US2849236A - Revolving layboy piler - Google Patents

Revolving layboy piler Download PDF

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Publication number
US2849236A
US2849236A US45584554A US2849236A US 2849236 A US2849236 A US 2849236A US 45584554 A US45584554 A US 45584554A US 2849236 A US2849236 A US 2849236A
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Prior art keywords
layboy
sheets
skid
pile
piler
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Inventor
Delton C Beaulieu
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Kimberly-Clark Corp
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Kimberly-Clark Corp
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B65CONVEYING; PACKING; STORING; HANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL
    • B65HHANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL, e.g. SHEETS, WEBS, CABLES
    • B65H31/00Pile receivers
    • B65H31/24Pile receivers multiple or compartmented, e.d. for alternate, programmed, or selective filling
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B65CONVEYING; PACKING; STORING; HANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL
    • B65HHANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL, e.g. SHEETS, WEBS, CABLES
    • B65H31/00Pile receivers
    • B65H31/32Auxiliary devices for receiving articles during removal of a completed pile
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B65CONVEYING; PACKING; STORING; HANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL
    • B65HHANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL, e.g. SHEETS, WEBS, CABLES
    • B65H2301/00Handling processes for sheets or webs
    • B65H2301/40Type of handling process
    • B65H2301/42Piling, depiling, handling piles
    • B65H2301/422Handling piles, sets or stacks of articles
    • B65H2301/4225Handling piles, sets or stacks of articles in or on special supports
    • B65H2301/42256Pallets; Skids; Platforms with feet, i.e. handled together with the stack

Description

A11g 26, 1958 D. c. BEA-ULIEU 2,849,236

REVOLVING LAYBOY PILER Filed Sept. 14, 1954 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 D. c. BEAULIEU REvoLvING LAYBOY PILER Aug. 26, 1958 Filed sept.l 14, 1954 '2 Sheets-Sheet 2 f ih ill il, l'l

Il l.

I Ill I lll United States Patent O 2,849,236 REvoLvlNG LAYBoY PILER Delton C. Beaulieu, Neenah, Wis., assigner, by mesue assignments, to Kimberly-Clark Corporation, a corporation of Delaware Application September 14, 1954, Serial No. 455,845

3 Claims. (Cl. 271-88) the like in a stack containing a predetermined quantity of sheets. The conventional type of layboy generally includes a series of joggers which constantly move back and forth against the edges of the sheets to achieve a vertical alignment of the sheets as they are being stacked, and a pile-height regulating mechanism which operates to lower the stack as it is being built up, to thereby maintain a constant level for the top of the stack in the layboy. As the predetermined number of sheets are accumulated in the layboy, the cutter is shut down and the stack lowered. The filled skid is then removed from the layboy and`replaced by an empty skid. This shut down is for an appreciable length of time and occurs several times before the supply of paper in the backstand is normally exhausted. Obviously this 'repeated shut down seriously limits the capacity ofthe cutter-layboyl machine.

In a so-called continuous type of layboy there is provided a temporary supporting means which, upon completion of the stack in the layboy, operates to receive the succeeding cut sheets and support them in position while the completed stack is being removed from the layboy table. Such a layboy is satisfactory insofar as it is capable of maintaining a speed of operation which conforms with the speed of the cutter. recognized that even in a continuous type of layboy, the pile must be lowered and removed and the layboy table returned to its sheet-receiving position in a period -of time less than that required for the cutter to deliver another full stack to the layboy. Consequently, with a high-speed cutter the layboy is not able to handle all of the sheets coming from the cutter `in the time that it takes to remove the completed stack fromthe layboy with known means. This means that, if the cutter is operated at its intended speed, it must be periodically shut down to compensaterfor the inadequacy of the temporary supporting means in the layboy. Obviously, the intermittent operation of the cutter makes the entire sheet handling operation less eliicieut and lessproductive.

The principal object of the present `invention ,is to provide a new and improved sheet stacking arrangement for a layboy, which overcomes the `above Jdeficiencies and is adaptable for use with either the conventional or continuous type of layboy. Another object of the invention is to provide a dual-stack receiving arrangement for a layboy, which is movable relative to the sheet-feeding mechanism on the cutter to present either of two stack receivers in operative relation to 'the layboy to receive However, it is Patented Aug. 2s, 195s 2 sheets from the sheet-feeding mechanism. Other objects and advantages will become apparent as the disclosure progresses with respect to the accompanying drawings,

wherein:

Figure 1 is an elevational view of a structure embodying the principles of the present invention, with parts broken away to more clearly illustrate portions of the Structure.

' Figure 2 is a plan view of the structure in Figure 1, with parts broken away and certain of the elements moved to another position.

Figure 3 is an enlarged, schematic View of a portion of the apparatus in Figures 1 and 2.

The present invention, as seen in the illustrated machine, is concerned with an improved form of apparatus for handling sheets of material, such as paper, so as to arrange the sheets in a stack as they are delivered from a cutter mechanism. Generally, the stacking of the sheets and the removal of the piled sheets is expedited by means of a revolving layboy piler 5 comprising a pair of vertically movable skid bases 7 and 9 mounted on a platform 11 which is rotatable about a pivot 13. In this manner, one of the skid bases can be arranged in position for receiving sheets from the cutter, while the other skid base is free for removal of the stack of sheets which has previously been deposited thereon.

The illustrated embodiment shows the revolving piler 5 in connection with a continuous layboy 15, although it will be apparent from the following description that the piler may also be advantageously employed in other types of layboys. The layboy 15 includes a frame structure 17 which also provides support for the terminal end of a series of conveyor belts 19 which carry the sheets from a cutter (not shown) to the layboy 15. In order to handle the continuously fed sheets during the unloading of the completed stack in the layboy, a temporary support 21 is provided for receiving the sheets from the conveyor 19. This temporary support comprises a plurality of rods 23 mounted at one end on a movable carriage 25. The carriage 25 includes a transverse supporting member 27 which is iixed at its opposite ends to a pair of triangular plate l structures 29 each including wheels 31 disposed for rolling movement relative to a track 33 on the cutter-layboy frame. The carriage 25 is connected to a power-driven endless chain 35, so that movement of the chain in one direction effects an extension of the rods 23 to a position overlying the stack in the layboy (Fig. l), and movement of the chain in the opposite direction retraets the rods to a position clear of the layboy stack, as seen in Fig. 2.

Also mounted on the layboy frame 17 are the usual joggers 37, which oscillate continuously to help align the sheets as they are deposited in the layboy, an-d a pile level detector 39, which is operatively connected with a pilelowering mechanism to maintain the top of the stack of sheets in the layboy at a substantially constant level.` Generally, the upper end of the detector 39 is provided with a portion curved in the direction of the pile, and as this upper portion engages the edge of the pile and is ICC held` away from the pile it operates a limit switch 40 to elfect a lowering movement of the pile. As the pile lowers in the layboy it permits the detector 39 to move to y 3 piler. As illustrated, the floor 45 is of concrete and is supported on steel girders 47. A circular plate 49 is mounted in generally flush relation to the floor surface. The center pivot 13, comprising a cylindrical member 51 secured to the center of an upper plate 53 of the platform,

is disposed within a bearing 55 embedded in the floor to guide the platform in its rotation.

Th platform 11 is preferably power driven by a motor 57 (Figure 2) which is supported on the plate 53 and drivingly connected with one of the wheels 41 supporting the platform. The skid bases 7 and 9 are supported on the platform in diametrically opposed positions, with each skid base comprising a rectangular table member 61 supported at its four corners by screw posts 59. The screw posts 59 are each received by an internally threaded corner portion 63 of the table 61, so that axial rotation of the screw posts will afford a raising and lowering of the table.

The screw posts 59 are rotatably mounted at their lower ends in cylindrical bearing supports 65 which are suitably fixed to the plate 53 in depending relation thereto, as by Welding. Of course, sufficient clearance is provided between the lower ends of these bearing supports and the circular floor plate 49 to permit free rotation of the piler. The upper ends of the screw posts 59 are rotatably mounted in a journal member 67, which is carried at the upper end of an inclined brace member 69 disposed at each of the four corners of the skid bases 7 and 9.

In order to provide for rotation of the screw posts 59, there is provided a suitable drive means in the form of a motor 71 (Fig. l). This motor is suita'bly drivingly connected with the lower end of the screw posts 59 to thereby effect an elevation of the skid bases 7 and 9. More particularly, in the illustrated machine, the motor drive shaft includes a worm section 75 which is engageable with a gear 77 carried at the lower end of the screw post 59. Preferably, each of the screw posts for the skid bases 7 and 9 are equipped with a similar drive means, and the motors 71 for each skid base are synchronized for simultaneous operation at selected uniform speeds.

Suitable control means, including the limit switch 40, is'provided for selectively connecting the pile level detector 39 with the motors 71 of the skid base in the layboy. More particularly, each of the skid bases 7 and 9 include a limit switch 40 which is supported on a horizontal member 81 fixed to the upper end of one of the corner posts for the skid base. Each limit switch in* cludes an operating 'button 83 which is disposed in underlying relation to the pile detector 39 when the associated skid base is in its sheet-receiving position in the layboy.

As seen particularly in Figure 3, the pile detector 39 comprises a generally L-shaped member which is pivotally mounted on a forward portion of the layboy so that the upwardly extending portion of the detector engages the pile of sheets carried by the skid base 61. The latter engagement may be maintained by gravity or by a suitable biasing means, such as a spring. The upper end of the detector 39 includes a curved portion, or other suitable device, adapted to be initially disposed in overlying relation to the adjacent upper edge of the sheet pile. As the height of the pile increases, the upper, curved end of the detector 39 is moved to a position along the side of the pile of sheets, as indicated by broken lines, thereby moving the opposite end portion of the detector against the limit switch button 83 to depress the latter to the position indicated at 83. This operation of the limit switch 40 effects a starting of the motor or motors 71 associated with the skid base 61 to lower the latter. As the pile is lowered to a position affording re-entry of the upper, curved portion of the detector 39 to the position shown in full in Figure 3, the button 83 is released and the motors stopped. This action is repeated until the desired height of the pile is achieved. Once the pile is completed, the base 61 can be lowered sufficiently to clear the layboy through operation of the manual control associated With each skid base, which affords stopping, starting and reversing of the motors 71 independently of the operation of the detector 39. The piler 5 can be rapidly rotated through 180 degrees by operation of the motor 57 to place the reserve skid 'base in the layboy where it is operable in a similar manner. The position of the piler is preferably suitably indexed with respect to the layboy, so that the rotation of the piler is readily halted with a skid base in a sheet-receiving position and the associated limit switch 40 in position for actuation by the pile level detcctor 39.

Intermediate the two skid bases 7 andi 9 there is provided a platform 85 affording sufficient room for an operator to stand so as to witness the operation of the layboy 15 and control the motor 57 for rotating the piler and the motors 71 which operate the skid bases 7 and 9. Preferably, the operators station is elevated with respect to the ybottom plate 53 of the piler, in order to present a Ibetter vantage point for watching the operation of the various mechanisms.

It is seen from the foregoing, therefore, that there is presented herein a novel means for expediting the handling of sheets in the formation of piles thereof, whereby the shut down period for the cutter is eliminated or substantially decreased. By presenting a pair of vertically movable platforms or skid bases on a rotatable structure, with `each of the skid bases being controllable by pile lowering mechanism on the layboy, there is eliminated much of the loss of time normally encountered in disposing of the completed pile of sheets. As the sheet-filled skid lbase is moved out of the layboy 15, by rotation of the platform 11, the other skid base is rapidly moved into the llayboy in position to receive the sheets from the cutter (not shown). Moreover, the pile lowering motors 71 for each of the skid bases are automatically connected with the pile level detector 39 through one of the limit switches 40, when each of the skid bases are in the layboy, to effect a gradual lowering of the skid base 61 as the pile of sheets accumulates in the layboy.

Apparatus constructed in accordance with this invention not only saves valuable time in affording a rapid exchange of skid bases in the layboy, but also save space in the sheet handling line. The rotatable piler economizes on space transversely of the path of the sheets from the cutter and requires little more than the usual layboy width for its rotation. Then too, it offers the advantage of always unloading from the same position, which is in a straight line with respect to the path of the sheets into the layboy. However, it will be readily apparent that, if desired, more than two skid bases can be used on the piler, if additional unloading time is required and the position of unloading is not important.

It will also be apparent that the revolving piler 5 may be advantageously employed in connection with a layboy which does not provide a temporary support, such as the extensible fingers 23. In such instance, the cutter will have to be shut down temporarily once a skid base has been filled. However, the time for removal of the completed pile from the layboy and presentation of an empty skid base in position to receive sheets from the cutter will be considera-bly shortened with the use of the revolving piler.

Although shown `and described with respect to particular apparatus, it will be apparent that certain principles of the present invention may be readily employed in connection with other apparatus.

I claim:

l. The combination comprising a layboy adapted to receive sheet material `being successively fed thereto and to arrange said sheet material in a vertical stack, a piler associated with said layboy for receiving sheets therefrom in a vertical stack, said piler comprising a platform mounted for rotation about a vertical axis, a pair of vertically movable tables carried by said platform on opposite sides of said vertical axis, means for rotating said platform to thereby selectively position one of said tables to receive sheets |being fed to the layboy, means for independently raising and lowering each of said tables, and ia control element on said layboy which is responsive to the increase in the height of the pile of sheet material being formed to operate the raising and lowering means associated with the selected one of said tables as the latter is positioned to receive sheets from the layboy, so as to gradually lower said table as the height of the pile of sheet material thereon increases.

2. In combination, a layboy adapted to receive sheet material being successively fed thereto and to arrange said sheet material in a vertical stack, a piler disposed with respect to said layboy in position for receiving sheets therefrom in a vertical stack, 'said piler comprising a platform mounted for rotation about a vertical axis, a plurality of spaced-apart, sheet-receiving tables mounted on said platform for rotation therewith so that a selected one of said tables may be positioned to support the sheets being stacked by said layboy, power means associated with each of said tables for raising and lowering same, control mechanism for each of said power means cornprising a control element carried by said piler which is operable to eiect a lowering movement of the associated table, and an additional element mounted on said layboy in position for engagement with the 'stack of sheets being delivered to said selected table and for engagement with the control element on said selected one of said tables, said additional element being movable in response to an increase in the height ofthe pile of sheet material on said selected table to move said control element and thereby operate said power means to lower said table.

3. In combination, a layboywadapted to receive sheet material being successively fed thereto and to arrange said sheet material in a vertical stack, apiler disposed with respect to said layboy in position for receiving sheets therefrom in a vertical stack, said piler comprising a platform mounted for rotation about a vertical axis, a plurality of spaced-apart, sheet-receiving tables mounted on said platform for rotation therewith so that a selected one of said tables may be positioned to support the sheets being stacked by said layboy, power means associated with each of said tables for raising and lowering same, control mechanism for said power means comprising a plurality of control elements carried by said piler, each of said control elements being operable to eect a lowering movement of one of the associated tables, additional manual control means for operating each of said power means, and an element pivotally mounted on said layboy in position for engagement with the stack of sheets being delivered to said selected one -of said tables and for engagement with the control element on said selected one of said tables, said pivotally mounted element being movable in response to an increase in the height of the pile of sheet material on said selected table to move the associated one of said control elements and thereby operate said power means to lower said table.

References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Lund Sept. 26, 1950

US2849236A 1954-09-14 1954-09-14 Revolving layboy piler Expired - Lifetime US2849236A (en)

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Cited By (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2938452A (en) * 1958-03-31 1960-05-31 Wheeling Steel Corp Apparatus for bundling lath or the like
US2957691A (en) * 1958-05-23 1960-10-25 Miehle Goss Dexter Inc Sheet handling apparatus
US3028980A (en) * 1958-12-15 1962-04-10 Svenska Ab Toledo Apparatus for building and weighing stacks of sheets
US3051480A (en) * 1959-09-25 1962-08-28 Vari Typer Corp Business machines
US3085686A (en) * 1961-11-28 1963-04-16 John C Hanbury Automatic lumber sorter
US3131819A (en) * 1961-04-14 1964-05-05 Clark Aiken Company Shuttle piler
US3140091A (en) * 1961-06-21 1964-07-07 Harris Intertype Corp Printing press delivery
US3169763A (en) * 1962-02-23 1965-02-16 Russell Mfg Co Apparatus to transfer pliable material
US3197199A (en) * 1961-02-10 1965-07-27 Weir Henry John Method for interlocking and overlapping laundry articles in s-shaped form
US3219338A (en) * 1962-03-06 1965-11-23 Akron Standard Mold Co Stock cutter-stacker and method
US3279792A (en) * 1963-11-18 1966-10-18 Donnelley & Sons Co Stacker for paper sheets or signatures
US3497209A (en) * 1968-03-21 1970-02-24 Nash Co L W Continuous stacking apparatus for light gauge sheets
US3640521A (en) * 1969-08-18 1972-02-08 Advanced Terminals Inc Apparatus for stacking fan folded paper
US3642151A (en) * 1970-01-26 1972-02-15 Potlatch Forests Inc Sheet-handling apparatus
US3762579A (en) * 1971-07-13 1973-10-02 K Schade Apparatus for setting down and stacking products, more particularly pantiles
US3836018A (en) * 1971-12-13 1974-09-17 Alvey Inc Discrete article palletizing and depalletizing apparatus
US3905487A (en) * 1974-03-04 1975-09-16 Greene Line Mfg Corp Continuous stacking apparatus
US3995748A (en) * 1975-07-21 1976-12-07 Xerox Corporation Sorter apparatus
US4045944A (en) * 1974-03-26 1977-09-06 De La Rue Giori S.A. Processing of sheets of printed security papers into bundles and packets
US4136864A (en) * 1977-06-16 1979-01-30 Westvaco Corporation Sheet stacking device
DE3512584A1 (en) * 1985-04-06 1986-10-30 Frank Gabriele Annex to the pneumatic schwebefoerdern, lumpy cargoes
EP0272398A1 (en) * 1986-11-21 1988-06-29 Ferag AG Device for transferring printed products arriving in a continuous stream to the feedline of a processing station
US4765790A (en) * 1986-05-02 1988-08-23 E.C.H. Will (Gmbh & Co.) Apparatus for accumulating stacks of paper sheets and the like
US4838480A (en) * 1984-05-31 1989-06-13 Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. Device for accomodating cash enclosing envelopes
US5069019A (en) * 1990-09-17 1991-12-03 Lodewegen Lloyd E Apparatus and method of conveying and boxing frozen patties
US5098080A (en) * 1990-12-19 1992-03-24 Xerox Corporation Ski jump stack height sensor
US5249792A (en) * 1992-07-23 1993-10-05 Heidelberg Harris, Inc. Method and device for the continuous formation of a stack of folded products standing on edge
US5765337A (en) * 1996-05-23 1998-06-16 Forpak, Inc. Apparatus and method for stacking and boxing stackable articles

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1094048A (en) * 1909-06-08 1914-04-21 Cottrell C B & Sons Co Sheet-delivery apparatus for printing-machines.
US1117244A (en) * 1913-05-31 1914-11-17 Carey A Cheshire Stacking-machine.
US2065674A (en) * 1932-08-13 1936-12-29 Moore Dry Kiln Company Apparatus for tiering, feeding, and loading materials
US2228887A (en) * 1938-04-28 1941-01-14 Harbor Plywood Corp Stacker and unloader
US2523910A (en) * 1945-11-30 1950-09-26 Solar Corp Storage battery plate and separator assembling machine

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1094048A (en) * 1909-06-08 1914-04-21 Cottrell C B & Sons Co Sheet-delivery apparatus for printing-machines.
US1117244A (en) * 1913-05-31 1914-11-17 Carey A Cheshire Stacking-machine.
US2065674A (en) * 1932-08-13 1936-12-29 Moore Dry Kiln Company Apparatus for tiering, feeding, and loading materials
US2228887A (en) * 1938-04-28 1941-01-14 Harbor Plywood Corp Stacker and unloader
US2523910A (en) * 1945-11-30 1950-09-26 Solar Corp Storage battery plate and separator assembling machine

Cited By (30)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2938452A (en) * 1958-03-31 1960-05-31 Wheeling Steel Corp Apparatus for bundling lath or the like
US2957691A (en) * 1958-05-23 1960-10-25 Miehle Goss Dexter Inc Sheet handling apparatus
US3028980A (en) * 1958-12-15 1962-04-10 Svenska Ab Toledo Apparatus for building and weighing stacks of sheets
US3051480A (en) * 1959-09-25 1962-08-28 Vari Typer Corp Business machines
US3197199A (en) * 1961-02-10 1965-07-27 Weir Henry John Method for interlocking and overlapping laundry articles in s-shaped form
US3131819A (en) * 1961-04-14 1964-05-05 Clark Aiken Company Shuttle piler
US3140091A (en) * 1961-06-21 1964-07-07 Harris Intertype Corp Printing press delivery
US3085686A (en) * 1961-11-28 1963-04-16 John C Hanbury Automatic lumber sorter
US3169763A (en) * 1962-02-23 1965-02-16 Russell Mfg Co Apparatus to transfer pliable material
US3219338A (en) * 1962-03-06 1965-11-23 Akron Standard Mold Co Stock cutter-stacker and method
US3279792A (en) * 1963-11-18 1966-10-18 Donnelley & Sons Co Stacker for paper sheets or signatures
US3497209A (en) * 1968-03-21 1970-02-24 Nash Co L W Continuous stacking apparatus for light gauge sheets
US3640521A (en) * 1969-08-18 1972-02-08 Advanced Terminals Inc Apparatus for stacking fan folded paper
US3642151A (en) * 1970-01-26 1972-02-15 Potlatch Forests Inc Sheet-handling apparatus
US3762579A (en) * 1971-07-13 1973-10-02 K Schade Apparatus for setting down and stacking products, more particularly pantiles
US3836018A (en) * 1971-12-13 1974-09-17 Alvey Inc Discrete article palletizing and depalletizing apparatus
US3905487A (en) * 1974-03-04 1975-09-16 Greene Line Mfg Corp Continuous stacking apparatus
US4045944A (en) * 1974-03-26 1977-09-06 De La Rue Giori S.A. Processing of sheets of printed security papers into bundles and packets
US3995748A (en) * 1975-07-21 1976-12-07 Xerox Corporation Sorter apparatus
FR2318814A1 (en) * 1975-07-21 1977-02-18 Xerox Corp Apparatus and sorting system
US4136864A (en) * 1977-06-16 1979-01-30 Westvaco Corporation Sheet stacking device
US4838480A (en) * 1984-05-31 1989-06-13 Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. Device for accomodating cash enclosing envelopes
DE3512584A1 (en) * 1985-04-06 1986-10-30 Frank Gabriele Annex to the pneumatic schwebefoerdern, lumpy cargoes
US4765790A (en) * 1986-05-02 1988-08-23 E.C.H. Will (Gmbh & Co.) Apparatus for accumulating stacks of paper sheets and the like
EP0272398A1 (en) * 1986-11-21 1988-06-29 Ferag AG Device for transferring printed products arriving in a continuous stream to the feedline of a processing station
US4866910A (en) * 1986-11-21 1989-09-19 Ferag Ag Method and apparatus for transferring printed products arriving in at least one continuous product stream to the infeed paths or lines of at least two processing stations
US5069019A (en) * 1990-09-17 1991-12-03 Lodewegen Lloyd E Apparatus and method of conveying and boxing frozen patties
US5098080A (en) * 1990-12-19 1992-03-24 Xerox Corporation Ski jump stack height sensor
US5249792A (en) * 1992-07-23 1993-10-05 Heidelberg Harris, Inc. Method and device for the continuous formation of a stack of folded products standing on edge
US5765337A (en) * 1996-05-23 1998-06-16 Forpak, Inc. Apparatus and method for stacking and boxing stackable articles

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