US2870840A - Web cutting apparatus - Google Patents

Web cutting apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
US2870840A
US2870840A US659511A US65951157A US2870840A US 2870840 A US2870840 A US 2870840A US 659511 A US659511 A US 659511A US 65951157 A US65951157 A US 65951157A US 2870840 A US2870840 A US 2870840A
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roll
web
blade
cutting
blades
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US659511A
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Edwin M Kwitek
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Paper Converting Machine Co
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Paper Converting Machine Co
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06HMARKING, INSPECTING, SEAMING OR SEVERING TEXTILE MATERIALS
    • D06H7/00Apparatus or processes for cutting, or otherwise severing, specially adapted for the cutting, or otherwise severing, of textile materials
    • D06H7/02Apparatus or processes for cutting, or otherwise severing, specially adapted for the cutting, or otherwise severing, of textile materials transversely
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B26HAND CUTTING TOOLS; CUTTING; SEVERING
    • B26DCUTTING; DETAILS COMMON TO MACHINES FOR PERFORATING, PUNCHING, CUTTING-OUT, STAMPING-OUT OR SEVERING
    • B26D1/00Cutting through work characterised by the nature or movement of the cutting member or particular materials not otherwise provided for; Apparatus or machines therefor; Cutting members therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B26HAND CUTTING TOOLS; CUTTING; SEVERING
    • B26DCUTTING; DETAILS COMMON TO MACHINES FOR PERFORATING, PUNCHING, CUTTING-OUT, STAMPING-OUT OR SEVERING
    • B26D1/00Cutting through work characterised by the nature or movement of the cutting member or particular materials not otherwise provided for; Apparatus or machines therefor; Cutting members therefor
    • B26D1/0006Cutting members therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B26HAND CUTTING TOOLS; CUTTING; SEVERING
    • B26DCUTTING; DETAILS COMMON TO MACHINES FOR PERFORATING, PUNCHING, CUTTING-OUT, STAMPING-OUT OR SEVERING
    • B26D1/00Cutting through work characterised by the nature or movement of the cutting member or particular materials not otherwise provided for; Apparatus or machines therefor; Cutting members therefor
    • B26D1/01Cutting through work characterised by the nature or movement of the cutting member or particular materials not otherwise provided for; Apparatus or machines therefor; Cutting members therefor involving a cutting member which does not travel with the work
    • B26D1/12Cutting through work characterised by the nature or movement of the cutting member or particular materials not otherwise provided for; Apparatus or machines therefor; Cutting members therefor involving a cutting member which does not travel with the work having a cutting member moving about an axis
    • B26D1/25Cutting through work characterised by the nature or movement of the cutting member or particular materials not otherwise provided for; Apparatus or machines therefor; Cutting members therefor involving a cutting member which does not travel with the work having a cutting member moving about an axis with a non-circular cutting member
    • B26D1/34Cutting through work characterised by the nature or movement of the cutting member or particular materials not otherwise provided for; Apparatus or machines therefor; Cutting members therefor involving a cutting member which does not travel with the work having a cutting member moving about an axis with a non-circular cutting member moving about an axis parallel to the line of cut
    • B26D1/38Cutting through work characterised by the nature or movement of the cutting member or particular materials not otherwise provided for; Apparatus or machines therefor; Cutting members therefor involving a cutting member which does not travel with the work having a cutting member moving about an axis with a non-circular cutting member moving about an axis parallel to the line of cut and coacting with a fixed blade or other fixed member
    • B26D1/385Cutting through work characterised by the nature or movement of the cutting member or particular materials not otherwise provided for; Apparatus or machines therefor; Cutting members therefor involving a cutting member which does not travel with the work having a cutting member moving about an axis with a non-circular cutting member moving about an axis parallel to the line of cut and coacting with a fixed blade or other fixed member for thin material, e.g. for sheets, strips or the like
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B26HAND CUTTING TOOLS; CUTTING; SEVERING
    • B26FPERFORATING; PUNCHING; CUTTING-OUT; STAMPING-OUT; SEVERING BY MEANS OTHER THAN CUTTING
    • B26F1/00Perforating; Punching; Cutting-out; Stamping-out; Apparatus therefor
    • B26F1/18Perforating by slitting, i.e. forming cuts closed at their ends without removal of material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B26HAND CUTTING TOOLS; CUTTING; SEVERING
    • B26FPERFORATING; PUNCHING; CUTTING-OUT; STAMPING-OUT; SEVERING BY MEANS OTHER THAN CUTTING
    • B26F1/00Perforating; Punching; Cutting-out; Stamping-out; Apparatus therefor
    • B26F1/18Perforating by slitting, i.e. forming cuts closed at their ends without removal of material
    • B26F1/20Perforating by slitting, i.e. forming cuts closed at their ends without removal of material with tools carried by a rotating drum or similar support
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B26HAND CUTTING TOOLS; CUTTING; SEVERING
    • B26DCUTTING; DETAILS COMMON TO MACHINES FOR PERFORATING, PUNCHING, CUTTING-OUT, STAMPING-OUT OR SEVERING
    • B26D1/00Cutting through work characterised by the nature or movement of the cutting member or particular materials not otherwise provided for; Apparatus or machines therefor; Cutting members therefor
    • B26D1/0006Cutting members therefor
    • B26D2001/0033Cutting members therefor assembled from multiple blades
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B26HAND CUTTING TOOLS; CUTTING; SEVERING
    • B26DCUTTING; DETAILS COMMON TO MACHINES FOR PERFORATING, PUNCHING, CUTTING-OUT, STAMPING-OUT OR SEVERING
    • B26D1/00Cutting through work characterised by the nature or movement of the cutting member or particular materials not otherwise provided for; Apparatus or machines therefor; Cutting members therefor
    • B26D1/0006Cutting members therefor
    • B26D2001/0046Cutting members therefor rotating continuously about an axis perpendicular to the edge
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B26HAND CUTTING TOOLS; CUTTING; SEVERING
    • B26DCUTTING; DETAILS COMMON TO MACHINES FOR PERFORATING, PUNCHING, CUTTING-OUT, STAMPING-OUT OR SEVERING
    • B26D1/00Cutting through work characterised by the nature or movement of the cutting member or particular materials not otherwise provided for; Apparatus or machines therefor; Cutting members therefor
    • B26D1/0006Cutting members therefor
    • B26D2001/006Cutting members therefor the cutting blade having a special shape, e.g. a special outline, serrations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B26HAND CUTTING TOOLS; CUTTING; SEVERING
    • B26DCUTTING; DETAILS COMMON TO MACHINES FOR PERFORATING, PUNCHING, CUTTING-OUT, STAMPING-OUT OR SEVERING
    • B26D1/00Cutting through work characterised by the nature or movement of the cutting member or particular materials not otherwise provided for; Apparatus or machines therefor; Cutting members therefor
    • B26D1/0006Cutting members therefor
    • B26D2001/0066Cutting members therefor having shearing means, e.g. shearing blades, abutting blades
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T83/00Cutting
    • Y10T83/465Cutting motion of tool has component in direction of moving work
    • Y10T83/4699Combined with other type cutter
    • Y10T83/4702With slitter
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T83/00Cutting
    • Y10T83/465Cutting motion of tool has component in direction of moving work
    • Y10T83/4766Orbital motion of cutting blade
    • Y10T83/4795Rotary tool
    • Y10T83/4824With means to cause progressive transverse cutting
    • Y10T83/4827With helical cutter blade
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T83/00Cutting
    • Y10T83/465Cutting motion of tool has component in direction of moving work
    • Y10T83/4766Orbital motion of cutting blade
    • Y10T83/4795Rotary tool
    • Y10T83/4847With cooperating stationary tool
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T83/00Cutting
    • Y10T83/929Tool or tool with support
    • Y10T83/9372Rotatable type
    • Y10T83/9396Shear type
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T83/00Cutting
    • Y10T83/929Tool or tool with support
    • Y10T83/9372Rotatable type
    • Y10T83/9408Spaced cut forming tool

Description

v Jan. 27, 1959 l E. M. KwrrEK 2,870,840

Jan. 27, 1959 E. M. KWITEK 2,870,840

WEB CUTTING APPARATUS Filed May 16, .1.957

4 Sheets-Sheet 2 ATTORNEYS.

Jan. 27, 1959 E. M. KwlTEK WEB CUTTING APPARATUS 4 Sheets-Sheei'l 3 Filed May 16, 1957 lll( Jan. 27, 1959 E. M. KWITEK 2,870,840

WEB CUTTING APPARATUS Filed May 16, 1957 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 A /NVE/VTOR:

By @Wup/25W jd'w' r ATTORNEYS.

. instant.

United States Patent O wsu cU'rrrNG APPARATUS v Application May 16, 1957, Serial No. 659,511

` 9 claims. (ci. 164-68) This invention relates to web cutting apparatus, and is particularly useful in the perforating, cutting, or scoring or weakening along transverse lines of paper webs of the tissue paper type, such as facial tissue and toweling materials. The invention is applicable to kraft paper, textiles, and other webs. l 'In paper winding machines, and particularly in machines handling thin tissue paper such as facial tissue, toilet paper tissue, etc., a problem has long existed with respect to the transverse cutting or weakening of the paper because the thin paper web tears readily,` and be-` cause of this, webs of limited width have to be employed and the speed of operation and production substantially curtailed. The weakening or scoring of the web transversely of the web is to provide, after slitting and inthe finished web product, lines along which the web can be readily divided. `As stated, the weakness of the paper tissue makes such cutting, weakening or scoring operation extremely diliicult, and the machines today employed can handle commercially only webs of limited' width. If

` apparatus could be provided which would allow rolls of paper of much greater width to be treated in the machine, production could be greatly increased and the cost of the paper-winding operation substantially reduced.

I have discovered mechanism which effectively cuts, perforates or weakens the paper web transversely of the web while at the same time applying the weakening or perforating operation at shortened intervals transversely of the web so that a lessening of tension upon the paper is produced and paper webs of greatly increased width can be effectively handled in the machine at high speed. This result is achieved by cutting the web in restricted areas progressively across the web rather than cuttingv the web all the way across in one machine step, with the result' that a minimum of strain or stress upon the paper web is imposed during the cutting operation and an extremely wide web can be fed fromthe roll through the machine to give an even and clean-cut perforated line across the web. l

An object of the present invention is to overcome the difficulties referred to above and to achieve the new results described. A further object is to provide a weakening or perforating apparatus which brings about the cutting, perforating or weakening at isolated points transversely of the web as the web is moving forward, so that a minimum of stress is applied to the web` at any single A still further object is to provide a sheercut mechanism in which a `paper web is perforated, etc. transversely of the web, the perforations being accomplished in sequence across the web as the web advances in the machine. Yet a further object is to provide mechanism of unique and sturdy character which remains effective in thesheercut perforating, etc. of sheets after long use, while at the Sametime permitting rapid operation of the perforating` mechanism. Other specific objects and advantages will appearas the specification proceeds j y 2,870,840 Patented Jan. 27,1959

ice,

The invention is shown, in an illustrative embodiment, by the accompanyingA drawings, in which- Figure l is a broken diagrammatice showing of paperwinding apparatus employed in connection with my invention; Fig. 2, a top plan view of a knife-holder block which may be used in the practice of my invention; Fig. 3, a side elevation of the structure shown in Fig. 2; Fig. 4, a diagrammatic showing illustrating the action of the blades and knives employed in the practice of my invention; Fig. 5, a diagrammatic view showing a blade cutting edge in shearing relation to a stationary knife or line of cut; Fig. 6, an enlarged sectionalview showing the blades and knives in `the cutting or perforating step; Fig. t7, a detail sectional view showing the means employed for securing the blades in position upon the perforating or cutting roll; Fig. 8, an enlarged sectional view,

the section being taken as indicated at line 8-8 of Fig. 6; Fig. 9,- a detail sectional View, the section being taken as indicated at line 9-` -9 of Fig. 3; Fig. l0, a broken detail view showing the suspension of the cutting or perforating roll and the means for driving the same and Fig. l1, an enlarged broken sectional detail view showing the cutting blades just before engagement.

In view of the fact that most of the parts of a webwinding machine are old in the art, it is believed unnecessary to describe such parts in detail, and it should be sufficient to refer to them in a general way by reference to the diagrammatic showing in Fig. l. By way of illustration, the cutting or web-weakening or perforating roll will be described herein `as a perforating roll, it being understood that this structure is merely illustrative of other forms of cutting, weakening, scoring, etc. mechanism. p

In Fig. 1, 10 designates a paper web which leads from any suitable source. The invention herein may be employed on a rewinder or upon any form of` mechanism. The web 10 passes over rolls 11, 12 and 13, as shown in Fig. 1, and thence over a perforating roll 14 which is equipped with structures embodying my invention. Cooperating with the perforating roll 14, are knife-holders 15 equipped with knives 16. The holders 15 are carried by a block member 15a. The knives 16 are in a spiral arrangement so that the blades of the perfor-ating roll 14 cooperate with the spirally-arranged knives 16 of the block 15a in forming perforations successively across the web as the web moves from the first of the spirallyarranged knives 16 in the block 15a to the last of the knives in the block 15a. After perforation, the web 10 passes over the intermediate roll 17, the slitting -roll 18 cooperating with the slitter 19, and thence over the bedroll 20 to the` turret 21 onto which the paper is wound upon cores in a well-known manner. The rotatable mandrelturret 21, bedroll construction, and other mechanism herein are described in greater detail in the G. M. Kwitek Patent No. 2,512,900.

`In the specic illustration given, the perforating roll is drivenby the drive gear C22 through an intermediate gear 23 meshing with the perforating roll gear14a and the slitter 19 is driven `through the gear 24 meshing with the drive gear `25. Since such mechanism is well known, a` further detailed description herein is believed unnecessary. p p

In the practice of my invention, I provide the perforating roll 14 with a transverse series of blades 26, as illustrated diagrammatically in Fig. 4, and the blades, `thus supported in a line longitudinally of the roll, are successively brought into engagement with sectional knives 16 carried by a stationary knife-supporting block 15a. With this structure, as illustrated in Fig. 4, the thin tissue is carried over theroll 14 and between the notched blades 26 and the sectional knives 16 to` bring about progressive perforating of the paper as the paper is advanced 3 over the roll. In other words, viewing the operation from Fig. 4, there is first aperforating of the paper lilm at the right-hand side of the roll 14, and then, as the web -isl advanced, the `remaining portion -of the web is successively perforated, theperforating action occurring incrementally as the paper is carried forwardly until the Vfinal perforation `occurs between the blade and the ,segmental knife at the left-hand side of Fig. 4. The resulting perforation is, however, a true transverse perforation of -the web and at right angles to the edge of the web.

In connection with Fig. 4, it will be understood that the segmental knives lare supported on a member not .shown in the `ligure, namely, by the stationary block a. For the purpose of illustration, however, it is believed that the diagrammatic showing in Fig. 4 indicates how .the separate blades cooperate with the separate sectional knives as the .paper is radvanced over the roll 14 so that at no one time is the entire web subjected to a perforating or weakening action, but, instead, small portions only of the web are subjected to the perforating stress.

The perforating roll 14 is shown in greater detail in Figs. 5, `6 and 7. The roll 14, which is rotatively mounted for coaction with the knife-supporting block 15a, is provided with live spaced blades 26. Each blade is formed of hardened steel and is preferably 'resilient and is so .supported as to .enable the blade to flex during action. I prefer to employ a high carbon chrome steel (62-65 Rockwell C scale), having the grain of the steel -running transversely `of its width and having the yedges of the blade notched on both sides, as -indicated by the numeral 27. Such a blade is shown in detail in Fig. 7. By way of example, when `such a blade has a thickness of .032", it is found that effective flexing occurs while .at 'the `same time excellent perforation is brought about. Such a blade provides four cutting edges and may be reversed in position upon the roll 14 so as to be effective in perforating the paper over a long period of time. The blade may be made thicker or thinner, depending upon the materials being cut, the diameter of the roll, and other conditions.

As indicated best in Fig. 7, the roll 14 is cut away to provide a notch or recess 28 providing a bearing surface 29 for the blade 26, and below the bearing surface 29 there is a further recess 30, relieving the forward ledge of the blade 26 for exing. The blade 26 is clamped upon the surface 29 by the clamping member 31, and I prefer to employ a resilient strip 32, formed of rubber, or ythe like, between the clamp 31 and the blade. The roll 14 is provided with a plurality of tapped recesses 33 ,for receiving the screws 34, andthe screws passing through the openings 35 of the clamp shoe 31 are effective in securing each of the blades 26 in positions extend- `ing across the length of the roll 14. While the position of the blade may be varied, I have found that very effective operation has been obtained where the blade protrudes .060" beyond the periphery of the roll, but it will be understood that the positioning of the blade may be varied substantially depending upon the type or character of paper being perforated, etc.

While, in the illustration given, I have shown five longitudinal series of blades extending across the roll 14, it will `be understood that the number of blades can be increased or diminished, depending upon the arrangement of the knives, the material being perforated, etc.

The stationary knives 16 and the knife-holders 15 will now be described in connection with the holder block 15a. In Figs. 2 and 3 are shown views of a metal casting which is employed to support the knives or blades 16.and the holders therefor in different ,angular lpositions so that such knives will occupy a position very rnuch as illustrated in the diagonal sketch shown in Fig. 4. The casting 15a provides successive faces 36 which ,are turned in planes varying slightly, as illustrated in Fig. 2, so as to bring the blades to be ysupported thereby into a spiral arrangement, as indicated in the diagrammatic view of Fig. 4. To each of the faces 36 is secured a knife-holder 15, as illustrated best in Fig. 6, and the knifeholder is preferably enlarged or slotted, as indicated by dotted lines 37, to adjustably receive the spring-urged bolts 38. A pair of bolts 38 extend through slots 37 in each knife-holder and anchor the knife-holder adjustably in position. There are two bolts for each knifeholder 15, and the nuts 39 thereon compress the springs 4b to hold the knife-holder effectively in position while at the same time permitting adjustment of the knifeholder through the thumbscrew 41. The knife 16 is held in position by a shoe 42, which in turn may be held in position by a setscrew 43. With the structure shown, the springs 40 bearing against each knife-holder 15 are effective in holding the knife-holder and the knife 16 carried thereby in a selected position While at the same time, however, permitting the knife-holder to be adjusted outwardly upon application of pressure from the thumbscrew 41 shown above each of the knife-holders.

The knife-holders 1S, as shown best in Fig. 9, support a series of knives or blades 16 in a spiral arrangement corresponding to the showing in Fig. 4, so that as each blade 26 of the perforating roll 14 moves in a counterclockwise direction, each of the blades 26 in longitudinal alignment on roll 14 engages a corresponding knife 16 carried lby the knife-holders 15 in a successive movement during the arc of travel shown between the first knife-holder 15 at the right of Fig. 9 and the last knife-holder indicated at the left-hand side of Fig. 9. Not only `is the row of blades 16, as shown in Fig. 4, at an angle, but each individual blade 16 is at an angle so that the cutting at any instant is at a single point of contact. This is illustrated in Fig. 5.

It will be observed that the blades of the perforating roll 14 are matched in length with the knives of the block member 15a so that one blade of the roll 14 will .engage an oppositely-disposed knife of the block 15a',

ln the operation of the apparatus, the paper web 10 is advanced, as indicated by the arrows in Fig. l, over the `rolls 1i, 12 and ll3, and thence over the perforating roll 14. As the web is carried forwardly in the direction of the arrow on roll i4, the blade 26 at one end of the roll 14 engages the first knife shown above the center of `the roll 14, and then successively the blades 26 running 4longitudinally of roll 14, engage the spirally-arranged individual knives 16.01? the block 15a soas to perforate the web transversely, the perforations, however, being produced sequentially from one edge of the web to the other. The perforated web 10 then leaves the roll 14, is slitted upon roll 18, and the slitted strips are vwound each upon its separate core upon the mandrel turret 21. ln the above operation, the severed portion of the web is free to move forwardly as the unsevered portion is meeting the contacting knife portions.

When adjustment is desired, the thumbscrews 41 may be turned to project the segmental knives 16 outwardly while also, when desired, the notchedblades 26 may be reversed in position or turned over to present new severing edges.

ln the foregoing operation, it is found that high speeds can be obtained because the contact between the metal vcutting parts is only for an instant and between separate that the invention herein may be ,employed with other means for transverse cutting, weakening, scoring, etc., of web material. The mechanism described gives a cleancut perforating action, and because of the sequential action described, there is no danger of overheating of metal parts and the apparatus can be used over long periods of high production without requiring change.

By the term cutting as employed in the claims, it is intended to include partial cutting, as by perforations, scoring, or other transverse breaking of the web material.

As indicated in Fig. `l0, the perforating roll 14 is suspended from the support a and is driven through'the gear`14a. The frame 15a supports the knives or blades 16, as heretofore described in' detail. If desired, the ribbing structure shownin Figs. 6 and 9 may be omitted i and a simple knife-supporting bar employed for holding the` knives or blades 16 in position.

If desired, the frame 15a may be hinged at one end so that the same may be lifted to permit ready threading of the web between the perforating roll and the stationary knife structure.` Further, if desired, the felt members 32 which support the blades 26 upon the perforating roll 14 may be saturated with oil so as to prevent the formation of alum deposits, etc. on the knives and prolong the knife life.

With the structure shown, no wrench or tool is necessary for the adjustment of the machine and thus there is no danger of a wrench dropping into the machine. The perforation or cutting action is positive, and the machine avoids the formation of paper dust fragments which are found in prior perforating or cutting machines. In the handling of highly creped paper, it is hard for the knife edges to enter, and the bond is weakened so that it is difficult to rewind. With the present structure, sharp cutting or perforating action takes place so that strong bonds are maintained and the paper can be readily rewound.

Threading of the web through the machine and between the roll and fixed cutters is accomplished readily and, as stated above, if desired, the fixed frame 15a can be hinged for raising or lowering to facilitate such threading. In theoperatio-n of the machine, there is substantially no shock and very little pressure at anyparticular point. The cutting action as it moves transversely of the machine along the web is concentrated at a particular point not only on the cutter as` a whole, but upon each individual blade or knife so that there is a minimum of strain upon the web and a progressive cutting is carried on across the roll, the cutting members providing a clearance between them as the web advances so that there is no obstruction to the yfree ow of the web over the perforating roll.

The resilient strip 32 has been found very effective in permitting a yielding of the blade edge in operationfor effective cutting without bending or breakage of the blade. In the specific machine illustrated, the rubber pad is s of an inch in thickness, but it will be understood that other thicknesses may be employed depending upon the material being cut, and also other yielding and padding material may be employed. As shown more clearly in Figs. l, 6 and 7, the resilient blade 26 extends outwardly from the cutter roll at an inclination with respect to a radial line drawn from the center to the cutting edge thereof and forms with said radius or radial line an acute angle. The inclined blade 26 thus lies under the web 10 which is fed over the surface of the cutter roll, flexing inwardly when engaging the rigidly clamped blade 16. Also, as shown in the drawing and more clearly in Figs. 6 and ll, the stationary blade 16 has a cutting edge dened by angularly related surfaces, in the illustration given a right angle. The cutting edge-defining surface first in the path of the resilient blade 26 is angularly inclined relative to the radial line drawn to the stationary blade cutting edge and forms an obtuse angle therewith. In the illustration given, the other cutting edge-dening surface also forms an obtuse angle with the radial line.

p `As illustrated bestin Figs. 6 and 9 vand as herein-- corresponding oppositely-disposed knife blade `is supported by the block adjacent the roll to bring the knife edge sufficiently within the path of travel of `the roll blade, as the roll rotates, to bring about engagement between the blades and the resilient roll blade edge in such contact exes and yields. The engagement of the oppositely-disposed blades, by reason of their angular relation to eachother, is at any instant at a single pointof contact. i

While, in the foregoing specification, I have set forth a specific structure in considerable detail for the purpose of illustrating an embodiment of the invention, it will be understood that such details of structure maybe varied widely by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of my invention.

I claim:

l. In web cutting apparatus, a frame, a cutting roll rotatably mounted in said frame, means for rotating` said roll, a resilient cutting blade rigidly supported upon said roll ata spaced `distance from its cutting edge to provide a free flexing cutting edge, said blade being inclined with respect to a radial line drawn from the cut- `ting edge to the roll center `and forming with said line an acute angle, means for feeding the web over said roll and over said blade for travel upon said roll, a bladesupporting block adjacent said cutting roll, a stationary cutting blade rigidly supported in said block and presenting a cutting edge for coaction with said first-mentioned cutting blade, said blades having their cutting edges at an angle to each other and said stationary blade having its cutting edge radially inward of the path of travel of the cutting edge of the rotating blade, the cutting edge of the stationary blade being defined by angularly related surfaces, the cutting edge-defining surface first in the path of said rotating blade being angularly inclined relative to a radial line drawn to the stationary blade-cutting edge, whereby said blade edges engage during therotation of said roll and said free flexing cutting edge yields during engagement with said rigidly mounted stationary blade. i

2. The structure of claim l, in which at least one of said blades is notched so as to perforate said web.

3. The structure of claim l, in which said secondmentioned blade is rigidly clamped upon said block substantially throughout its length and in which the free flexing portion of said resilient blade extends Within a recess of said roll.

4. In web cutting apparatus, a frame, a cutting roll mounted for rotation in said frame, means for rotating said roll, means for feeding a web 'on said roll for travel thereon, said roll having a plurality of circumferentially spaced recesses therein and a rigid bearing surface within each recess, a resilient blade rigidly supported upon the bearing surface in each recess and having inclined outwardly-extending free portions provided with a cutting edge, said roll being provided with a further recess about each outwardly-extending free blade portion for relieving the same for flexing, the inclination of each blade being such that it forms with a radial line drawn from its cutting edge to the roll center an acute angle, a bladesupporting block adjacent said roll adapted to support a blade for contact with the blades on said rotating roll, a stationary blade rigidly supported on said block and having its cutting edge radially inward of the path of travel of the cutting edges of the roll blades, said stationary blade being arranged with its cutting edge at an angle to the cutting edge of each roll blade as the edges of said blades are brought into engagement during the A iettion of said roll' in the cutting operation; the said resilient blade edge yielding during said engagement.

5. The structure of' claim 4, in which said block supports a plurality of stationary blades for engagement with the said resilient blades.

y 6. The structure of claim 4, in which a row of resili/ent blades'is mounted within each recess and in which a row of stationary blades is supported upon said block for engagement with said resilient blades.

7. In web cutting apparatus, a frame, a cuttingk roll mounted for rotation in said frame, means for rotating said roll, means for feeding a web on said roll for travel thereon, said roll having a recess therein and a rigid bearing surface within said recess, a resilient blade rigidly supported upon said bearing surface within said recessand having an unsupported, outwardly-extending Cutting edge portion, said roll being provided with a further recess about said outwardly-extending free edge for relieving said edge for llexing, a bladesupporting block adjacent said roll, and a row of stationary blades rigidly supported throughout their length on said block adjacent their cutting edges and having their cutting edges radially inward of the path of travel of the cutting` edge of the roll blade and arranged at an angle to the cuttingi edge of the roll blade to bring the edges of said roll and stationary blades into engagement during the rotation of said roll, the said resilient blade edge yielding during said engagement, the roll blade being inclined relative to a radial line from the roll center through the roll blade cutting'edge and each of said stationary blades having cutting edges defined by angularly-related surfaces, both vof said surfaces forming obtuse angles with a radial linedrawn to its cutting edge.

8. In web-perforating apparatus, a frame, a cutting roll mounted for rotation in said frame, means for rotating said roll, means for feeding al webto said roll for partial wrapping engagement therewith, a plurality of resilient blades mounted upon4 said roll in circumferentially spaced-apart relation and extending longitudinally thereof, said blades being rigidly supported along their inner edge portions on said roll and providing outwardly-extending free cutting edge portions protruding from said roll, said resilient blades being inclined in a nonradial direction, a blade-supporting block adjacentsaid roll, a plurality of stationary blades rigidly supported upon said block and arranged at an angle tot the blades on said 1'011 to provide progressive point Contact between said roll blades and said block blades, said block blades having their cutting edges radially inward of the path of travel of the vcutting edges of said roll blades, whereby said roll blades yield inwardlyy during engagement in the cutting operation, each of said stationary blades having cutting edges defined by angularly related surfaces, each of said surfaces being inclined in a nonfadiai direbiib;

at least oneof the pluralities of blades being notched to perforatey said web.

9. In web cutting apparatus, a frame, a cutting roll portion for relieving the same for flexing, the inclina-v tion of each blade being such that it forms an acute angle with a radial line drawn from its cutting edge to the roll center, a knife holder adjacent said roll adapted to support a blade for contact with the blades on said rotating roll, a row of stationary blades rigidly supported on said knife holder and having their cutting edges radially inward of the path of travel of the cutting edges of the roll blades, said knife holder being mounted for moving said stationary blades toward and away from said roll blades, said stationary blades being arranged with their cutting edges atan angle to the cutting edge of each roll blade as the edges of said blades are brought into engagement during the rotation of said roll in the cutting operation, the said resilient blade edge yielding during said engagement.

ReierencesKCited in the tile of this patent UNTED STATES PATENTS 5,672 Wilder July 18, 1848 13,153 Adamson July 3, 1855 404,582 Wheelei June 4, 1889 007,885 Wheeler Aug. 26, 1902 936,383 Thibodeau Oct. 12, 1909 1,081,507 Liebeck Dec. 16, 1913 1,398,474 Strawn Nov. 29, 1921 1,714,583 Anthony May 28, 1929 1,867,884 Huff July 19, 1932 2,067,456 Meisel Ian. l2, 1937 2,478,240 Christman Aug. 9, 1949 2,582,522 Battersby Jan. 15, 1952 2,586,462 Forster Feb. 19, 1'952 2,592,268 Gerbe Apr. 8, 1952 2,778,425 Paul Ian. 22, 1957 2,805,715 Novick Sept. 10, 1957 FOREIGN PATENTS 189,957 Great Britain Dec. 14, 1922 386,357 Great Britain Ian. 19, 1933

US659511A 1957-05-16 1957-05-16 Web cutting apparatus Expired - Lifetime US2870840A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US659511A US2870840A (en) 1957-05-16 1957-05-16 Web cutting apparatus
GB2743057A GB825724A (en) 1957-08-30 1957-08-30 Improvements in or relating to web cutting apparatus

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US659511A US2870840A (en) 1957-05-16 1957-05-16 Web cutting apparatus
BE662381A BE662381A (en) 1957-05-16 1965-04-12

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US2870840A true US2870840A (en) 1959-01-27

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US (1) US2870840A (en)
AT (1) AT213221B (en)
BE (1) BE662381A (en)
CA (1) CA614504A (en)
FR (1) FR1196837A (en)
GB (1) GB825724A (en)
IT (1) IT578371A (en)
SE (1) SE196707C1 (en)

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US2986058A (en) * 1958-09-29 1961-05-30 Fmc Corp Perforating mechanism having pivoted anvil operable upon wadding of work to prevent damage to blades
US3056323A (en) * 1958-04-14 1962-10-02 Paper Converting Machine Co Progressive transverse web cutting apparatus
US3073196A (en) * 1962-07-05 1963-01-15 Marcalus Nicholas Progressive cutter for a web winding machine
US3086416A (en) * 1958-12-12 1963-04-23 Kimberly Clark Co Cutting device for paper making machine
US3140838A (en) * 1962-02-23 1964-07-14 Clark Products Inc Apparatus for perforating film from rolls
US3146653A (en) * 1961-11-08 1964-09-01 Goodrich Co B F Detachable rubber band cutter
US3190163A (en) * 1961-01-06 1965-06-22 John J Bradley Cutting device
US3202369A (en) * 1963-01-16 1965-08-24 Steel Briquette Corp Rotary sheet metal tearing devices
US3215018A (en) * 1962-05-23 1965-11-02 Machf Verwachting Nv Shears construction for cutting a web of material
US3224311A (en) * 1960-02-16 1965-12-21 Philip Morris Inc Sheet subdividing apparatus
US3261249A (en) * 1963-10-14 1966-07-19 Battle Creek Packaging Machine Web cutting assembly with rotating cutting blade
US3406959A (en) * 1965-09-21 1968-10-22 Leeds & Northrup Co Method and apparatus for scoring and fan-folding strip material
US3762255A (en) * 1971-10-20 1973-10-02 Union Carbide Corp Method and apparatus for piercing thin sheet material
US3769866A (en) * 1965-09-02 1973-11-06 J Berthou Device for transforming strips of material into dimensioned pieces
US3847045A (en) * 1973-05-25 1974-11-12 W Willhite Web perforating apparatus
US4010666A (en) * 1974-10-04 1977-03-08 Masters Christopher F Perforating blade
US4108097A (en) * 1976-09-09 1978-08-22 Pfaff Industriemaschinen G.M.B.H. Device on a sewing machine for severing thread chains
US4143568A (en) * 1977-06-30 1979-03-13 Butler-Automatic, Inc. Rotary web cutting apparatus
US4167130A (en) * 1977-12-22 1979-09-11 Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation Method for cutting sheet moulding compound reinforcing strands
US4243366A (en) * 1979-09-17 1981-01-06 The Dow Chemical Company Apparatus for forming starting tail for film rolls
US4444080A (en) * 1981-01-09 1984-04-24 Grapha-Holding Ag Tool for making rows of perforations in paper webs or the like
EP0198495A2 (en) * 1985-04-17 1986-10-22 Paper Converting Machine Company Web winding machine and method
US4824426A (en) * 1987-05-11 1989-04-25 Paper Converting Machine Company Method and apparatus for interfolding webs
US5421536A (en) * 1993-07-19 1995-06-06 Paper Coverting Machine Company Surface winder with recycled mandrels and method
US5437213A (en) * 1992-10-30 1995-08-01 Grapha-Holding Ag Device for manufacturing uniform sheets from material panels
WO1996004113A1 (en) * 1994-08-02 1996-02-15 Rewipac Holding Inc. Device for producing shredded material
US5496605A (en) * 1993-08-31 1996-03-05 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Perforated roll of nonwoven surgical tape
DE4433604A1 (en) * 1994-09-21 1996-03-28 Koenig & Bauer Albert Ag Perforating device
US5616387A (en) * 1993-08-31 1997-04-01 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Perforated roll of elastic wrap
EP0785157A2 (en) 1996-01-19 1997-07-23 Paper Converting Machine Company Method and apparatus for convolute winding
US5660349A (en) * 1994-05-16 1997-08-26 Paper Converting Machine Company Method and apparatus for winding coreless rolls
US5775194A (en) * 1995-02-09 1998-07-07 Sasib S.P.A. Device for making cuts in the direction of the advance of pieces of thin material
US5839680A (en) * 1992-07-21 1998-11-24 Fabio Perini, S.P.A. Machine and method for the formation of coreless logs of web material
US5839688A (en) * 1997-08-08 1998-11-24 Paper Converting Machine Co. Method and apparatus for producing a roll of bathroom tissue or kitchen toweling with a pattern being repeated between each pair of transverse perforations
EP0770477A3 (en) * 1995-10-24 1999-04-14 Fort James Corporation Method and apparatus for pinch perforating multi-ply web material
US6010090A (en) * 1998-12-11 2000-01-04 Paper Converting Machine Co. Method of perforating a web
US6258017B1 (en) 1999-08-31 2001-07-10 Ethicon System and method for producing folded articles
WO2001085407A1 (en) * 2000-05-09 2001-11-15 Georgia-Pacific Corporation Apparatus and method for detecting when a web is not being perforated
US6385946B1 (en) 1999-08-31 2002-05-14 Ethicon System and method for producing folded articles
US6553883B1 (en) * 1999-02-25 2003-04-29 Fosber, S.P.A. Apparatus for the transverse cutting of weblike material
US6805316B2 (en) 2001-10-23 2004-10-19 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Apparatus for severing, carrying or winding a web
US20050087647A1 (en) * 2002-09-27 2005-04-28 Butterworth Tad T. Rewinder apparatus and method
US20050103178A1 (en) * 2003-10-02 2005-05-19 Muller Martini Holding Ag Device for trimming a print product
US20050109179A1 (en) * 2003-10-20 2005-05-26 Muller Martini Holding Ag Cutting apparatus for severing a web
EP1790444A3 (en) * 2005-10-22 2009-01-14 Kai Neubauer Cutting cylinder for severing web material
CN103640056A (en) * 2013-10-30 2014-03-19 全利机械股份有限公司 Combined blade assembly and cutting mechanism for combined blade assembly

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US4712461A (en) * 1985-10-18 1987-12-15 Georgia-Pacific Corporation Rolled material dispenser with feed roller containing a sliding cutter
DK155240C (en) * 1986-05-02 1989-07-17 Eskofot As Filmskaereindretning
US8460773B2 (en) 2005-11-15 2013-06-11 Web To Print For You, Ltd. Detachable sheet
IT201600125625A1 (en) * 2016-12-13 2018-06-13 Mec Ind Srl perforating device for web-like materials

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US2778425A (en) * 1953-02-06 1957-01-22 Windmoeller & Hoelscher Apparatus for perforating sheet material
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US13153A (en) * 1855-07-03 Sandpaper-cutting machine
US404582A (en) * 1889-06-04 Machine for making perforations in paper
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US936383A (en) * 1907-09-25 1909-10-12 American Circular Loom Co Apparatus for scoring tape.
US1081507A (en) * 1908-08-05 1913-12-16 Scott Paper Co Machine for making toilet-paper rolls.
US1398474A (en) * 1919-09-30 1921-11-29 Omnigraph Company Paper-cutting device
GB189957A (en) * 1921-11-02 1922-12-14 Frederick William Vickery Improvements in knives of revolving paper-cutting machines
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Cited By (61)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3056323A (en) * 1958-04-14 1962-10-02 Paper Converting Machine Co Progressive transverse web cutting apparatus
US2986058A (en) * 1958-09-29 1961-05-30 Fmc Corp Perforating mechanism having pivoted anvil operable upon wadding of work to prevent damage to blades
US3086416A (en) * 1958-12-12 1963-04-23 Kimberly Clark Co Cutting device for paper making machine
US3224311A (en) * 1960-02-16 1965-12-21 Philip Morris Inc Sheet subdividing apparatus
US3190163A (en) * 1961-01-06 1965-06-22 John J Bradley Cutting device
US3146653A (en) * 1961-11-08 1964-09-01 Goodrich Co B F Detachable rubber band cutter
US3140838A (en) * 1962-02-23 1964-07-14 Clark Products Inc Apparatus for perforating film from rolls
US3215018A (en) * 1962-05-23 1965-11-02 Machf Verwachting Nv Shears construction for cutting a web of material
US3073196A (en) * 1962-07-05 1963-01-15 Marcalus Nicholas Progressive cutter for a web winding machine
US3202369A (en) * 1963-01-16 1965-08-24 Steel Briquette Corp Rotary sheet metal tearing devices
US3261249A (en) * 1963-10-14 1966-07-19 Battle Creek Packaging Machine Web cutting assembly with rotating cutting blade
US3769866A (en) * 1965-09-02 1973-11-06 J Berthou Device for transforming strips of material into dimensioned pieces
US3406959A (en) * 1965-09-21 1968-10-22 Leeds & Northrup Co Method and apparatus for scoring and fan-folding strip material
US3762255A (en) * 1971-10-20 1973-10-02 Union Carbide Corp Method and apparatus for piercing thin sheet material
US3847045A (en) * 1973-05-25 1974-11-12 W Willhite Web perforating apparatus
US4010666A (en) * 1974-10-04 1977-03-08 Masters Christopher F Perforating blade
US4108097A (en) * 1976-09-09 1978-08-22 Pfaff Industriemaschinen G.M.B.H. Device on a sewing machine for severing thread chains
US4143568A (en) * 1977-06-30 1979-03-13 Butler-Automatic, Inc. Rotary web cutting apparatus
US4167130A (en) * 1977-12-22 1979-09-11 Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation Method for cutting sheet moulding compound reinforcing strands
US4243366A (en) * 1979-09-17 1981-01-06 The Dow Chemical Company Apparatus for forming starting tail for film rolls
US4444080A (en) * 1981-01-09 1984-04-24 Grapha-Holding Ag Tool for making rows of perforations in paper webs or the like
EP0199285A2 (en) * 1985-04-17 1986-10-29 Paper Converting Machine Company Web winding machine and method
EP0199286A2 (en) * 1985-04-17 1986-10-29 Paper Converting Machine Company Web winding machine and method
EP0198495A2 (en) * 1985-04-17 1986-10-22 Paper Converting Machine Company Web winding machine and method
EP0199285A3 (en) * 1985-04-17 1988-03-23 Paper Converting Machine Company Web winding machine and method web winding machine and method
EP0198495A3 (en) * 1985-04-17 1988-03-30 Paper Converting Machine Company Web winding machine and method
EP0199286A3 (en) * 1985-04-17 1988-03-30 Paper Converting Machine Company Web winding machine and method
US4824426A (en) * 1987-05-11 1989-04-25 Paper Converting Machine Company Method and apparatus for interfolding webs
US5839680A (en) * 1992-07-21 1998-11-24 Fabio Perini, S.P.A. Machine and method for the formation of coreless logs of web material
US5437213A (en) * 1992-10-30 1995-08-01 Grapha-Holding Ag Device for manufacturing uniform sheets from material panels
US5421536A (en) * 1993-07-19 1995-06-06 Paper Coverting Machine Company Surface winder with recycled mandrels and method
US5616387A (en) * 1993-08-31 1997-04-01 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Perforated roll of elastic wrap
US5496605A (en) * 1993-08-31 1996-03-05 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Perforated roll of nonwoven surgical tape
US5660349A (en) * 1994-05-16 1997-08-26 Paper Converting Machine Company Method and apparatus for winding coreless rolls
WO1996004113A1 (en) * 1994-08-02 1996-02-15 Rewipac Holding Inc. Device for producing shredded material
DE4433604C2 (en) * 1994-09-21 1998-05-07 Koenig & Bauer Albert Ag Perforating device
US5791219A (en) * 1994-09-21 1998-08-11 Koenig & Bauer-Albert Aktiengesellschaft Signature perforating device
DE4433604A1 (en) * 1994-09-21 1996-03-28 Koenig & Bauer Albert Ag Perforating device
US5775194A (en) * 1995-02-09 1998-07-07 Sasib S.P.A. Device for making cuts in the direction of the advance of pieces of thin material
EP0770477A3 (en) * 1995-10-24 1999-04-14 Fort James Corporation Method and apparatus for pinch perforating multi-ply web material
EP0785157A2 (en) 1996-01-19 1997-07-23 Paper Converting Machine Company Method and apparatus for convolute winding
US5725176A (en) * 1996-01-19 1998-03-10 Paper Converting Machine Co. Method and apparatus for convolute winding
US5839688A (en) * 1997-08-08 1998-11-24 Paper Converting Machine Co. Method and apparatus for producing a roll of bathroom tissue or kitchen toweling with a pattern being repeated between each pair of transverse perforations
US6010090A (en) * 1998-12-11 2000-01-04 Paper Converting Machine Co. Method of perforating a web
US20040177737A1 (en) * 1999-02-25 2004-09-16 Fosber S.P.A. Apparatus for the transverse cutting of weblike material
US6722243B2 (en) 1999-02-25 2004-04-20 Fosber S.P.A. Apparatus for the transverse cutting of weblike material
US6553883B1 (en) * 1999-02-25 2003-04-29 Fosber, S.P.A. Apparatus for the transverse cutting of weblike material
US6808478B1 (en) 1999-08-31 2004-10-26 Ethicon System and method for producing folded articles
US6385946B1 (en) 1999-08-31 2002-05-14 Ethicon System and method for producing folded articles
US6283905B1 (en) 1999-08-31 2001-09-04 Ethicon System and method for producing folded articles
US6258017B1 (en) 1999-08-31 2001-07-10 Ethicon System and method for producing folded articles
US6698323B2 (en) 2000-05-09 2004-03-02 Georgia-Pacific Corporation Apparatus and method for detecting when a web is not being perforated
WO2001085407A1 (en) * 2000-05-09 2001-11-15 Georgia-Pacific Corporation Apparatus and method for detecting when a web is not being perforated
US6805316B2 (en) 2001-10-23 2004-10-19 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Apparatus for severing, carrying or winding a web
US20050087647A1 (en) * 2002-09-27 2005-04-28 Butterworth Tad T. Rewinder apparatus and method
US7175127B2 (en) 2002-09-27 2007-02-13 C.G. Bretting Manufacturing Company, Inc. Rewinder apparatus and method
US20050103178A1 (en) * 2003-10-02 2005-05-19 Muller Martini Holding Ag Device for trimming a print product
US8783150B2 (en) * 2003-10-02 2014-07-22 Muller Martini Holding Ag Device for trimming a print product
US20050109179A1 (en) * 2003-10-20 2005-05-26 Muller Martini Holding Ag Cutting apparatus for severing a web
EP1790444A3 (en) * 2005-10-22 2009-01-14 Kai Neubauer Cutting cylinder for severing web material
CN103640056A (en) * 2013-10-30 2014-03-19 全利机械股份有限公司 Combined blade assembly and cutting mechanism for combined blade assembly

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
IT578371A (en) 1900-01-01
SE196707C1 (en) 1965-06-15
FR1196837A (en) 1959-11-26
AT213221B (en) 1961-01-25
GB825724A (en) 1959-12-23
CA614504A (en) 1961-02-14
BE662381A (en) 1965-08-02

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