US2862558A - Recovering oils from formations - Google Patents

Recovering oils from formations Download PDF

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US2862558A
US2862558A US55579655A US2862558A US 2862558 A US2862558 A US 2862558A US 55579655 A US55579655 A US 55579655A US 2862558 A US2862558 A US 2862558A
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steam
tar
formation
mixture
sand
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Henry O Dixon
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ConocoPhillips Co
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ConocoPhillips Co
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/16Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons
    • E21B43/24Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons using heat, e.g. steam injection

Description

United States Patent Henry 0. Dixon, Bartlesville, 0kla., assignor to Phillips Petroleum Company, a corporation of Delaware Application December 28, 1955 Serial No. 555,796

3 Claims. (Cl. 166-40) No Drawing.

This invention relates to the recovery of oils from formations. In one of its aspects, the invention relates to the recovery of an oil from consolidated sandstone or other formations by a method involving the injection of steam and a solvent, the solvent being ordinarily largely in the vapor phase.

In the method of recovering heavy oils from tar sands or consolidated sandstone by injection of steam, a bank of oil builds up in a cold zone, restricting flow, causing high moving pressures. Thus, it is known, generally, to extract oil and similar material from shale, sand, or other bituminous material which is in its natural condition in the ground, by forcing superheated steam into a first well to produce heat radiation toward a second well and then operating the second well as a recovery well. In Patent 2,412,765, granted December 17, 1946 to E. Buddrus et al., there is described and claimed a method of preparing partially depleted oil-bearing formations for volatile hydrocarbon storage including the steps of injecting condensible hydrocarbon vapor into the partially depleted oil-bearing formation through an input well, permitting the injected vapor to condense substantially completely to a liquid within the pores of the formation, thereby warming and dissolving the oil to facilitate drainage of the oil into the input well bore and into adjacent well borer, and then producing the mixture of oil and fully condensed vapor from the input and adjacent well bores, etc.- Referring especially to consolidated sandstone such as the Barton tar sands, I have now found that the injection of steam and a solvent vapor, for example, kerosene vapor, as described later herein, yields results which are superior to a marked extent over those which have been obtained in the prior art employing steam alone or a condensible hydrocarbon vapor as de-.

scribed in the above-mentioned Buddrus Patent 2,412,765, that is, for example, propane or butane. the results obtained by following the modus operandi of the above-mentioned Buddrus patent to secure the 'objects thereof are considered extremely. good, the findings according to the present'invention, as applied to such formations as the Barton tar sands,.indicate that theinjection of steam together with a largely vaporized normal- 1y liquid hydrocarbon solvent willyield improved results. a

It is an object of this invention to recover oils, especiallyrheavy oils, from consolidated sandstone or other similar formations. It is another object of this invention to produce heavy oils from consolidated sandstone or other formations having the characteristics of the Barton tar sands.-- Other aspects, objects, and several advantages of the invention are apparent from this description and the appended claims.

I According to the present invention, an oil or tar is recovered from. an oil ortar-containing sand, such as a Barton tar sand, or consolidated sandstone or other formation, by injecting thereinto a mixture of steam and a hydrocarbon solvent, thereby lowering the viscosity of the tar or oil and permitting it to travel through the sand Thus, while Patented Dec. 2, 1958 more rapidly than heretofore possible by the injection of either steam or a condensible hydrocarbon, as described, even after the stream has cooled and its oil or tar has, therefore, also cooled, the modus operandi, according to the invention, in effect avoiding the building up of a bank of oil or tar in a cooled or cooler zone, the said build-up ordinarily restricting flow and, therefore, causing highmoving pressures.

Still, according to the invention, in its now preferred form, a sutficient quantity of steam or'water vapor at a desired temperature is employed to carry into the formation largely in vaporous form, preferably entirely in vaporous form, the normally liquid hydrocarbon solvent which is employed. This means that, according to the invention, the steam will ordinarily be in substantial excess over the hydrocarbon solvent which is employed and ordinarily, the ratio of the steam to the hydrocarbon will be in excess of 3:1, preferably in excess of 4:1.

Normally liquid hydrocarbon solvents which can be used are those which, when admixed with the oil or tar will have the characteristics which are possessed by such liquids as kerosene, gasoline, jet fuel, Stoddard solvent, benzene, xylene, toluene, etc. 1 I One skilled in the art in possession of this disclosure will recognize that the heat which is imparted to the solvent, causing the same to assume the vapor state, not only facilitates the pumping of the combined mixture into the formation but also assists the solvent in penetrating into the formation and the oil or tar therein contained. Consideration of the factors involved upon condensation of the solvent and of the steam or water vapor will at once indicate to one skilled in the art in possession of this disclosure, that, according to the present invention,

the modus operandi has been provided wherewith to adsubstantial quantities of heat into the formation from which some steam may escape without great loss as might be experienced if a high-pressure gas, such as methane, were employed.

The temperature of the steam and normally liquid hydrocarbon vapor is adjusted to carry a sufficient quantity of heat into the formation and to produce the formation. Ordinarily, the temperature of the vaporous mixture injected into the sand will be in excess of about 225 F at approximately atmospheric pressure or slightly higher. With higher pressures, which, however, accordingto the invention, are still lower than some of those which havebeen previously employed as described, the temperatures employed will, of course, be higher. For example, pressures up to and even exceeding 500 pounds per square inch at temperatures up to 470 F., or higher, are within the scope of the present invention. Also, proportions of steam to hydrocarbon vapor up to as high as '2: 1, or higher in some cases, can be employed. Thus, although the invention is not specifically limited to the specific ratios, temperatures, etc., which have been herein "disclosed, the improved results which are obtained are now obtained within said ranges of conditions. Therefore, the said ranges of conditions are preeminently preferred at this time.

The specific method selected for injecting the sandstone or other formation, according to the invention,

will beone especially adapted to they particular formation to be produced. In the event of a fairly deep formation being produced, there will be at least one bore through which the vapor mixture will be pumped into the. formation and at least one producing bore or well through which the material of lower viscosity will be produced. However, in the event a bank is being worked and can be approached from a side, itis within the scope of the invention to inject at one or more places substantially at the bottom of orbelow the sand, thus making use of the floating capacity or displacing capacity of the condensed steam, in the form of water, to assist in forcing the oil upwardly into wellsdrilled down to the topv of the said formation, especially in the event that there is present no real or usable naturalgas pressure in the formation. Of course, it is contemplated within the scope. of the present invention to upwardly produce such a formation by drilling deeper vapor supply bore holes from the surface, thus to cause the lower viscosity. material to be produced in an upwardly direction toward producing bore holes or wells.

In an actual operation according to the modus operandi of the present invention, water and kerosene in ratio of 4:1 were heated together and the vapors were injected into three different portions of Barton tar sand. The porosity of these portions have been determined to be. approximately 25 percent. The air permeability had been determined to be approximately 100 md. tar saturation was approximately 50-55 percent of the pore space.

At the start of the injection process, the mixture of steam and kerosene was injected at 25 p. s. i. vapor pressure. After producing one pore volume, i. e., a volume equal to the volume. of the pore space within the sample, of fluid, tar, kerosene and water, the injection of the kerosene with the steam was discontinued. The remainder of the tar production was by steam injection alone. This sequence was followed to establish the liquid permeability and, then recover the kerosene plus additional tar.

At the completion of the extractions, measurements of the residual tar saturations were made. The results are as follows:

Residual Sample N o. tar sat, percent sample from one end to the other. The kerosene in the vapor tends to distill tar ahead of the heat wave, thus freeing a path for the flow of tar.

The pressure was adjusted in the tests to simulate actual conditions. About one. pound per foot of overburden depth is employed. It will be clear to one skilled in the art that steam and hydrocarbon vapor mixture temperature will be a function of pressure. At all times, the temperature is. selected so I that substantially, vaporous mixture is forced into thesandstone. Usually to 25 Initial percent by volume of hydrocarbon, corresponding to about 90 to percent steam, is employed.

The use of steam, alone, is not possible because steam will meet the tar and substantially plug the sand. No oil could be recovered. On the other hand, it is noted that kerosene vapors do not carry sufficient heat and, of course, would be prohibitively expensive to use and/ or to recover. Usually, the temperature of the steam and hydrocarbon vapor mixture will be in the approxi mate range 225500 F., and the mixture is pumped at a pressure of at least about 20 p. s. i. g.

The sands treated in the foregoing description were found in Barton County, Missouri, and are more specifically known as Clear Creek sand.

As an important feature of the present invention, the injected steam and hydrocarbon or other solvent vapors are injected into a place in the formation which is intermediate the upper and lower levels in order that heat loss to the overand underburdens will be minimized. The injection can be into a hydraulic fracture, say, in a middle ormid-portion of the formation. Any forma tion or part thereof can be hydraulically fractured prior to injection with the said vapors.

Although in the examples given, steam was used, alone, following the injection of the vapor mixture, it is clear that such injection neednot follow in the field use of the invention. The steam injection described was employed to permit determination of core permeability.

Reasonable variation and modification are possible Within the scope of the foregoing disclosure and the appended claims to the invention, the essence of which is that it has. been found that a mixture of steam and a normally liquid hydrocarbon vapor areemployed to facilitate production of oil or tar from a consolidated sandstone or other formation, particularly from a Barton tar sand.

I claim:

1. The production of tar from Barton tar sand which comprises forming a mixture of steam and kerosene, in which the steam. is in excess over the kerosene, by volume of vapors, and then injecting the mixture of vapors thus obtained at a pressure of at least about 20 pounds per square inch gage and at a temperature in the approximate range 225500 F. into. the sand and then producing tar from said sand by passing said mixture through a substantial portion of said sand.

2. A method of producing a heavy oil from 'a consolidated sandstone formation which comprises forming a mixture of steam and a normally liquid hydrocarbon vapor, injecting said mixture at a pressure of at least about 20 pounds per square inch gage and at. a temperature in the approximate range 225-500 F. into the formation and then producing oil from the injected formation by passing. said mixture through a substantial portion ofsaid formation.

3. The production of anoil-bearing formation which comprises preparing a mixture'of steam and a normally liquid hydrocarbon vapor at a pressure of at least about 20 pounds per square inch gage into the. formation, the ratio of steamto hydrocarbon vapor being at least about 2:1, injecting said mixture at a temperaturein the approximate-range. 225-:-500 F. into the formation in a quantity sufficient to cause lowering of the viscosity of oil in said formation, and producing the oil from said formation which has been soinjected.

References Citedinthe file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,520,012 Conrader Dec, 23, 1924 --.--'.-"7--..--.. D c.- 1 2,734,578

Claims (1)

1. THE PRODUCTION OF TAR FROM BARTON TAR SAND WHICH COMPRISES FORMING A MIXTURE OF STEAM AND KEROSENE, IN WHICH THE STREAM IS IN EXCESS OVER THE KEROSENE, BY VOLUME OF VAPORS, AND THEN INJECTING THE MIXTURE OF VAPORS THUS OBTAINED AT A PRESSURE OF AT LEAST ABOUT 20 POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH GAGE AND AT A TEMPERATURE IN THE APPROXIMATE RANGE 225-500*F. INTO THE SAND AND THEN PRODUCING TAR FROM SAID SAND BY PASSING SAID MIXTURE THROUGH A SUBSTANTIAL PORTION OF SAID SAND.
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Cited By (77)

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US3003555A (en) * 1956-09-18 1961-10-10 Jersey Prod Res Co Oil production from unconsolidated formations
US3126961A (en) * 1964-03-31 Recovery of tars and heavy oils by gas extraction
US3155160A (en) * 1959-11-27 1964-11-03 Pan American Petroleum Corp Recovery of heavy oils by steam extraction
US3157231A (en) * 1961-07-06 1964-11-17 David H Darley Process and apparatus for extracting and recovering oil in situ
US3221813A (en) * 1963-08-12 1965-12-07 Shell Oil Co Recovery of viscous petroleum materials
US3259186A (en) * 1963-08-05 1966-07-05 Shell Oil Co Secondary recovery process
US3272261A (en) * 1963-12-13 1966-09-13 Gulf Research Development Co Process for recovery of oil
US3276518A (en) * 1961-08-08 1966-10-04 Deutsche Erdoel Ag Process for extracting liquid bitumens from an underground deposit
US3279538A (en) * 1963-02-28 1966-10-18 Shell Oil Co Oil recovery
US3330353A (en) * 1964-09-22 1967-07-11 Shell Oil Co Thermal soak zones by fluidized fractures in unconsolidated, petroleum producing reservoirs
US3342260A (en) * 1965-03-25 1967-09-19 Phillips Petroleum Co Thermal recovery of oil
US3354958A (en) * 1965-10-14 1967-11-28 Phillips Petroleum Co Oil recovery using steam
US3373804A (en) * 1964-11-19 1968-03-19 Cities Service Oil Co Heavy oil recovery
US3385359A (en) * 1966-03-18 1968-05-28 Shell Oil Co Method of producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation by thermal treatment
US3402770A (en) * 1965-06-02 1968-09-24 Mobil Oil Corp Multiple-purpose solvent and method for treating subterranean formations
US3405761A (en) * 1967-05-12 1968-10-15 Phillips Petroleum Co Steam flooding oil-bearing limestone strata
US3409077A (en) * 1966-01-17 1968-11-05 Shell Oil Co Thermal method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon-containing formation
US3439741A (en) * 1967-10-09 1969-04-22 Phillips Petroleum Co Steam drive oil production process
US3500916A (en) * 1967-12-29 1970-03-17 Shell Oil Co Method of recovering crude oil from a subsurface formation
US3500917A (en) * 1967-12-29 1970-03-17 Shell Oil Co Method of recovering crude oil from a subsurface formation
US3500910A (en) * 1967-01-26 1970-03-17 San Miguel Project Inc Solvent recovery of petroleum
US3608638A (en) * 1969-12-23 1971-09-28 Gulf Research Development Co Heavy oil recovery method
US3685581A (en) * 1971-03-24 1972-08-22 Texaco Inc Secondary recovery of oil
US3768558A (en) * 1972-06-30 1973-10-30 Texaco Inc Oil recovery process utilizing superheated steam
US3768559A (en) * 1972-06-30 1973-10-30 Texaco Inc Oil recovery process utilizing superheated gaseous mixtures
DE2421581A1 (en) * 1973-05-04 1974-11-28 Texaco Development Corp Process for extraction of petroleum oils from underground, viscous, erdoelhaltigen formations
US3881551A (en) * 1973-10-12 1975-05-06 Ruel C Terry Method of extracting immobile hydrocarbons
US3946810A (en) * 1973-05-24 1976-03-30 The Ralph M. Parsons Company In situ recovery of hydrocarbons from tar sands
US3951457A (en) * 1973-12-07 1976-04-20 Texaco Exploration Canada Ltd. Hydraulic mining technique for recovering bitumen from tar sand deposit
US4008764A (en) * 1974-03-07 1977-02-22 Texaco Inc. Carrier gas vaporized solvent oil recovery method
US4022277A (en) * 1975-05-19 1977-05-10 The Dow Chemical Company In situ solvent fractionation of bitumens contained in tar sands
US4026358A (en) * 1976-06-23 1977-05-31 Texaco Inc. Method of in situ recovery of viscous oils and bitumens
US4034812A (en) * 1975-07-28 1977-07-12 Texaco Inc. Method for recovering viscous petroleum from unconsolidated mineral formations
US4078608A (en) * 1975-11-26 1978-03-14 Texaco Inc. Thermal oil recovery method
US4119149A (en) * 1976-12-20 1978-10-10 Texaco Inc. Recovering petroleum from subterranean formations
US4124071A (en) * 1977-06-27 1978-11-07 Texaco Inc. High vertical and horizontal conformance viscous oil recovery method
US4133382A (en) * 1977-09-28 1979-01-09 Texaco Canada Inc. Recovery of petroleum from viscous petroleum-containing formations including tar sands
US4158638A (en) * 1978-03-27 1979-06-19 Gulf Research & Development Company Recovery of oil from oil shale
US4166503A (en) * 1978-08-24 1979-09-04 Texaco Inc. High vertical conformance steam drive oil recovery method
US4166502A (en) * 1978-08-24 1979-09-04 Texaco Inc. High vertical conformance steam drive oil recovery method
US4174752A (en) * 1978-01-24 1979-11-20 Dale Fuqua Secondary recovery method and system for oil wells using solar energy
US4207945A (en) * 1979-01-08 1980-06-17 Texaco Inc. Recovering petroleum from subterranean formations
US4407367A (en) * 1978-12-28 1983-10-04 Hri, Inc. Method for in situ recovery of heavy crude oils and tars by hydrocarbon vapor injection
US4465137A (en) * 1982-06-25 1984-08-14 Texaco Inc. Varying temperature oil recovery method
US4469177A (en) * 1982-11-29 1984-09-04 Mobil Oil Corporation Recovery of viscous oil from asphaltic oil-containing formations
US4484630A (en) * 1981-01-30 1984-11-27 Mobil Oil Corporation Method for recovering heavy crudes from shallow reservoirs
US4513819A (en) * 1984-02-27 1985-04-30 Mobil Oil Corporation Cyclic solvent assisted steam injection process for recovery of viscous oil
US4597444A (en) * 1984-09-21 1986-07-01 Atlantic Richfield Company Method for excavating a large diameter shaft into the earth and at least partially through an oil-bearing formation
US4687058A (en) * 1986-05-22 1987-08-18 Conoco Inc. Solvent enhanced fracture-assisted steamflood process
US4697642A (en) * 1986-06-27 1987-10-06 Tenneco Oil Company Gravity stabilized thermal miscible displacement process
US4753293A (en) * 1982-01-18 1988-06-28 Trw Inc. Process for recovering petroleum from formations containing viscous crude or tar
US5143156A (en) * 1990-09-27 1992-09-01 Union Oil Company Of California Enhanced oil recovery using organic vapors
US20020144818A1 (en) * 2001-04-04 2002-10-10 Leaute Roland P. Liquid addition to steam for enhancing recovery of cyclic steam stimulation or laser-CSS
US20060011341A1 (en) * 2004-04-21 2006-01-19 Campbell Gale J Method for stimulating a petroleum well
US20070045267A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Vinegar Harold J Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US20070095536A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-05-03 Vinegar Harold J Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20070108201A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-17 Vinegar Harold J Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase wye configuration
US20080128134A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-05 Ramesh Raju Mudunuri Producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US20080173449A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Thomas David Fowler Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment
US20090095476A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 Scott Vinh Nguyen Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US20090194333A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Macdonald Duncan Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US7640980B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2010-01-05 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US20100101783A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-29 Vinegar Harold J Using self-regulating nuclear reactors in treating a subsurface formation
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US20100258309A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Oluropo Rufus Ayodele Heater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US20110088904A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2011-04-21 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
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US20130269935A1 (en) * 2011-10-07 2013-10-17 Shell Oil Company Treating hydrocarbon formations using hybrid in situ heat treatment and steam methods
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Cited By (202)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3126961A (en) * 1964-03-31 Recovery of tars and heavy oils by gas extraction
US3003555A (en) * 1956-09-18 1961-10-10 Jersey Prod Res Co Oil production from unconsolidated formations
US3155160A (en) * 1959-11-27 1964-11-03 Pan American Petroleum Corp Recovery of heavy oils by steam extraction
US3157231A (en) * 1961-07-06 1964-11-17 David H Darley Process and apparatus for extracting and recovering oil in situ
US3276518A (en) * 1961-08-08 1966-10-04 Deutsche Erdoel Ag Process for extracting liquid bitumens from an underground deposit
US3279538A (en) * 1963-02-28 1966-10-18 Shell Oil Co Oil recovery
US3259186A (en) * 1963-08-05 1966-07-05 Shell Oil Co Secondary recovery process
US3221813A (en) * 1963-08-12 1965-12-07 Shell Oil Co Recovery of viscous petroleum materials
US3272261A (en) * 1963-12-13 1966-09-13 Gulf Research Development Co Process for recovery of oil
US3330353A (en) * 1964-09-22 1967-07-11 Shell Oil Co Thermal soak zones by fluidized fractures in unconsolidated, petroleum producing reservoirs
US3373804A (en) * 1964-11-19 1968-03-19 Cities Service Oil Co Heavy oil recovery
US3342260A (en) * 1965-03-25 1967-09-19 Phillips Petroleum Co Thermal recovery of oil
US3402770A (en) * 1965-06-02 1968-09-24 Mobil Oil Corp Multiple-purpose solvent and method for treating subterranean formations
US3354958A (en) * 1965-10-14 1967-11-28 Phillips Petroleum Co Oil recovery using steam
US3409077A (en) * 1966-01-17 1968-11-05 Shell Oil Co Thermal method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon-containing formation
US3385359A (en) * 1966-03-18 1968-05-28 Shell Oil Co Method of producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation by thermal treatment
US3500910A (en) * 1967-01-26 1970-03-17 San Miguel Project Inc Solvent recovery of petroleum
US3405761A (en) * 1967-05-12 1968-10-15 Phillips Petroleum Co Steam flooding oil-bearing limestone strata
US3439741A (en) * 1967-10-09 1969-04-22 Phillips Petroleum Co Steam drive oil production process
US3500916A (en) * 1967-12-29 1970-03-17 Shell Oil Co Method of recovering crude oil from a subsurface formation
US3500917A (en) * 1967-12-29 1970-03-17 Shell Oil Co Method of recovering crude oil from a subsurface formation
US3608638A (en) * 1969-12-23 1971-09-28 Gulf Research Development Co Heavy oil recovery method
US3685581A (en) * 1971-03-24 1972-08-22 Texaco Inc Secondary recovery of oil
US3768558A (en) * 1972-06-30 1973-10-30 Texaco Inc Oil recovery process utilizing superheated steam
US3768559A (en) * 1972-06-30 1973-10-30 Texaco Inc Oil recovery process utilizing superheated gaseous mixtures
DE2421581A1 (en) * 1973-05-04 1974-11-28 Texaco Development Corp Process for extraction of petroleum oils from underground, viscous, erdoelhaltigen formations
US3946810A (en) * 1973-05-24 1976-03-30 The Ralph M. Parsons Company In situ recovery of hydrocarbons from tar sands
US3881551A (en) * 1973-10-12 1975-05-06 Ruel C Terry Method of extracting immobile hydrocarbons
US3951457A (en) * 1973-12-07 1976-04-20 Texaco Exploration Canada Ltd. Hydraulic mining technique for recovering bitumen from tar sand deposit
US4008764A (en) * 1974-03-07 1977-02-22 Texaco Inc. Carrier gas vaporized solvent oil recovery method
US4022277A (en) * 1975-05-19 1977-05-10 The Dow Chemical Company In situ solvent fractionation of bitumens contained in tar sands
US4034812A (en) * 1975-07-28 1977-07-12 Texaco Inc. Method for recovering viscous petroleum from unconsolidated mineral formations
US4078608A (en) * 1975-11-26 1978-03-14 Texaco Inc. Thermal oil recovery method
US4026358A (en) * 1976-06-23 1977-05-31 Texaco Inc. Method of in situ recovery of viscous oils and bitumens
US4119149A (en) * 1976-12-20 1978-10-10 Texaco Inc. Recovering petroleum from subterranean formations
US4124071A (en) * 1977-06-27 1978-11-07 Texaco Inc. High vertical and horizontal conformance viscous oil recovery method
US4133382A (en) * 1977-09-28 1979-01-09 Texaco Canada Inc. Recovery of petroleum from viscous petroleum-containing formations including tar sands
US4174752A (en) * 1978-01-24 1979-11-20 Dale Fuqua Secondary recovery method and system for oil wells using solar energy
US4158638A (en) * 1978-03-27 1979-06-19 Gulf Research & Development Company Recovery of oil from oil shale
US4166503A (en) * 1978-08-24 1979-09-04 Texaco Inc. High vertical conformance steam drive oil recovery method
US4166502A (en) * 1978-08-24 1979-09-04 Texaco Inc. High vertical conformance steam drive oil recovery method
US4407367A (en) * 1978-12-28 1983-10-04 Hri, Inc. Method for in situ recovery of heavy crude oils and tars by hydrocarbon vapor injection
US4207945A (en) * 1979-01-08 1980-06-17 Texaco Inc. Recovering petroleum from subterranean formations
US4484630A (en) * 1981-01-30 1984-11-27 Mobil Oil Corporation Method for recovering heavy crudes from shallow reservoirs
US4753293A (en) * 1982-01-18 1988-06-28 Trw Inc. Process for recovering petroleum from formations containing viscous crude or tar
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