US2846948A - Oil and gas well perforating methods and apparatus - Google Patents

Oil and gas well perforating methods and apparatus Download PDF

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US2846948A
US2846948A US362213A US36221353A US2846948A US 2846948 A US2846948 A US 2846948A US 362213 A US362213 A US 362213A US 36221353 A US36221353 A US 36221353A US 2846948 A US2846948 A US 2846948A
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well
tubing
perforating device
apparatus
means
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Maurice P Lebourg
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Borg-Warner Corp
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/11Perforators; Permeators
    • E21B43/116Gun or shaped charge perforators
    • E21B43/1185Ignition systems

Description

Aug. 12, 1958 M, P. LEBOURG 2,846,943

OIL AND GAS WELL PERFQRATING METHODS AND APPARATUS Filed June 1'7, 1953 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG.2.

INVENTOR. MAURICE P; LEBOURG BY We! W /JIA HIS ATTORNEYS.

Aug. 12, 1958 M. PQLEBOURG 2,846,943

011. AND GAS WELL PERFORATING METHODS AND APPARATUS Filed June 17, 1953 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. MAURICE P. LEBOURG WWW/[MW H IS ATTORNEYS.

2,846,948 Patented Aug. '12, 1958 OIL AND GAS WELL PERFORATIN G METHODS AND APPARATUS Maurice P. Lehourg, Houston, Tex., assignor, by mesne assignments, to Borg-Warner Corporation, Chicago, lll., a corporation of Illinois Application June 17, 1953, Serial No; 362,213

Claims. (Cl. 102-21) This invention relates to methodsv and .apparatus for perforating with shaped explosive charges a pluralityof vertically spaced earth formations traversed .by a bore hole and more particularly to perforation of such formations after the bore hole has been cased, production equipment has been placed at the surface and tubing has been set in the cased bore hole.

It has become common field practice to employ the well completion methods and apparatus disclosed in copending application Serial No. 209,598, filed February6, 1951, by H. S. Robertson, for"Method and Apparatus for Perforating Well Casing and the Like, and described in an article entitled A Method of Perforating Casing Below Tubing, by-M. PuLebourg and G. R. Hodgson, at page 303, vol. 195 (1952), Petroleum Transactions, AIME. When these practices are followed, production equipment may be placed at the surface and tubing lowered and set in the well'prior to perforating, thus simplifying well completion.

In some cases, it is desirable to vobtain production simultaneously from two vertically separated formations in the well. However, the well may be under high pressure from the fluid in thefirst formation after perforation in accordance with the aforementioned methods and apparatus. As a result, perforation of the second formation in accordance with such methods and apparatus may be more difiicult and somewhat more hazardous.

Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide new and improved methods and apparatus for perforating with shaped explosive charges, in one operation, a plurality of vertically spaced earth formations with production equipment placed at the surface and tubing lowered into the well.

Another object of-the invention-is to provide novel methods and means whereby a'plurality of vertically spaced earth formations may be separately perforated without the necessity for lowering additional equipment in the well after one of such formations has been perforated.

A further object ofthe-pre sent invention is to provide means for electrically coupling components of equipment in a bore hole by means of remote surface apparatus.

These and other objects of the invention are ,accotn plished by disposingfirst 'shapedjexplosive charge perforating means at the lower end of the tubing opposite the upper of two formations of interest such that the open end of the tubing is free and unobstructed. Second shaped explosive charge perforating means is lowered through the tubing to the level of the lower of the two formations and is used to perforate the lower formation. The second perforating means includes means which, after perforation of the lower formation, is adapted to be positioned in the vicinity of the first perforating means whereit acts upon means in the first perforating-apparatus to cause detonation of the latter. More particularly, the first perforating apparatus may have an electrical detonating circuit including a winding in-which voltage is adapted to be induced from a suitably energized winding forming part. of .the second perforating apparatus, when the two are in inductive relation.

These and further objectsand advantages of the inven- I tion.'will be more fully understood from the following description of a representative embodiment, read with reference to the accompanying drawings,.in which:

Fig. l is a view in longitudinal section of a well which is under completion .in accordance with the present invention;

Fig.2 is a view, partially in longitudinal section of the lower end .of the tubing. and the shaped explosive charge perforating apparatus secured thereto;

Fig. 3 illustrates in diagrammatic form the components of a typical circuit that may be employed to discharge the shaped explosive charge perforating apparatus mounted. at the lower end, of the tubing; and

Fig. 4 is aschematic diagram of an equivalent circuit of the discharging circuit of Fig. 3 when the several components thereof are in the firing position.

Examining the invention in detail with particular reference to 'Fig. 1, a bore hole 10 has been completed in accordance with the procedure outlined in the aforementioned Robertson application and publication. Set in a well 10 is a casing 11 which traverses a plurality of potentially productive formations 12 and 13 vertically separated by the formation 14. The usual production equipment, which is not shown for simplicity, is placed at the .surface of the well, and the tubing 15 is set with the aid of a conventional packer 17 so that its lower end 16 is immediately above the upper formation 12. Attached to the lower end of the tubing 16 is a firing nipple 18, to be described in greater detail hereinafter; The hollow interior of the tubing 15 communicates with an opening 19 in the nipple 18 whereby the tubing is, in effect, open'ended. A'first shaped explosive charge perforating device 20 is attached to the nipple 18 by a detonating unit 29. The perforating device 20 is offset from the opening 19 and is positioned opposite the formation'12,-as shown-in Fig. 1. I

vThe perforating device 20 preferably comprises a plurality of shaped explosive charges in an expendablehous ing as'disclosed in the aforementioned Robertson application, for example, the detonating primacord fuse for the charges terminating in an electrical blasting cap 30 in the detonatingunit 29. The blasting cap 30 may have one terminal connected to ground and another terminal connected to acontact 31. Placed in the firing nipple 18, offset from the opening 19, is a coil 25 Wound on a magnetic core '32 placed longitudinally between two annula'rpmagnetic pole pieces 26 and 27 having openings 34 and 35 formed therein registering with the opening 19. One terminal-of the coil 25 iselectrically connected to the contact 31, and the other terminal 33 of the coil25' is grounded, as shown in greater detail in Fig. 3.

For perforation of the lower formation 13, an expendable shaped explosive charge perforating device 21, preferably-of the type disclosed in the aforementioned Robertson application, is adapted to be lowered through the tubing 15 and the nipple 18 to a position opposite the formation 13 by means of a conventional cable 22 which includes an electrical conductor 43. The perforatingdevice 21 preferably contains the modifications disclosed inthe copending application Serial No. 322,017, filed November 22, 1952, by G. R. Hodgson for Expendable Shaped Explosive Charge WellCasing Perforating Apparatus, and 'in application Serial No. 322,070, filed November 22, 1952, by J. M. Bricaud for Bore Hole Detecting Circuit and Bore Hole Firing Circuit Utilizing a Common Transmission Channel, n0W-U. S. Patent No. 2,732,518, issued January 24,

1956. Between the perforating device 21 and the cable 22 is a conventional casing collar locator 23, which may be of the type disclosed in U. S. Patent No. 2,558,- 427 to H. C. Fagan, and mechanism 24 (Fig. 3) for firing the perforating device 20. The firing mechanism 24 may comprise a coil 36 wound on a magnetic core 37 terminating in cylindrical pole pieces 38 and 39. The spacing between the pole pieces 38 and 39 is preferably the same as the spacing between the pole pieces 26 and 27. An appropriate A. C. source 40 at the surface selectively energizes the winding 36 through a switch 42, conductor 43 in the cable 22, and a ground return, as shown schematically in Figs. 3 and 4.

In a representative operation, the perforating device 21 is lowered to a position opposite the formation 13 as determined by the casing collar locator 23 (Fig. 1). Setting off the perforating device 21 by closing the switch 42 results in the perforation of the formation 13 and the separation and dropping of the perforating device 21 from the head assembly including the casing collar locator 23 and the firing mechanism 24, as disclosed in the aforementioned Robertson and Hodgson applications. In this manner, production of the formation 13 into the bore hole is started. The firing mechanism 24 and the casing collar locator 23 are then raised until the former is in juxtaposition to the winding 25 with the pole pieces 38, 39 and 26, 27, respectively, in alignment, as accurately determined by the casing collar locator 23.

As can be seen in Fig. 4, when the firing mechanism is located in the position described above, the coil 36 comprises, in eifect, the primary winding of a transformer, the coil 25 serving as a secondary winding. Close coupling between these coils will be provided in view of the magnetic path 41 provided by the core 37, the adjacent pole pieces 38 and 26, the core 32, and the adjacent pole pieces 27 and 39. The switch 42 is again closed, energizing the coil 36, resulting in the induction of an A. C. potential in the coil 25 and current flow through the contact 31 to the blasting cap 30. The subsequent detonation of the shaped charges in the perforating device 20 perforates the formation 12, resulting in production into the bore hole 10 therefrom.

The casing collar locator 23 and the firing mechanism 24 may then be withdrawn from the well through the tubing and the well placed on production from both the formations 12 and 13.

Accordingly, it can be seen that novel and highly effective methods and apparatus are provided for perforating in one operation a plurality of separate formations traversed by a well after tubing has been set therein.

It should be understood that the methods and apparatus described are illustrative only and modifications may be made thereto. For example, other suitable shaped explosive charge perforating apparatus may be substituted for the specific shaped charge devices described above. Numerous other modifications within the scope of this invention will suggest themselves to those skilled in the art. Therefore, the embodiments described above and shown in the drawing are not to be regarded as limiting the scope of the appended claims.

I claim:

1. In a method for initiating operation of apparatus for use in a well having a casing therein, the steps of setting tubing in the well with the lower open end thereof at a selected level in the Well, disposing at the lower end of said tubing without substantially obstructing the opening therein a first shaped explosive charge Well casing perforating device including excitable operation initiating means, lowering through the tubing a second shaped explosive charge well casing perforating device including means capable of exciting said operation initiating means, causing said second well casing perforating device to perforate the casing and earth formation at a given level in the well below said first casing perforating device, positioning the exciting means of said second well casing perforating device in exciting relation to said first well casing perforating device, and causing the exciting means of said second well casing perforating device to excite the operation initiating means of said first well casing perforating device to initiate operation of the same.

2. In a method for obtaining production from a plurality of earth formations traversed by a bore hole having a casing therein, the steps of providing well tubing having secured at the lower open end thereof in offset relation to the longitudinal tubing axis and without substantially obstructing the opening therein a first shaped explosive charge well casing perforating device including excitable operation initiating means, setting said tubing in the well with said first well casing perforating device opposite one of said formations, lowering through the tubing a second shaped explosive charge Well casing perforating device including means capable of exciting said operation initiating means, causing said second casing perforating device first to perforate the well casing and earth formation at a level below the lower end of the tubing, positioning the exciting means of said second casing perforating device in exciting relation to the operation initiating means of said first casing perforating device, and causing said exciting means to excite said operation initiating means to initiate operaton of said first well casing perforating device.

3. In a method for obtaining production from a plurality of earth formations traversed by a bore hole having a casing therein, the steps of providing well tubing having secured at the lower open end thereof in ofiset relation to the longitudinal tubing axis and without substantially obstructing the opening therein a first shaped explosive charge well casing perforating device including first inductance coil meansfor generating a voltage for the firing circuit thereof, setting said tubing in the well with said first well casing perforating device opposite one of said for mations, lowering through the tubing a second shaped explosive charge well casing perforating device including second inductance coil means adapted to be energized to excite the inductance coil means of said first well casing perforating device, causing said second well casing perforating device first to perforate the well casing and earth formation at a given level below the lower end of the tubing, positioning the inductance coil means of said second well casing perforating device in exciting relation to the inductance coil means of said first well casing perforating device, and energizing said second inductance coil means to induce a voltage in said first inductance coil means to initiate operation of said first well casing perforating device.

4. In apparatus for use in a well, the combination of a member adapted to be mounted on the lower end of an open string of well tubing and having an opening extending longitudinally therethrough, a shaped explosive charge well casing perforating device mounted on said member offset from the longitudinal axis thereof so as not to obstruct the opening therein, an operating circuit for said perforating device and including inductance means in said member in which a voltage is adapted to be induced when exciting means is positioned in said opening, a well equipment component mounted for move ment through said well tubing and out of the lower end thereof, said well equipment component being controllable from the surface for performing an operation at a selected level in the well below said tubing lower end, and magnetizable exciting means mounted in fixed relation to said well equipment component for inducing a voltage in said inductance means when disposed in inductive relation thereto, thereby to initiate operation of said perforating device.

5. In apparatus for use in a well, the combination of a member adapted to be mounted on the lower end of an open string of well tubing and having an opening extending longitudinally therethrough, a first shaped explosive charge well easing perforating device mounted on said member ofiset from the longitudinal axis thereof so as not to obstruct the opening therein, an operating circuit for said perforating device and including inductance means in said member in which a voltage is adapted to be induced when exciting means is positioned in said opening, a second shaped explosive charge well casing perforating device mounted for movement through said well tubing, and magnetizable exciting means mounted in fixed relation to said second casing perforating device for inducing a voltage in said inductance means when disposed in in- G ductive relation thereto, thereby to initiate operation of said first perforating device.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,133,183 Reineke Mar. 23, 1915 2,058,287 Anderson Oct. 20, 1936 2,120,615 King June 14, 1938 2,543,814 Thompson et al. Mar. 6, 1951 2,621,895 Toelke Dec. 16, 1952 2,640,417 Bjork et al. June 2, 1953 2,703,053 Castel Mar. 1, 1955

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3183972A (en) * 1961-04-14 1965-05-18 Otis Eng Co Perforator hanger
US4655283A (en) * 1986-06-20 1987-04-07 Shell Offshore Inc. Apparatus for perforating and producing a well

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US113183A (en) * 1871-03-28 Improvement in lamp-burners
US2058287A (en) * 1936-07-03 1936-10-20 Anderson Alexander Bore hole device and method of its use
US2120615A (en) * 1937-03-04 1938-06-14 King Fritz Well gun
US2543814A (en) * 1946-12-26 1951-03-06 Welex Jet Services Inc Means and method of tilting explosive charges in wells
US2621895A (en) * 1950-12-08 1952-12-16 Mccullough Tool Company Severable safety joint for pipe strings
US2640417A (en) * 1946-12-18 1953-06-02 Us Sec War Ignition safety device for induction fired rockets
US2703053A (en) * 1951-04-05 1955-03-01 Perforating Guns Atlas Corp Firing circuit for perforating guns

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US113183A (en) * 1871-03-28 Improvement in lamp-burners
US2058287A (en) * 1936-07-03 1936-10-20 Anderson Alexander Bore hole device and method of its use
US2120615A (en) * 1937-03-04 1938-06-14 King Fritz Well gun
US2640417A (en) * 1946-12-18 1953-06-02 Us Sec War Ignition safety device for induction fired rockets
US2543814A (en) * 1946-12-26 1951-03-06 Welex Jet Services Inc Means and method of tilting explosive charges in wells
US2621895A (en) * 1950-12-08 1952-12-16 Mccullough Tool Company Severable safety joint for pipe strings
US2703053A (en) * 1951-04-05 1955-03-01 Perforating Guns Atlas Corp Firing circuit for perforating guns

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3183972A (en) * 1961-04-14 1965-05-18 Otis Eng Co Perforator hanger
US4655283A (en) * 1986-06-20 1987-04-07 Shell Offshore Inc. Apparatus for perforating and producing a well

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