US2833176A - Arrangement for the exhibition of dynamic scenes to an observer in movement with respect to a screen - Google Patents

Arrangement for the exhibition of dynamic scenes to an observer in movement with respect to a screen Download PDF

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US2833176A
US2833176A US36936153A US2833176A US 2833176 A US2833176 A US 2833176A US 36936153 A US36936153 A US 36936153A US 2833176 A US2833176 A US 2833176A
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screen
observer
figure
lenses
lens
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Ossoinak Andres Juan Luis
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Ossoinak Andres Juan Luis
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B15/00Special procedures for taking photographs; Apparatus therefor
    • G03B15/08Trick photography
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09FDISPLAYING; ADVERTISING; SIGNS; LABELS OR NAME-PLATES; SEALS
    • G09F19/00Miscellaneous advertising or display means not provided for elsewhere
    • G09F19/12Miscellaneous advertising or display means not provided for elsewhere using special optical effects
    • G09F19/14Miscellaneous advertising or display means not provided for elsewhere using special optical effects displaying different signs depending upon the view-point of the observer

Description

May 6, 1958 A. J. L. OSSOINAK ARRANGEMENT FOR THE EXHIBITION OF DYNAMIC SCENES TO AN OBSERVER IN MOVEMENT WITH RESPECT TO A SCREEN 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 2l,"l953 INVENTOR.

400425.: 1444/ L Ca e/019x Wa m y 6, 1958 A. J. L. OSSOINAK ARRANGEMENT FOR THE EXHIBITION OF DYNAMIC SCENES TO AN OBSERVER IN MOVEMENT WITH RESPECT TO A SCREEN 7 Filed July 21, 1953 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 EREE J TEEEEEA .A

INVENTOR.

flawless 117,14! Zu/J assauvflk,

[2 4 2. 2 l t g M ATTOQ/VE s s y 6, 1958 A. J. OSSOINAK 2,333,175

ARRANGEMENT FOR THE EXHIBITIQN OF DYNAMIC SCENES TO AN OBSERVER IN MOVEMENT WITH RESPECT TO A SCREEN Filed July 2], 1953 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 44492:? J24 L141; ssonvflk.

BY W a M A. J. L. OSSOINAK May 6, 1958 2,833,176

ARRANGEMENT FOR THE EXHIBITION OF DYNAMIC scENEs To AN OBSERVER IN MOVEMENT WITH RESPECT TO A SCREEN 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Jul}, 21, 1953 INVENTORI 4102:: J54? 141s asgmvme BY I T TT a l United States Patent ARRANGEMENT FOR THE EXHIBITION OF DYNAMIC SCENES TO AN OBSERVER IN MOVEMENT WITH RESPECT TO A SCREEN Andrs Juan Luis Ossoinak, Buenos Aires, Argentina Application July 21, 1953, Serial No. 369,361

3 Claims. (CI. 88-16) The present invention refers to an arrangement for the exhibition of animated scenes to an observer in movement before a screen or in front of it, and its object is for the provision of static means whereby a cinematographic vision of any theme represented on that screen, is optically created for the observer who moves in front of said screen. The subject matter may be publicitarian, informative, documental, educational, entertainment, etc.

The field of utilization for the invention is of considerable vastness, and with the object of only indicating one of its practical applications, we Will suppose that the said screen is installed in the stretch of a tunnel of a subway between two stations. It is evident then, that all the passengers of the train which circulates in this stretch, can observe, through the window of thevehicle, the publicity or scene shown, just as if the said exhibition was taking place on a cinematographic screen. In the case that the vehicle which transports the observer should stop, the said publicity or scene would not disappear from view, but just stop in its movement, that is to say, that the moving scene would be substituted by a static image or representation,

entirely and absolutely perfect in all its details of one of the scenes or pictures of same. The highways, railroads, places of transit for pedestrians, mechanical stairs or conveyors, etc., also constitute adequate fields for the installation of the above mentioned screen, although of course, it can be installed in any place where it can be observed, whether the observer or the screen is moving, or both simultaneously, since the only indispensable requisite is that there be a relative velocity between the screen and the observer.

In general terms, the installation consists of a plurality of unitary optical cells, contiguous or not, which jointly make up a band which extendsralong the length of the route and facing the trajectory of the observers eyes. Each one of these optical cells is constituted bya convergent lens, either cylindrical or spherical, placed in front of a supporting frame which supports the scene to be exhibited "and disposed in the focal plane of said lens, or in the vicinity of it, these scenes or pictures being progressively varied along the length of the screen in order to produce the consequent optical illusion of movement to the observer moving in front of it. These lenses increase the visible sectors of their corresponding frames, forming images, and send them to the optical infinity,'so that the observer sees all these partial images jointly and blended or merged into only one picture, optically placed in the infinity of vision, so that they apparently seem to follow him in his movement along the route, just in the same manner as the sun or moon seem to follow a moving observer, as they are practically placed in the infinity of vision. I

The physical and optical explanation of the principles upon which this invention is based, and considering the case of spherical convergent lenses, can be briefly summed up stating that all the parallel rays of the visual beam converge, after having passed through each lens, in a given and only point definitely established and determined in each focal plane where the figure or view to be exhibited is placed and adequately illuminated by some convenient means, that is to say, that it is a fundamental requirement that, optically, the second component of each one of the constitutive cells of the screen be placed in the focal plane of the first, or in its immediate vicinity. The observer then sees, from any point whatsoever of his visual trajcctory, increased through each lens of every cell, a different sector of each picture sustained in its corresponding frame, the whole reconstructed into only one complete and entirely perfect image.

In the case of optical cells disposed one alongside the other in line formation and forming a band. Cylindrical convergent lenses are used with their corresponding frames for supporting the scenes to be exhibited, placed in the focal plane of same and whose illustration is deformed or lengthened in the sense of the generatrix of the lens and adequately illuminated by some convenient means. In this case as well, all the parallel rays of the visual beam converge, after having passed through each lens, in a given and only point definitely established and determined in each focal plane where the figure or view to be exhibited is placed. The observer then sees a vertical fringe or longitudinal fraction of each frame, increased in its transverse dimension by the convergent lens placed in front of same, and these fringes or vertical bands are optically merged into one complete image, visualized by the observer without any deformation, through a variable number of the above mentioned cells. In either case, that is to say, with spherical or cylindrical convergent lenses, as the observer moves so the observed image moves with him, and at the same speed since it is placed optically in infinity. The indispensable cinematographic succession in order to animate the figure exhibited with an apparent movement, is obtained by a gradual and progressive variation of the picture along the length of the screen.

In order that the present invention be clearly understood and easily put in practice, it has been represented in its preferable manners of execution in the drawings which accompany this specification and in which:

Figure 1 represents a perspective view of one optical. cell constituted by a spherical convergent lens and its corresponding frame for supporting the picture or scene to be exhibited, and which consists of a wheel provided with four spokes, taken as an example for all the illustrations in these drawings.

, Figure 2 represents a perspective view of a zone of a screen constituted by a multitude of adjoining optical cells, with convergent spherical lenses and their corresponding frames, disposed in horizontal rows superposed vertically.

Figure 3 represents a front view of a sector of the frames of the screen with the pictures to be exhibited, but without the lenses, that is to say, as an observer would see them directly.

Figure 4 shows a front view of the visualized image seen by the observer, once the lenses are placed in the sector of the screen illustrated in the previous drawing.

Figures 5 and 6 illustrate similar views to those shown in Figures 3 and 4, but from another point of observation along the screen.

Figure 7 illustrates schematically, in a horizontal cross section, the disposition of the field of images on the screen in front of the visual trajectory of the observer who moves at an adequate velocity between two points of said screen.

Figure 8 shows a vertical cross section of the previous figure.

Figure 9 illustrates in perspective, the disposition of the constitutive elements of an optical cell provided with a cylindrical convergent lens.

Figure illustrates the disposition of a plurality of optical cells with cylindrical convergent lenses, said cells being placed alongside one another forming a band to constitute the screen.

Figure 11 shows a plurality of supporting frames of a sector of the screen and the disposition of the pictures placed in them, without the cells having their respective lenses and as an observer would see the frames directly.

Figure 12 represents the image visualized by the observer, once the lenses are again placed in front of the cells of the sector of the screen shown in the previous figure.

Figures 13 and 14, show similar views to those illus trated in Figures ll and 12, but from another point of observation in a path parallel to the screen.

Figure 15 illustrates schematically, in a horizontal cross-section, the disposition of the field of images on the screen provided with cylindrical lenses in front of the visual trajectory of the observer who moves at an adequate velocity between two points of the said screen.

Figure 15a is similar to Figure 15 and shows the disposition of the field of images from a further point of observation.

And lastly, Figure 16 shows a vertical cross section of the previous figure.

In all the above mentioned figures, the same reference numbers and letters, indicate the same or equivalent parts.

With relation to Figures 1 to 8, the spherical convergent lens has been indicated by 1, and the supporting frame of Figure 3 by the number 2-a wheel with four spokes in the present example-placed approximately in the focal plane of the mentioned lens, and whose joint elements constitute the optical cell illustrated in Figure 1. The said picture or scene 3 in exhibition, is conveniently illuminated by any adequate means, and although in the case represented here it is a wheel with four spokes, it is evident that same can be constituted by a legend, motto, photograph, cinematographic picture or animated drawing, etc., in colours or in black and white.

If we direct a parallel beam of visual rays to the above mentioned optical cell (Figure 1), such as A, the totality of these rays will converge, after having passed through the spherical lens I, in a determined and sole point B placed in the focal plane where the picture 3 is also found. The only visual ray which is not deviated by the said lens, would be the ray a, which passes through the optical center C of the lens. If, on the other hand, we direct another parallel beam of visual rays in any other direction whatsoever, such as the beam D, all its rays will also converge in a given point E of the focal plane where the picture 3 is found, d being in this case the only ray which is not deviated by the lens 1, since it passes through the optical center C.

This is equivalent to establishing that there exists an exact correspondence between each direction of the visual rays directed to any point of lens 1 with each one of the constitutive points of the focal plane where the picture 3 is placed. Therefore, if the above mentioned optical cells are distributed over a surface which forms in conjunction a band capable of forming a screen of the amplitude and size desired, such as that shown partially in Figure 2, it is evident that 1, 1 1 etc., will be the spherical convergent lenses; 2, 2 2 etc., will be the corresponding supporting frames, and 3, 3 3 etc., the respective pictures or scenes disposed in these frames, all

being placed in the focal plane of its respective lens, or its immediate vicinity, and the said picture is progressively and gradually varied in the horizontal or longitudinal sense of the above-mentioned screen, in order to obtain the cinematographic animation of the picture or scene represented, for the observer who moves along a parallel route to this screen. Now then, from an actual point of observation F (Figure 2), not situated at infinity, each one of the visual lines g which leave the observers eye located at this point, will have a different direction and will therefore fall on the point which corresponds to that direction in any frame of the constitutive optical cells of the screen, passing through the corresponding lenses, so that for the given observer, a complete and only picture will be formed (Figure 4), being the resultant of the combination of the different sectors h, h I1 etc., of each one of the pictures disposed behind each lens of each cell (Figure 3), with the magnification provided by said lenses. This blended and only image, is optically situated at the visual infinity and for that reason apparently accompanies the observer in his movement along the screen, in the same manner that the sun or moon apparently accompany an observer in his movement, due to the fact that they are practically at infinity, when said observer is situated in any vehicle of rapid transportation.

On the other hand, from any other point I in the trajectory of said observer (Figure 7), who moves from the point P in the direction J, the same visual directions correspond tothe same points of the surface of each one of the frames, but in other places or zones of the screen, whereby and due to the gradual variation of the scene represented in the picture disposed in said frames of the optical cells, the animated cinematographic view is obtained for the eithibited scene. Figures 4 and 6 illustrate the displacement of the spokes of the wheel which the observer sees in movement and turning round. The nearess or remoteness of the observer during his movement in front of and along the screen, has no influence, since the image is observed from the same visual angle a in width and p in height, angles equal to those angles a horizontal and p vertical, that the image would be seen with, having as observation point the center of the lens placed in front of the picture being exhibited. That is to say, the observer situated at F (Figure 7), whether he approaches the screen or otherwise, will see the scene being exhibited of the same size although through a lesser or greater number of optical cells, respectively.

As a variationof the realization of the screen, object of the present invention, similar optical cells to those previously described,.have been illustrated in Figures 9 to 16, but they are disposedly joined to one another in order toform a belt or band, part of which is illustrated in Figure 10. Each one of the optical cells of the screen thus formed, consists of a convergent cylindrical lens 4 (Figure 9), placed in front of and parallel to a frame 5, situated approximately in the focal plane of said lens, and in which is placed the picture 6 to be exhibited, which here as in the previous. case, is also a wheel with four spokes. This picture of the wheel conveniently illuminated by any adequate means, is lengthened in the drawing in a direction parallel to the generatrix of the lens of its corresponding cell.

Here again, as before, and referring to Figure 10, the cylindrical lenses .4, 4 4 etc., are placed in front .of and parallel to the supporting frames 5, 5 5 etc., wherein'the pictures 6, 6 6 etc., are disposed, and whose joint elements integrate the corresponding optical cells of the screen. The pictures situated in the above mentioned frames have their scenes progressively and gradually varied in the horizontal or longitudinal sense of the screen so as to obtain the animated cinematographic view ofthe scene exhibited, for the observer who moves along the routeparallel to the screen. Now then, from an actual point of observation F, not situated at infinity, each one of the visual lines which leave the observers eye lo cated at this point, and in the same way as in the case for the spherical lenses, will have a different direction and will therefore fall on the point which corresponds to that direction in any frame of the constitutive optical cells, of thegscreen', passi ng through the corresponding lenses. The o'bserversituated'inany point whatsoever of observation F of his trajectory I along the screen (Figure 10), sees a vertical strip or fringe 7, 7 7 etc., of the pictures of each frame (Figure 11), magnified in the transverse sense by the corresponding lens, and these strips are optically merged for the said observer to form a complete and single image, visualized Without any deformation, as shown in Figure 12.

Here also, the previously given considerations stand with regard to the sector of the screen visualized by the observer in the different points of his trajectory, as also his approach or separation from the screen mentioned and which has been conveniently illustrated in Figures 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15, similar to the relations with the optical cells provided with spherical convergent lenses, although it is necessary to state that in this variation for the realization, the horizontal angle at of the field (Figure 15), is constant for any distance from the screen that the observer may be situated, and is equal to the horizontal angle as seen from a point of observation in the center of the lens placed in front of the picture being exhibited, and the vertical angle {3 of the visual field (Figure 16), will depend on the said distance of observation, becoming smaller as the distance increases.

In Figures 11, 13, 15 and 16, the ratio or" flattening for the pictures of each frame shall be such that observing the screen from mean distance M (Figures 15 and 16), between the lenses 4 and the point of observation F, shall reconstruct an image of normal proportions. If furthermore, we indicate by N the focal distance of the said cylindrical lenses, the ratio of flattening of the pictures or scenes to be exhibited 6, 6' 6 etc., must be: =fiattening= i which indicates that in the case of the cylindrical lenses, there is an optimum distance M for observation. If the observer should increase the distance, the image observed would be abnormally wide with relation to their height, and it he approached the screen, said images would be too narrow with regard to their height.

From the foregoing detailed description, the vast application of this new screen, object of the present invention can be gathered, and the realization examples given for illustration purposes, are in no way restrictive, since same will undoubtedly admit many modifications in construction and detail within the sphere corresponding to it and without departing from the limits and scope of the following claims.

I claim:

1. An arrangement for demonstrating moving pictures to an observer, wherein there is a relative movement between said arrangement and said observer along a predetermined path, said arrangement comprising a plurality of sections located in the direction of said path, each section comprising a plurality of convergent lenses contiguously positioned in a single plane, and a supporting frame mounted behind said lenses with its surface in the focal plane thereof, and a plurality of images on said frame one for each lens, the images in each section being identical, the images of adjacent sections varying to impart an illusion of movement to an observer viewing said sections consecutively.

2. An arrangement as in claim 1 in which said lenses comprise spherical convergent lenses.

3. An arrangement as in claim 1 in which said lenses comprise cylindrical convergent lenses.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,150,374 Kanolt Aug. 17, 1915 2,002,090 Ives May 21, 1935 2,151,301 Percy et a1 Mar. 21, 1939 2,174,003 Ives Sept. 26, 1939 2,432,896 Hotchner Dec. 16, 1947 2,584,171 Tousey Feb. 5, 1952

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US2953980A (en) * 1959-07-29 1960-09-27 Montebello Roger Lannes De Stereoscopy
US2981140A (en) * 1956-04-24 1961-04-25 Burroughs Corp Multiple image display system
US3084453A (en) * 1960-08-31 1963-04-09 Drexel Dynamics Corp Coding apparatus
US3149430A (en) * 1960-04-11 1964-09-22 Szabo Lyubomir Device for the production of visual displays
US3187339A (en) * 1961-10-16 1965-06-01 Wallace A Clay Three dimensional viewing apparatus
US3225672A (en) * 1961-10-02 1965-12-28 Wallace A Clay Stereoscopic photographing and reproduction apparatus and method
US3244071A (en) * 1965-03-05 1966-04-05 Donald G Gumpertz Lens construction for character projection units
US3357770A (en) * 1961-10-02 1967-12-12 Intermountain Res And Engineer Stereoscopic viewing apparatus which includes a curved lenticular screen in front ofa curved picture supporting surface
US3387547A (en) * 1967-06-30 1968-06-11 Acroflex Lab Inc Multiplex still-frame camera
US3463581A (en) * 1966-01-17 1969-08-26 Intermountain Res & Eng System for three-dimensional panoramic static-image motion pictures
US3503315A (en) * 1966-12-12 1970-03-31 Lucas Industries Ltd Integral photography
US3678458A (en) * 1970-07-09 1972-07-18 Minnesota Mining & Mfg Directional signal having refractive indicant areas
US3686781A (en) * 1969-12-29 1972-08-29 Hugh C Calhoun Jr Sign or display device
US3696722A (en) * 1969-10-06 1972-10-10 Photosystems Corp Photographic recording and reproduction apparatus
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US4959641A (en) * 1986-09-30 1990-09-25 Bass Martin L Display means for stereoscopic images
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US20100314861A1 (en) * 2009-06-15 2010-12-16 Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanne (Epfl) Authentication with built-in encryption by using moire parallax effects between fixed correlated s-random layers
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Cited By (90)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2981140A (en) * 1956-04-24 1961-04-25 Burroughs Corp Multiple image display system
US2953980A (en) * 1959-07-29 1960-09-27 Montebello Roger Lannes De Stereoscopy
US3149430A (en) * 1960-04-11 1964-09-22 Szabo Lyubomir Device for the production of visual displays
US3084453A (en) * 1960-08-31 1963-04-09 Drexel Dynamics Corp Coding apparatus
US3225672A (en) * 1961-10-02 1965-12-28 Wallace A Clay Stereoscopic photographing and reproduction apparatus and method
US3357770A (en) * 1961-10-02 1967-12-12 Intermountain Res And Engineer Stereoscopic viewing apparatus which includes a curved lenticular screen in front ofa curved picture supporting surface
US3187339A (en) * 1961-10-16 1965-06-01 Wallace A Clay Three dimensional viewing apparatus
US3244071A (en) * 1965-03-05 1966-04-05 Donald G Gumpertz Lens construction for character projection units
US3463581A (en) * 1966-01-17 1969-08-26 Intermountain Res & Eng System for three-dimensional panoramic static-image motion pictures
US3503315A (en) * 1966-12-12 1970-03-31 Lucas Industries Ltd Integral photography
US3387547A (en) * 1967-06-30 1968-06-11 Acroflex Lab Inc Multiplex still-frame camera
US3696722A (en) * 1969-10-06 1972-10-10 Photosystems Corp Photographic recording and reproduction apparatus
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