
US7604052B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-10-20 Shell Oil Company Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process
US7683296B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-03-23 Shell Oil Company Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters
US7673786B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-03-09 Shell Oil Company Welding shield for coupling heaters
US7610962B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-11-03 Shell Oil Company Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment
US20080173450A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Bernard Goldberg Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8857506B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2014-10-14 Shell Oil Company Alternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes
US7635023B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-12-22 Shell Oil Company Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7631689B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-12-15 Shell Oil Company Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US7793722B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-09-14 Shell Oil Company Non-ferromagnetic overburden casing
US20100276141A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2010-11-04 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US20080135253A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-12 Vinegar Harold J Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones
US7635024B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-12-22 Shell Oil Company Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures
US20080128134A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-05 Ramesh Raju Mudunuri Producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US20080135254A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-12 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US20080135244A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-12 David Scott Miller Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process
US7644765B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-01-12 Shell Oil Company Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US7673681B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-09 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones
US20080142216A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-19 Vinegar Harold J Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US7677314B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-16 Shell Oil Company Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations
US7677310B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-16 Shell Oil Company Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations
US20080142217A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-19 Roelof Pieterson Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process
US7681647B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-23 Shell Oil Company Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US20080185147A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-08-07 Vinegar Harold J Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US8555971B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2013-10-15 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US20080217015A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 Vinegar Harold J Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence
US7703513B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-04-27 Shell Oil Company Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US7631690B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-12-15 Shell Oil Company Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence
US20080277113A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-11-13 George Leo Stegemeier Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US20090014181A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2009-01-15 Vinegar Harold J Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations
US20090014180A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2009-01-15 George Leo Stegemeier Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
US7717171B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-05-18 Shell Oil Company Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
US7730945B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process
US7730946B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US7730947B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US8191630B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2012-06-05 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US20080217004A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a checkerboard pattern staged process
US7540324B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-06-02 Shell Oil Company Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a checkerboard pattern staged process
US7562707B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-07-21 Shell Oil Company Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process
US7845411B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-12-07 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US7841401B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process
US20080217003A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 Myron Ira Kuhlman Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process
US8662175B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-03-04 Shell Oil Company Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities
US7798220B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-09-21 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US8327681B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2012-12-11 Shell Oil Company Wellbore manufacturing processes for in situ heat treatment processes
US9181780B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2015-11-10 Shell Oil Company Controlling and assessing pressure conditions during treatment of tar sands formations
US8381815B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-02-26 Shell Oil Company Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation
US20090078461A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-03-26 Arthur James Mansure Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures
US20090071652A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-03-19 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US7841408B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US20090084547A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-02 Walter Farman Farmayan Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations
US20090090509A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-09 Vinegar Harold J In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8459359B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-06-11 Shell Oil Company Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones
US7832484B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-16 Shell Oil Company Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US7841425B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures
US20090120646A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-05-14 Dong Sub Kim Electrically isolating insulated conductor heater
US20090095480A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US20090095477A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 Scott Vinh Nguyen Heating systems for heating subsurface formations
US7849922B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-12-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8042610B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-10-25 Shell Oil Company Parallel heater system for subsurface formations
US20090095476A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 Scott Vinh Nguyen Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US20090095479A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 John Michael Karanikas Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation
US20090095478A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 John Michael Karanikas Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities
US8791396B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-07-29 Shell Oil Company Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations
US20090321075A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-12-31 Christopher Kelvin Harris Parallel heater system for subsurface formations
US20090126929A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-05-21 Vinegar Harold J Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones
US7931086B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-04-26 Shell Oil Company Heating systems for heating subsurface formations
US7950453B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-05-31 Shell Oil Company Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations
US20090194524A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Dong Sub Kim Methods for forming long subsurface heaters
US20090194329A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Rosalvina Ramona Guimerans Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations
US8146669B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-03 Shell Oil Company Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation
US7866388B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel
US8011451B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-09-06 Shell Oil Company Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US7866386B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company In situ oxidation of subsurface formations
US20090189617A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-07-30 David Burns Continuous subsurface heater temperature measurement
US20090200854A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-13 Vinegar Harold J Solution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds
US8272455B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-09-25 Shell Oil Company Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations
US8113272B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-02-14 Shell Oil Company Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations
US8146661B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-03 Shell Oil Company Cryogenic treatment of gas
US20090194333A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Macdonald Duncan Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US20090194282A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Gary Lee Beer In situ oxidation of subsurface formations
US20090200025A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-13 Jose Luis Bravo High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel
US20090194269A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Vinegar Harold J Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations
US8162059B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-24 Shell Oil Company Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations
US8240774B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-08-14 Shell Oil Company Solution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds
US8196658B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-06-12 Shell Oil Company Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US8276661B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-10-02 Shell Oil Company Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier
US20090200031A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-13 David Scott Miller Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US8536497B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2013-09-17 Shell Oil Company Methods for forming long subsurface heaters
US8172335B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-05-08 Shell Oil Company Electrical current flow between tunnels for use in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090260824A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 David Booth Burns Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8162405B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-04-24 Shell Oil Company Using tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8562078B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2013-10-22 Shell Oil Company Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8151907B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-04-10 Shell Oil Company Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US20090260823A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 Robert George Prince-Wright Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8752904B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2014-06-17 Shell Oil Company Heated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090272535A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-11-05 David Booth Burns Using tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090272533A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-11-05 David Booth Burns Heated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090272578A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-11-05 Macdonald Duncan Charles Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US9528322B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2016-12-27 Shell Oil Company Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US8177305B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-05-15 Shell Oil Company Heater connections in mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8636323B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2014-01-28 Shell Oil Company Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8267185B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-18 Shell Oil Company Circulated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation
US8267170B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-18 Shell Oil Company Offset barrier wells in subsurface formations
US8281861B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-10-09 Shell Oil Company Circulated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8261832B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-11 Shell Oil Company Heating subsurface formations with fluids
US9129728B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods of forming subsurface wellbores
US8353347B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2013-01-15 Shell Oil Company Deployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations
US20100096137A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-22 Scott Vinh Nguyen Circulated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8256512B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-04 Shell Oil Company Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US9051829B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-06-09 Shell Oil Company Perforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
US9022118B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-05-05 Shell Oil Company Double insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations
US20100101783A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-29 Vinegar Harold J Using self-regulating nuclear reactors in treating a subsurface formation
US20100147522A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-06-17 Xueying Xie Systems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors
US20100108379A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-05-06 David Alston Edbury Systems and methods of forming subsurface wellbores
US20100089584A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-15 David Booth Burns Double insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations
US20100108310A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-05-06 Thomas David Fowler Offset barrier wells in subsurface formations
US20100089586A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-15 John Andrew Stanecki Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8220539B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US20100147521A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-06-17 Xueying Xie Perforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
US20100206570A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-08-19 Ernesto Rafael Fonseca Ocampos Circulated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation
US20100101784A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-29 Vinegar Harold J Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US20100224368A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-09-09 Stanley Leroy Mason Deployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations
US8881806B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2014-11-11 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors
US20100258309A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Oluropo Rufus Ayodele Heater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US20100258291A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Everett De St Remey Edward Heated liners for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100258265A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 John Michael Karanikas Recovering energy from a subsurface formation
US8327932B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2012-12-11 Shell Oil Company Recovering energy from a subsurface formation
US20110042084A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2011-02-24 Robert Bos Irregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation
US8434555B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2013-05-07 Shell Oil Company Irregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation
US8448707B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2013-05-28 Shell Oil Company Non-conducting heater casings
US8851170B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2014-10-07 Shell Oil Company Heater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US20100258290A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Ronald Marshall Bass Non-conducting heater casings
US8701768B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations
US8875788B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-11-04 Shell Oil Company Low temperature inductive heating of subsurface formations
US9399905B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2016-07-26 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US9022109B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-05 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8739874B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-06-03 Shell Oil Company Methods for heating with slots in hydrocarbon formations
US9033042B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-19 Shell Oil Company Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8820406B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-02 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore
US9127523B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Barrier methods for use in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US9127538B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Methodologies for treatment of hydrocarbon formations using staged pyrolyzation
US8833453B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-16 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with tapered copper thickness
US8701769B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology
US8631866B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-01-21 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US9016370B2 (en) 2011-04-08 2015-04-28 Shell Oil Company Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US9309755B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2016-04-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations
US10047594B2 (en) 2012-01-23 2018-08-14 Genie Ip B.V. Heater pattern for in situ thermal processing of a subsurface hydrocarbon containing formation

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3316962A (en) In situ combustion method for residualoil recovery from petroleum deposits
US3652447A (en) Process for extracting oil from oil shale
US3605888A (en) Method and apparatus for secondary recovery of oil
US3542131A (en) Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale
US3614986A (en) Method for injecting heated fluids into mineral bearing formations
US3581821A (en) Cryothermal process for the recovery of oil
US3209825A (en) Low temperature in-situ combustion
US3316020A (en) In situ retorting method employed in oil shale
US3272261A (en) Process for recovery of oil
US3358759A (en) Steam drive in an oil-bearing stratum adjacent a gas zone
US3246695A (en) Method for heating minerals in situ with radioactive materials
US3233668A (en) Recovery of shale oil
US6997518B2 (en) In situ thermal processing and solution mining of an oil shale formation
US6959761B2 (en) In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US2777679A (en) Recovering sub-surface bituminous deposits by creating a frozen barrier and heating in situ
US4252191A (en) Method of recovering petroleum and bitumen from subterranean reservoirs
US5392854A (en) Oil recovery process
US4399866A (en) Method for controlling the flow of subterranean water into a selected zone in a permeable subterranean carbonaceous deposit
US4537252A (en) Method of underground conversion of coal
US4099783A (en) Method for thermoshaft oil production
US4452689A (en) Huff and puff process for retorting oil shale
US3032102A (en) In situ combustion method
US4817711A (en) System for recovery of petroleum from petroleum impregnated media
US5020596A (en) Enhanced oil recovery system with a radiant tube heater
US7743826B2 (en) In situ method and system for extraction of oil from shale