US2862447A - Rocket structure - Google Patents

Rocket structure Download PDF

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Publication number
US2862447A
US2862447A US380031A US38003153A US2862447A US 2862447 A US2862447 A US 2862447A US 380031 A US380031 A US 380031A US 38003153 A US38003153 A US 38003153A US 2862447 A US2862447 A US 2862447A
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United States
Prior art keywords
nozzle
shell
bulkhead
cap
projectile
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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US380031A
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Lyon George Albert
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Lyon George Albert
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B10/00Means for influencing, e.g. improving, the aerodynamic properties of projectiles or missiles; Arrangements on projectiles or missiles for stabilising, steering, range-reducing, range-increasing or fall-retarding
    • F42B10/02Stabilising arrangements
    • F42B10/26Stabilising arrangements using spin
    • F42B10/28Stabilising arrangements using spin induced by gas action
    • F42B10/30Stabilising arrangements using spin induced by gas action using rocket motor nozzles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49826Assembling or joining
    • Y10T29/49908Joining by deforming
    • Y10T29/49915Overedge assembling of seated part
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49826Assembling or joining
    • Y10T29/49908Joining by deforming
    • Y10T29/49915Overedge assembling of seated part
    • Y10T29/49917Overedge assembling of seated part by necking in cup or tube wall
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49826Assembling or joining
    • Y10T29/49908Joining by deforming
    • Y10T29/49938Radially expanding part in cavity, aperture, or hollow body

Description

Dec. 2, 1958 G. A. LYON ROCKET STRUCTURE Filed Sept. 14. 1953 l United States Patent O 2,862,447 ROCKET STRUCTURE George Albert Lyon, Detroit, Mich. Application September 14, 1953, Serial No. 380,031 Claims. (Cl. IGZ- 49) The present invention relates to improvements in military projectiles, and more particularly concerns a projectile of the self-propulsion or propulsion assist type.
An important object of the present invention is to provide a military projectile having novel means for propelling or assisting in the propelling of the same.
Another object of the invention is to provide a rockettype military projectile having novel propulsion nozzle structure.
A further object of the invention is to provide improved propulsion nozzle structures for military projectiles.
Still another object of the invention is to provide improved nozzle cap structure for self-propelled projectiles.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide'an improved self-propelled projectile.
Other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will be readily apparent from the following detailed description of certain preferred embodiments thereof taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, in which:
Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional view through a self propelled projectile bodyembodying features of the present invention, and taken substantially along the line I-I of Figure 2.
Figure 2 is an end elevational view of the base or nozzle cap of the projectile of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional detail View taken substantially on the line III-III of Figure 2.
Figure 4 is a fragmentary sectional detail view similar to Figure 3, showing a modication.
Figure 5 is a fragmentary sectional view similar to Figure 3, but showing a further modication.
Figure 6 is a fragmentary sectional view similar to Figure 3, and showing still another modification.
In an exemplary projectile structure as shown in Figure l, a cylindrical, inverted cannister-like elongated motor shell 10 is provided having a convexly bulged bulkhead 11 provided with an annular, preferably cylindrical inset neck 12 connected integrally in one piece with the elongated body of the motor casing 10.
Supported by the motor casing 10 is a generally tapered shell 13 within which an explosive charge is adapted to be housed. By preference, the tip portion of the shell 13 is provided with a fuse-receiving opening dened by an interned annular ange 14. At its base end, the shell 13 is provided with an annular attachment flange 15 snugly engaging the inset neck 12 about the base of the bulkhead 11, the latter thus projecting up into the lower portion of the shell 13.
In order to increase the area of contact of the base poi-tion of the shell 13 with the bulkhead 11 and also to provide a rifling ring seat, the shell 13 is formed contiguous the attachment ilange 15 with an indented annular rib 17 providing a radially outwardly opening annular channel 18. The axially outer side of the rib 17, that is truste-conical downwardly tapered 2,862,447 latented Dec. 2, 1958 the side which is nearest the ange 15, is shaped complementary to the adjacentmargin of the bulkhead 11 so as to lbear thereagainst. This affords a thrust shouldering inter-engagement between the bulkhead and the base portion of the shell so that not only is concentric assembly of the shell upon the motor casing facilitated but forward thrust of the motor casing 10 under propulsion is uniformly transmitted to the shell and thus any tendency toward eccentric displacement of the shell relative to the casing under .thrust forces is avoided.
Within the groove, is accommodated a filling ring 19 which may be of copper or other suitable material and has the outer diameter thereof slightly greater than the outer diameter of the shell and motor casing. It will be observed that the channel 18 is of generally V-shaped cross section and that theV inner peripheral shape of the riiling Vring 19 is complementary and thus also of generally V-shaped cross section.
-Attached to the base end of the motor casing 10` and providing the lower wall thereof is a nozzle cap 20. This cap may be a coined or otherwise constructed member of generally cup shape having an internally threaded annular upstanding vwall 21 within which is threadedly secured a reduced diameter externally threaded lower end attachment ilange 22 of the motor casing. At juncture of the attachment lflange 22 with the body of the casing 10 is provided a generally'downwardly directed juncture shoulder 23 which opposes the adjacent edge of the cap flange 21 and thereby aifords an eiiicient thrust abutment substantially in line with the side wall or tbody of the motor casing 10. vThis relationship is especially valuable Where the projectile is to be initially propelled Iby an explosive charge behind Ithejcap 20.
vBy preference, the perimeter of the base cap ilange 21 is of larger diameter than the outside diameter of the motor casing 10. Such perimeter may be copper clad, or soft annealed where the member 20 is of a suitable material such as a copper alloy, and of about the same diameter as the riing ring 19. Thereby the flange 21 is adapted to cooperate with the ring 19 in maintaining the projectile centered in a shell casing and also in passing vthrough a rifled or unrifled launching tube or gun barrel, especially since the ilange and ring are spaced substantially longitudinally of the projectile.
For the propulsion of the projectile in llight, a propellent charge within the motor casing V10 is ignited with exhaust gases issuing through appropriately disposed exhaust orifices 24. Herein, two of the orifices are shown equi-distantly, symmetrically disposed adjacent the margin of the cap 20, but it will be understood that a greater plurality of such orifices may be provided, depending upon the size and other factors relating to the particular projectile involved. Ignition of the propelling charge may, of course, occur through the exhaust orifices 24 as a result of ignition of an expulsion or ini-tial propelling charge behind the cap 20.
In order to compel continued spinning of the projectile about its axis in ilight, the orices 24 are provided with respective nozzles 25 which are angled in the same circumferential direction symmetrically. Each of the nozzles (Figures 2 and 3) is preferably formed as a separate element of generally .tubular elongated construction provided with an axial bore having a restricted venturi throat 27 therein. Y
For attachment of the nozzles 25 to the cap 20, each of the nozzles is provided with a preferably generally frusto-conically shaped, upwardly flaring funnel-like head 28, fitted snugly within a complementary generally upwardly flaring recess 29 within a downwardly projecting boss 30, through which the respective orifice 24 opens. The bosses 30 may be coined in the base or cap member 20.
In order to attain the proper angular relationship of the nozzle 25 to the nozzle cap 20, the axis of the frustrum 29 within the boss 30 is properly angled or canted. Thereby, upon assembling the nozzle 25 `with its orificed boss 30, the'proper angular relationof the nozzle is automatically attained coaxially with the orifice and recess frustum axes.
For strength and in order to afford an efficient funnel surface directed to the venturi throat 27, the funnel head 28 of the nozzle mmeber is preferably enlarged toward the side which is tilted down relative to the'cap so that the top edge of the head will be complementary, level with the floor as defined by the upper face of the cap 20, substantially as shown in Figure 3. This provides a more or less elongated ramp at the down tilted side of the head 28 leading smoothly to the venturi 27 from the floor of the nozzle cap.
While the nozzle head 28 retains the nozzle in downwardly projected angular relation to the nozzle cap 20, integral shoulder means 31, which may comprise a continuous annular ange, or a series of pressed up lugs on the downwardly projecting nozzle shank, engage a generally downwardly directed shoulder 32 at the lower end of the orifice boss 30. Thereby the nozzle is rretained against upward displacement relative to the nozzle cap. 4
It will be observed that the throat adjacent to the upper end of the nozzle bore defined by the venturi restriction 27 is located adjacent to the lower end of the orifice 24 and that the restricted venturi throat provides a substantially thicker nozzle wall section in a plane `across the throat, thereby affording maximum strength where the nozzle joins the lower end of the boss 30. The major lower length of the nozzle projects below the boss and has the portion of the bore in such lower length flaring downwardly toward an exit of substantially larger diameter than the venturi throat 27. At its upper end portion the nozzle bore flares from the venturi throat 27 substantially complementary to the frustum flare of the depression 29 toward an upper end mouth opening for the bore in said upper shorter portion of the nozzle.
In the modification shown in Figure 4, the nozzle cap 20 is the same as already described, having the same orifice boss 30, frusto-conical recess 29 and downwardly A directed shoulder 32. A nozzle member 350il substantially the same construction as the nozzle 25, having a venturi throat 37 and a generally truste-conical head 38 is provided. At the base of the head 38 is provided a recessed shoulder 39 which engages against the shoulder 32 for retaining the nozzle member in place against upward displacement.
In assembling the nozzle member 35 with the cap 20, the head 38 is initially cylindrical as shown in dash outline so that the nozzle member can be inserted by an upward movement into position within the orific boss 30 and with the shoulder 39 thrusting against the shoulder 32 of the orifice boss. Then the nozzle head is expanded into the final assembled generally frusto-conical condition thereof as shown in full outline, locking the same against the frusto-conical surface provided by the recess 29 in the orifice boss 30. The nozzle 35 is thereby retained against downward displacement.
Having reference to the modification of Figure 5, a nozzle cap 20 has an orifice boss 30 providing a generally frusto-conical orifice recess 29'. A nozzle member 40 having a venturi throat 41 is provided with a generally frusto-conical head 42 much the same as the nozzles 25 and 35 already described, fitting snugly within the recess 29. Retention of the nozzle 40 against upward displacement is effected by means of 4a turned over locking flange 43 on the lioor defined by the-V cap 20" about the recess 29"; Initially the locking flange 43 extends upwardly as indicated in dash outline so that the nozzle 40 can be assembled by dropping it into position. Thereafter, the flange 43 is peened or otherwise turned down to overlying interlocking relation to the upper edge of the nozzle head 42. It will be clear that the nozzle is effectively heldA against turning by this interlock relationship.
In Figure 6 is shown a modification wherein a nozzle 45 is threadedly connected to a nozzle cap or plate 20". Similarly as in the previously described forms of the invention, the nozzle 20 is provided with a recess 29 defining the orifice therein formed in an orifice boss 30. In this form the boss 30" is provided with a base wall 47 tilted normal to the axis of the vnozzle 45 and having internal threads 48 within which are interthreadedly received external threads 49 on a reduced diameter head 50 on the nozzle 45. A shoulder 51 at the base of the head 50 engages against the underside or the shoulder of the walls 47 of the orifice boss. Thus, assembly of the nozzle 45 is effected by screwing the same into position until the shoulder 51 bears tightly against the head boss. The nozzle 45 is, of course, provided with a venturi throat 52.
All of the nozzle members described are, of course, preferably made from highly'heat resistant material.
It will be understood that modifications and variations may be effected without departing from the scope of the novel concepts of the present invention.
I claim as my invention:
l. In a projectile, a motor casing having a top bulkhead, a shell secured upon the bulkhead and the motor casing, said shell and bulkhead having interengaging thrust shoulders, the thrust shoulder of the shell comprising an indented annular rib shouldering against the margin of the bulkhead.
2. In a projectile, Va motor casingV having a top bulkhead, a shell secured upon the Ibulkhead and the motor casing, said shell and bulkhead having interengaging thrust shoulders, the thrust shoulder of the shell comprising an indented annular rib shouldering against the margin of the bulkhead, said rib defining an annular outwardly opening groove having therein a rifling ring.
3. In a projectile, a motor casing having a bulkhead closing one end, a shellhaving a base portion engaging about said'bulkhead, said shell having an indented rib shouldering against the bulkhead and Vproviding an outwardly opening annular groove of substantially V-shaped cross section, and a rifling ring seated in said groove and having a generally V-shaped inner cross section complementary to the groove and projecting radially beyond the perimeter of the shell.
4. vIn a projectile, a motor casing having a top bulkhead,
a shell secured upon the bulkhead and the motor casing,
said shell and bulkhead having interengaging thrust shoulders, the thrust shoulder of the shell comprising an indented annular rib shouldering against the margin of the bulkhead, the shell having an annular flange projecting beyond the said annular rib and encompassing the adjacent end of the motor casing for maintaining `the casing and shell in coaxial assembly.
5. In a self-propelled projectile-construction, a lower end motor casing wall for-theprojectile, said end wall having an upwardly flaringv canted frusto-conical depression therein defined by a boss portion of the end wall bulging downwardly `below the lower face ofthe end wall and with the depression surface converging Vdownwardly toward a lower end orifice opening below-said lower face and coaxial with the canted axis of the Ydepression frustum, and one-piece elongated nozzle formed as a separate element and having a portionextendingY into and lsecured fixedly in saidorilice on a canted axis coaxial with nozzle wall section in a plane across said throat and thus affording maximum strength where the nozzle joins the lower end of said boss, the major lower length of the 'nozzle projecting below said boss and having the portion of the bore in such lower length aring downwardly toward an exit of substantially larger diameter than the throat, the upper-end portion of said Ibore flaring from said throat substantially complementary to the frustum are of said depression toward an upper end mouth opening for the bore in the upper shorter portion of the lo nozzle.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS
US380031A 1953-09-14 1953-09-14 Rocket structure Expired - Lifetime US2862447A (en)

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3048112A (en) * 1959-02-06 1962-08-07 Phillips Petroleum Co Gas generator
US3058421A (en) * 1959-03-19 1962-10-16 Arnold B Stein Integral missile tanks
US3137057A (en) * 1959-11-13 1964-06-16 Lyon Inc Manufacture of missile casings
US3175495A (en) * 1959-11-13 1965-03-30 Lyon Inc Missile casing
US3224681A (en) * 1963-05-20 1965-12-21 Thiokol Chemical Corp Alterable thrust nozzle attachment
US3228186A (en) * 1962-08-27 1966-01-11 Thiokol Chemical Corp Combination self-restraining nozzle and exit cone for solid propellant rocket motors
US3251552A (en) * 1963-03-07 1966-05-17 Douglas M Ford Exhaust nozzle for jet or rocket motors
US8434394B1 (en) * 2008-10-20 2013-05-07 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Apparatus for adapting a rocket-assisted projectile for launch from a smooth bore tube

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US958990A (en) * 1908-11-10 1910-05-24 Emile Bourdelles Torpedo.
US1762313A (en) * 1926-06-14 1930-06-10 Diamond Power Speciality Boiler cleaner
US2044697A (en) * 1935-12-28 1936-06-16 Huss Henry Nozzle
FR859352A (en) * 1939-05-11 1940-12-17 Improvements to rockets or similar
US2246429A (en) * 1936-03-30 1941-06-17 Sageb Sa Projectile
GB622217A (en) * 1946-03-19 1949-04-28 Morton Smith Improvements in or relating to rocket motors
US2661692A (en) * 1952-05-07 1953-12-08 Conard R Vegren Helical gas flow channel for solid propellants

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US958990A (en) * 1908-11-10 1910-05-24 Emile Bourdelles Torpedo.
US1762313A (en) * 1926-06-14 1930-06-10 Diamond Power Speciality Boiler cleaner
US2044697A (en) * 1935-12-28 1936-06-16 Huss Henry Nozzle
US2246429A (en) * 1936-03-30 1941-06-17 Sageb Sa Projectile
FR859352A (en) * 1939-05-11 1940-12-17 Improvements to rockets or similar
GB622217A (en) * 1946-03-19 1949-04-28 Morton Smith Improvements in or relating to rocket motors
US2661692A (en) * 1952-05-07 1953-12-08 Conard R Vegren Helical gas flow channel for solid propellants

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3048112A (en) * 1959-02-06 1962-08-07 Phillips Petroleum Co Gas generator
US3058421A (en) * 1959-03-19 1962-10-16 Arnold B Stein Integral missile tanks
US3137057A (en) * 1959-11-13 1964-06-16 Lyon Inc Manufacture of missile casings
US3175495A (en) * 1959-11-13 1965-03-30 Lyon Inc Missile casing
US3228186A (en) * 1962-08-27 1966-01-11 Thiokol Chemical Corp Combination self-restraining nozzle and exit cone for solid propellant rocket motors
US3251552A (en) * 1963-03-07 1966-05-17 Douglas M Ford Exhaust nozzle for jet or rocket motors
US3224681A (en) * 1963-05-20 1965-12-21 Thiokol Chemical Corp Alterable thrust nozzle attachment
US8434394B1 (en) * 2008-10-20 2013-05-07 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Apparatus for adapting a rocket-assisted projectile for launch from a smooth bore tube

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