US2869182A - Roof or wall construction - Google Patents

Roof or wall construction Download PDF

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US2869182A
US2869182A US494329A US49432955A US2869182A US 2869182 A US2869182 A US 2869182A US 494329 A US494329 A US 494329A US 49432955 A US49432955 A US 49432955A US 2869182 A US2869182 A US 2869182A
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elements
members
series
roof
member
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US494329A
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Jr Walter S White
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Jr Walter S White
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/02Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls built-up from layers of building elements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B7/00Roofs; Roof construction with regard to insulation
    • E04B7/08Vaulted roofs

Description

Jan. 20, 1959 w. s. WHITE, JR

RooF 0R WALL. CONSTRUCTION Filed March 15, 1955 INVENTOR, Mufj M/// J/a ATTORNEY/.5.

United States rlhis invention relates to a building construction, and particularly to a roof or wall structure.

In the past, providingcurved wall or roof structures in accordance with modern architecturaltrends, required substantial time, effort and expense. Many separate structural sections had to be especially fitted together over a carefully prepared' framework.

The primary :object'of this invention is to provide a wall or roof structure thatmay conform to complex curved configurations,- eliminating the tedious tting operations heretofore required, and materially reducing the number of structural parts required.

It is` another object-of this invention `to provide a structure `of this character that, while conformable, nevertheless provides a continuous surface;

To accomplish these objects, elongate, substantially coterminous elementary members are provided that are fitted together so that the angular relationship between adjacent Ymembers may be determined without disturbing the fitted relationship between them. This feature makes it possible to achieve desiredcurvature in a transverse direction, simple preformed supports or the like being provided to which the members are secured at intervals-along their length, the configuration of the supports determining the configuration of the members. The elementary members are preferably suiiiciently small in cross-section to provide a small bending moment of inertia. This feature makes it possible to achievecurvature lin a longitudinal direction.

It is another object of this invention to provide a structure of this characterthat makes it possible to provide an inexpensive' roof or wall structure.

This invention possessesmany other advantages, and has other objects which may be made more clearly apparent from a consideration of several embodiments of the invention. For this purpose there are shown a few forms in the drawings `accompanying and forming part of the present specification. These forms Will now be described in detail, illustrating the general principles of the invention; but it is to be understood that this detailed description is' not to be taken in a limiting sense, since the scope of the invention is best defined by the appended claims.

Referring to the drawings:

Figure 1 is a fragmentary plan view of a roof structure incorporating. the present invention;

Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic view, showing one of the standards supporting the roof structure shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary transverse sectional view of the roof structure shown in Figs. l and 2;

Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. l, showing a roof struc ture of arcuate plan;

Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 2, showing one of the standards supporting the roof structure shown in Fig. 4;

Fig. 6 is a fragmentary transverse sectional view similar to Fig. 3, showing a modified form of the present invention;

atent O 2,869,l82 Patented Jan. 20, 1959 Fig. 7 is afragmentary sectional view, of a further modification;

Fig. 8 is a fragmentary sectional view similar to Fig. 6,A showing a further modied form of the present invention; and j y Fig. 9 is a fragmentary sectional view similar to Fig. 3, showing still another modified form of the present invention.

v In Fig. 2, one of a series of spaced supports or standards 10 is shown which supports the roof structure. The standard 10 comprises a column 11 and a transverse beam or brace 12 securedin place upon the top of the column 11.

The brace 12 and similarbraces of other columns form surfaces upon which elongate complementary wooden elements 13 and 14may rest.

The elongate elements` 13 and 14 are disposed in alternate series relationship with each other. The elements 13 are generally -of cylindrical configuration and interfit the adjacent elongate elements 14 disposed on opposite sides thereof. For this` purpose, the elongate elements 14 have symmetrically disposed concave cylindrical surfaces 14a on opposite sides, each engaging an arcuate portion of the cylindrical surface of the corresponding adjacent member 13.

Each of the bi-concave ,elements 14 can be angularly moved about the longitudinal axis 13a of the adjacent Icylindrical member, the curvature of the elements 13 corresponding to that of theV bi-concave elements. In this manner the series of elongate elements may be made to conform to the curved or arcuate configuration of the surface of the brace 12 without disturbing the lit of the interengaging parts ofthe elements. The elements 13 and 14, each being symmetrical about planes parallel to the corresponding elemental part of the roof or wall structure formed thereby, permit either a concave or convex configuration without requiring reversal of the elements.

In practice, the elements 13 and 14 are placed alternately and one at a time, upon the brace 12. In the present instance, anappropriate adhesive is placed between the engaging surfaces of the elements 13 and 14 to provide a secure weather tight connection. Each element is secured to the grace 12 after it is positioned in intertting relationship.

The end element 15 is providedV with supplemental means to hold it in place, inasmuch as it engages only one of the bi-concave elementsV 14. For this purpose, a b'olt 16 is provided that passes through the end element and the adjoining bi-concave element 14. To facilitate the placement of the bolt 16, the end element 15 is made of hollow metal material.

To protect the structure from the Weather, a roofing material may be applied upon the upper exposed or weather sides of the elements 13V and 14. In one example, a thin layer of cinders and cement 17 forms a bed for several layers of roofing paper 18; The edges of the roofing paper 18 abut an' intermediate upwardly` extending ang'e 19 of elongate metal flashing material 20. The flashing 20 overlies portions of the end element 15 and the next adjacent bi-concave member 14 and is appropriately secured thereto, as by nails 24.

A sheet metal deflector 21 is secured at the underside of the end member 15 and depends therefrom in order to deflect moisture from the `lower surfaces of the series of elements 13 and 14. A flange 22, formed along one edge of the deector 21, engages the end element 15 and ensures that moisture on the exposed area of the end member 15 will pass to the deector 21 rather than along the undersides of the elementslS and 14. Moisture will drip from the end edge 21a of the detiector to the ground. The lower or sheltered side of the elements 13 and 14 are uncovered to provide a decorative effect.

In Fig. 3 there is -shown, by way of example, a conduit 26, such Yas for electrical leadv wires, that is supported in place upon one of the elements 14 beneath the roofing material 18. v

In the form shown in-Figs. 4 and 5, a'modified form of standard 23,is provided. This standard is generally of skeletonizide triangular configuration, one side of the standard forming a support for the elements 13 and 14.

In the present form, the elements 13 and 14 are longitudinally curved about substantially vertical axes, the standards 23 being appropriately located for this purose.

p The elements 13 and 14 are sufficiently flexible in a transverse direction to permit them to assume such arcuate configuration. Flexure of the individual elem'ents does not detract from the ability of the elements to interfit each other since the difference in curvature, if any between adjacentv elements, is quite small, and the curvature itself is small.

In this form, as in the previous form, adjacent elements 13 and 14 may be relatively angularly positioned about a longitudinal axis in order that the alternate series of elements may conform to the surface of the standard 23.

Consecutive standards 23 may provide different curvatures so that the transverse curvature of the roof continuously varies. In this instance, theV elements 13 and 14 are caused to ffex arcuately about generally horizontal axes.

Thus by the aid of the interfitting exible elements 13 and 14, it is possible in a simple manner to construct a Wall or roof structure that has a compound curvature. Only the flexibility of the elements limits the extent of curvature possible. VIf the curvature is intended to be extreme, the elements 13 and 14 are made smaller in proportion in order to add fiexibility as well as to provide more perfect conformance with the curved configuration of the standards.

A wall structure can similarly be provided by the aid of the elements 13 and 14, appropriate supports serving the function of the satndards or 23 being provided. By extending the brace 12, for instance, to the surface of the floor 25, it is possible to provide a continuous wall and roof structure. In the event that the elements 13 and 14 are used for a generally vertical wall structure, no roofing material, of course, need be provided. The nterfitting relationship between the elements 13 and 14 is sufficient when painted, and especially when an adhesive is provided between the elements, to protect against the weather.

The interfitting elements may be made of material other than wood. Thus, for instance, in Fig. 6, a cylindrical element 27 and bi-concave element 28 are provided that are made of seamless tubing, such as of aluminum.

If desired, the metal elements 27 and 28 may be held together by the aid of fingers 29 (Fig. 7) struck outwardly from .the cylindrical members 27. These fingers 29 enter arcuate apertures 30 provided in the curved lportions of the bi-concave elements 28 that are elongated in a peripheral direction. The finger 29 has an end extending parallel to the length of the elements. The apertures 30 are sufficiently wide to permit the finger to enter within the hollow element 28 upon alignment of the elements. Thereafter, upon relative longitudinal movement of the elements 27 and 28 with respect to each other, the end of the finger 29 is caused to engage beneath the edges about the aperture 30 appropriately to hold the adjacent elements 27 and 28 against relative separation. The arcuate extent of the apertures 3f) permits relative adjustment of the angular position, be,- tween adjacent elements. t i' In the form shown in Fig. 8, a hollow cylindrical elemen 31 and a hollow bi-concave element 32 are provided, as in the previous form.

To secure adjacent elements together, a series of taper pins 33 are provided. These pins are force-fitted into circular apertures of the elements 31 and 32.

When the adjacent elements 31 and 32 are appropriately n place upon a brace, small holes 34 and 35, for instance, are drilled diagonally through the bi-concave element 32 and a simil-ar hole 36 is drilled through the cylindrical element 31. The pin 33, for instance, passes through the holes, and has a tapered end 33' driven into wedging relationship in aperture 36 formed in the cylindrical member 31. The apertures 34 and 35 are provided respectively through the accessible fiat side of the bi-concave member 32 and one concave portion 32a. Pins engaging `the cylindrical element at the opposite concave portion 32h are also provided, preferably in staggered relationship with those engaging the element 31 at the concave portion 32a. v

As many pins 33 are provided 4along the length of the adjacent elements as are required suitably to hold the elements together.

In the form shown in Fig. 9, a series of elements 37 are provided, each ofthe elements being alike. At one side of each element is a cylindrical concavity 37a. A cylindrically convex portion 37b of corresponding curvature is formed at the opposite side of each element.

The elements are placed in side-by-side relationship as in the previous forms. The concavity 37a of each element interfits the convex portion of the adjacent element. about longitudinal axes to conform to the configuration of the standards as in the previous forms. The concavities 37a have an arcuate extent of approximately and the convex portions 37b have an arcuate extent of approximately This permits an adjustment of approximately 60 between adjacent elements without detracting from the fitted relationship between the elements.

The elements 37 may be secured together by `an adhesive, as in the form shown in Fig. 3, or any other suitable means.

The inventor claims:

1. In a roof or wall construction for buildings: a series of elongate members placed in side-by-side relationship 'to form a roof or wall having a weather side and a sheltered side, adjacent members having interfitting parts permitting relative longitudinal angular movement of adjacent members With respect to each other about their interfitting parts prior to the members being secured; the interfitting parts of each member being symmetrical with respect to a plane parallel to the corresponding elemental part of the roof or wall formed by that member whereby a convex or concave configuration to the roof or wall may be provided without requiring reversal of the members.

2. In a roof or wall construction for buildings: a first series of longitudinal members; a second series of longitudinal members alternating with those of the first series; said members extending in side-byfside relationship; said two series having interfitting convex and concave surfaces for adjusting the relative vangular positions of the members of both series before the members are secured; and .means for attaching the members together.

3. In a roof or wall construction for buildings: a first series of longitudinal members; a second series of longitudinal members alternating with those of the first series; :said members extending in side-by-side relationship; said Itwo series having interfitting oonvex and concave cylindrical surfaces for adjusting the relative angular positions of the members of both series before the members are secured; and adhesive between the adjacent members for securing said members against relative angular movement.

4. In a roof or wall lconstruction for buildings: a first series of hollgw longitudinal members; and a second se-v The elements can be relatively angularly adjusted' i l l i assenso ries iof hollow longitudinal members alternating with those of the first series; said members extending in sideby-side relations-hip; said two series having intertting eonvex and concave cylindrical surfaces for adjusting the relative angular positions of the members of both series before the members are secured; the members of one of said series having arcuately extending slots, and the members of the other series lhaving lingers capable of entering the slots upon alignment between the slots land the iingers, and operative to secure the adjacent members together upon relative longitudinal movement between adjacent members.

5. In a roof or wall construction for buildings: a first series of longitudinal members; a second series of longitudinal members alternating with those of the lirst series; said members extending in side-by-side relationship; said two series having interfitting convex and concave surfaces for adjusting the relative angular positions of the members of both series before the members are secured; :and a series of pins interconnecting the adjacent members for securing said members against relative 1angular movement.

6. ln a roof or Wall `construction for buildings: a series of elongate members in side-by-side relationship, each Iof the elements vhaving la concave portion at one side and a convex portion at the other side, the concave portion of each element fitting the convex portion of the adjacent element, to permit angular adjustment of the members before they are secured, the concave and con vex portions of each member being symmetrical with respect to a plane parallel to the corresponding elemental part of the roof Ior Wall formed by the member whereby a convex or concave configuration to the roof or wall may be provided without requiring reversal of .the members.

7. In a roof construction for buildings: a pair of posts for a roof structure, each having upper supporting members; a series of elongate elements of uniform cross-section extending Iacross the supporting mem-bers and each resting upon the supporting members in side-by-side relationship, -there being two end elements of the series delining opposite boundaries of the roof, adjacent elements having interiitting cylindrical surfaces permitting relative angular movement of adjacent elements with respect to each other about their longitudinal axes; and means securing each of the elements in place upon the supporting members.

8. In a roof or wall construction for buildings: a rst series of elongate elements having convex cylindrical surfaces on opposite sides; a second series of elongate elements alternating with those of the first series and having means on opposite sides defining sockets for reception of the convex surfces; said elements extending in side-by-side relationship; each of the second series of elongate elements being angularly adjustable about the adjacent elements of the first series; and means for securing the elements together.

9. The method of forming a curved roof or wall construction for buildings utilizing elongate members of unorm cross-section having intertitting parts permitting angular adjustment between the members about a longi tudinal axis, which comprises: locating a series of supports having curved supper-Ling surfaces in horizontally spaced relationship with respect to each other so :that their supporting surfaces extend transversely relative to a line between the supponts; placing spaced portions of an elongate member of uniform chess-section in engagement respectively with a plurality of supports; successively and similarly placing members of uniform cross-section upon a plurality of supports and in side-'by-side relationship to the preceding member so that portions of the member tit lthe preceding member at the angular positions of the member relative to the preceding member determined by the curvature of the supports; and securing the members in place on the supports.

l0. The method of forming a curved roof or wall construction for buildings utilizing elongate tlexi'ble members of uniform cross-section having interlitting parts permitting angular adjustment between the members about a longitudinal axis, which comprises: `locating a series of supports having differently curved supporting surfaces in horizontally spaced relationship with respect Ito each Yother so that their supporting surfaces extend transversely relative to ta line between the supports; tiexing an elongate iiexible member of uniform cross-section so that spaced portions of the member are placed in engagement respectively with a plurality of supports; successively and similarlyv placing flexible members of uniform cross-section upon a plurality of supports and in side-'by-side relationship to the preceding member so that portions of the member -iit the preceding member at the angular positions of the member relative to the preceding member determined by the curvature of the supports; and securing the members in place on the supports.

1l. The method of forming a curved roof or wall construction for buildings utilizing elongate flexible members of uniform cross-section having interitting parts permitting angular adjustment between the members about a longitudinal axis, which comprises: locating a series of supports having curved supporting surfaces in horizontally spaced relationship with respect to each other so that their supporting surfaces extend transversely relative to a line between the supports and so that corresponding portions of the surfaces are located along a curved line; placing spaced portions of an elongate flexible member of uniform cross-section in engagement respectively with a plurality of supports; successively and similarly placing ilexible members of'uniform cross-section upon a plurality of supports and in side-by-side relationship to the preceding member so that portions of the member fit the preceding member at the angular positions of the member relative to the preceding member determined by the curvature of the supports; :and securing the members in place on the supports.

References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,886,707 MacPherson Nov. 8, 1932 2,582,723 Stemmons et al Jan. 15, 1952 2,635,303 Poynter Apr. 21, 1953

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4594026A (en) * 1983-05-27 1986-06-10 Pont-A-Mousson S.A. Wedge member for assembling tunnel shield voussoirs
US4606161A (en) * 1984-06-01 1986-08-19 Sacea S.A.S. Di Tirinnanzi Giampietro & C. Tubular elements and joints for their mutual articulated connection to form a partition wall of variable shape
US4712352A (en) * 1985-12-04 1987-12-15 Low R Glenn Modular construction system

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1886707A (en) * 1931-07-31 1932-11-08 Macpherson Harold Nolan Wooden stave culvert
US2582723A (en) * 1948-03-10 1952-01-15 Clayton & Lambert Mfg Co Dome-shaped roof
US2635303A (en) * 1948-06-10 1953-04-21 Donald B Poynter Tubular building structure

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1886707A (en) * 1931-07-31 1932-11-08 Macpherson Harold Nolan Wooden stave culvert
US2582723A (en) * 1948-03-10 1952-01-15 Clayton & Lambert Mfg Co Dome-shaped roof
US2635303A (en) * 1948-06-10 1953-04-21 Donald B Poynter Tubular building structure

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4594026A (en) * 1983-05-27 1986-06-10 Pont-A-Mousson S.A. Wedge member for assembling tunnel shield voussoirs
US4606161A (en) * 1984-06-01 1986-08-19 Sacea S.A.S. Di Tirinnanzi Giampietro & C. Tubular elements and joints for their mutual articulated connection to form a partition wall of variable shape
US4712352A (en) * 1985-12-04 1987-12-15 Low R Glenn Modular construction system

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