US2827056A - Electrode discharge control for surgical apparatus - Google Patents

Electrode discharge control for surgical apparatus Download PDF

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US2827056A
US2827056A US516927A US51692755A US2827056A US 2827056 A US2827056 A US 2827056A US 516927 A US516927 A US 516927A US 51692755 A US51692755 A US 51692755A US 2827056 A US2827056 A US 2827056A
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electrode
current
potential
circuit
body
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Degelman John
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Thomas H Ballantine Jr
John H Drew
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating
    • A61B18/12Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating by passing a current through the tissue to be heated, e.g. high-frequency current
    • A61B18/1206Generators therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating
    • A61B18/12Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating by passing a current through the tissue to be heated, e.g. high-frequency current
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B2018/00636Sensing and controlling the application of energy
    • A61B2018/0066Sensing and controlling the application of energy without feedback, i.e. open loop control
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T307/00Electrical transmission or interconnection systems
    • Y10T307/74Switching systems
    • Y10T307/766Condition responsive
    • Y10T307/826Electrical

Description

Marchl8f1'958 J. DEGELMAN 2,827,056

ELECTRODE DISCHARGE CONTROL FOR SURGICAL APPARATUS Filed June 21, 1955 a {Zoe/wwe/& m e We)! dug];

United States PatentO ELECTRODE DISCHARGE CONTROL FOR SURGICAL APPARATUS John Degelman; HarvanL Massi, assignorof one-half to Thomas-H; Ballantine, Jix, Dedham, and one-half: to John H. Drew, Framingham, Mass.

ApplicationJune 21,1955; SerialjNo. 516,927

Claims. ((31.128-422) This inventionrelates to apparatus for controllingthe discharge'of current from -an electrode into abody which is moreor less conductive. More particularly the-invention relates to apparatus fordischarging highfrequency current to a wound in ahuman' bodyfor the purpose'of cauterizing the wound Heretofore the flow ofcurrent to such an electrode has been controlled by a manual switch on the electrode itself or a foot switch-controlled'by-the operator. Neither controlhas been satisfactory because they both interfere with the work of the operator which is often of a delicate nature as, for example,- inthe case of a surgeon cauterizing a wound; Moreover a switch on the electrode often interferes with the facile operation of the electrode;

Objects of the present invention are-to provide a control which eliminates all manual controls,- which automatically supplies discharge current when: the electrode is' presented to-the body, andwhich requires only a single conductor leading to the'electrode.

According to the present invention the apparatus comprises a work circuit for supplying alternating current to the body when the electrode is presented tothe body, and a control circuit including a source of direct current and control means responsive to the aforesaid sourcefor initiating flow of alternating current to the work circuit when the control circuit is closed, the aforesaid circuits having a common portion including saidbody and electrode, whereby the control circuit is closed by touching the body with the electrode.

In a more specific aspect the apparatus comprises an electronic device having a control electrode which puts the device in non-conducting condition at one potential and in conducting condition at another potential, and a control circuit including the aforesaid body and electrodes for changing the potential of the control electrode from the first to the second of the aforesaid potentials when the discharge electrode is presented to the body, whereby current in the work circuit is initiated when the discharge electrode is presented to the body. Preferably the electronic device comprises a triode or transistor having direct current bias means for normally holding the control electrode at a potential to maintain the device in non-conductive condition. The control circuit should be connected to the work circuit at a point between the source of alternating current and the discharge electrode so that the electrode requires only one conductor. Also the apparatus should have an inductor in the control circuit between the two electrodes and a condenser in the work circuit between the source of alternating current and a point at which the control circuit is connected to the work circuit. Preferably the electronic device is of the type having an output circuit for controlling the supply of current to the work circuit and an input circuit including the aforesaid body and electrode for changing the potential from inoperative to operative when the discharge electrode is presented to the body.

For the purpose of illustration a typical embodiment 2,827,056 Patented Mar. 18 1958 2 of the 'invention is shown-in the accompanying drawings inwhichzthe figure is alcircuitdiagram.

The-particular embodiment illustrated in the drawing comprisesaworkcircuit 12:supplied from any suitable source of alternating current and containing a switch 3; acondenser 4,1 the aforesaid discharge electrode 6 and a support- Tfor theaforesaid body to which the. electrode 6:is tobe presented. While'thessupport 7 may be connectedadirectly to therside 2 of the .work circuit, as illus trated't both the conductor. 2; and the support 7 are grounded; The=switch3 is closed by means of a relay-8 connectedstotthe, plate 9 ofi-a triode 10 comprising acathode 11' and; a grid-: 12,. the..cathode being connected to the; side-2., of; the work circuit. The. grid 12 isbiased by:means-.,-of-a directscurrent source C througha cone ductor 13 and,-two' resistors-1,4 and. 16. Connected acrossithe workcircuit isa. bridge circuit-17 containing induetance 18-, and. capacitance 19,- the conductor 17 being connec ted to 13 intermediate the. inductance. and capacitance. The capacitance 4v prevents the. flow. of direct-current; back tothe source of, alternating current and the-,inductance;1 8- blocks the flow of alternatingcurrent through the control circuit, A high resistance 15 may also, beincluded in conductor 13- asillustrated.

For cauterizing wounds the discharge current may have a. frequency'of: the, order of; one megacycle or more and a'potential-of the order of one thousand volts, in which casethe value-of the resistors, 14 and 16 maybe of the QIder of ten; million ohms. each. The value of C.. should be approximately twicethe voltage required to effectively cut off the flow of plate current in the triode, fo r examplefortyvolts.

Normally no substantial amount ofcurrent flows through the triode becauseof the bias produced by the sourceC However,- when the electrode dis grounded, by contact withv a conducting body resting on the. grounded support 7, the potential drop between plate 9, and cathode 11. is greatly reduced. This results in the energization of relay 8 which closes the switch 3, thereby automatically supplying alternating. current to the electrode 6. v V i From the foregoing itwill be evident that the present invention eliminates manual switches and initiates the flow of discharge current automatically the moment the discharge electrode touches. the patient or other grounded body which is more. or less conducting. It will also be evident that the apparatus requires only a single conductor leading to the discharge electrode, thereby facilitating the use of the electrode. When the body being operated on is a human bodyit may be grounded merely by resting on the grounded support 7 However, in this case the body is preferably rested on a more comfortable support and grounded by means of one or more electrodes held against the body by suitable means.

When operating on a human body, particularly in th region of the brain, it is important not to impart a stimulus, and this is accomplished with the present invention by employing high frequency current in the work circuit and, in'the control circuit, low potential and high resistance so that there is no substantial direct current flow through the body.

It should be understood that the present disclosure is for the purpose of illustration only and that this invention includes all modifications and equivalents which fall within the scope of the appended claims.

I claim:

1. For discharging current into a human body from a discharge electrode, surgical apparatus comprising a work circuit for supplying current to the electrode, and means for controlling the supply of current to the work circuit, said means comprising an electronic device having a cont ol e ectrod which p the ev e in n-c nduc ing condition at one potential and in conducting condition at another potential and a control circuit including said body and electrodes for changing the potential of said control electrode from the first to the second of said potentials when the discharge electrode is presented to the body, whereby current in the work circuit is initiated when the discharge electrode is presented 'to the body.

2. For discharging current into a human body from a discharge electrode, surgical apparatus comprising a work circuit for supplying current to the electrode, and means for controlling the supply of current to the work circuit, said means comprising an electronic device havmg a control electrode, bias means normally holding the control electrode at a potential to hold said device nonconductive and a control circuit including said body and electrodes for altering the potential of said control electrode when the discharge electrode is presented to the body thereby to cause said device to conduct.

3. For discharging alternating current into a human body from a discharge electrode, surgical apparatus comprising a work circuit for supplying the current to the electrode, and means for controlling the supply of current to the work circuit, said means comprising an electronic device having a control electrode which puts the valve in non-conducting condition at one potential and in conducting condition at another potential, direct current bias means normally holding the control electrode at said first potential, and a control circuit including said body and electrodes for changing the potential of said control electrode from the first to the second of said potentials when the discharge electrode is presented to the body, and an inductor in the control circuit between said electrodes.

4. For discharging alternating current into a human body from a discharge electrode, surgical apparatus comprising a work circuit for supplying the current to the electrode, and means for controlling the supply of current to the work circuit, said means comprising an electronic device having a control electrode which puts the valve in non-conducting condition at one potential and in conducting condition at another potential, direct current bias means normally holding the control electrode at said first potential, and a control circuit including said body and electrodes for changing the potential of said control electrode from the first to the second of said potentials when the discharge electrode is presented to the body, the control circuit being connected to the work circuit at a point between the source of alternating current and the discharge electrode so that the electrode requires only one conductor, and a condenser in the work circuit between the source of alternating current and said point. 7

5. For discharging alternating current into a human body from a discharge electrode, surgical apparatus comprising a work circuit for supplying the current to the electrode, and means for controlling the supply of current to the work circuit, said means comprising an electronic device having a control electrode which puts the device in non-conducting condition at one potential and in conducting condition at another potential, direct current bias means normally holding the control electrode at said first potential, and a control circuit including said body and electrodes for changing the potential of said control electrode from the first to the second of said potentials when the discharge electrode is presented to the body, the control current being connected to the work circuit at a point between the source of alternating current and the discharge electrode so that the electrode requires only one conductor, and an inductor in the control circuit between said electrodes.

6. For discharging current into a human body from a discharge electrode, surgical apparatus comprising a work circuit for supplying current to the electrode, an electronic device having an output circuit for controlling the supply of current to said work circuit and a control electrode having an inoperative potential at which the potential across the output circuit prevents supply of current to the work circuit and an operative potential at which the potential across the output circuit supplies current to the work circuit, and an input circuit including said body and electrodes for changing said inoperative potential to operative potential when the discharge electrode is presented to the body, whereby current in the supply circuit is initiated when the discharge electrode is presented to the body.

7. For discharging current into a human body from a discharge electrode, surgical apparatus comprising a work circuit for supplying current to the electrode, an electronic device having an output circuit for controlling the supply of current to said work circuit and a control electrode having an inoperative potential at which the potential across the output circuit prevents supply of current to the work circuit and an operative potential at which the potential across the output circuit supplies current to the Work circuit, bias means for supplying said potentials, and an input circuit including said body and electrodes for changing said inoperative potential to operative potential when the discharge electrode is presented to the body, whereby current in the supply circuit is initiated when the discharge electrode is presented to the body. a

8. For discharging alternating current into a human body from a discharge electrode, surgical apparatus comprising a work circuit for supplying the current to the electrode, an electronic device having an output circuit for controlling the supply of current to said'work circuit and a control electrode having an inoperative potential at which the potential across the output circuit prevents supply of current to the work circuit and an operative potential at which the potential across the output circuit supplies current to the work circuit, direct current bias means for supplying said potentials, and an input circuit including said body and electrodes for changing said inoperative potential to operative potential when the dis charge electrode is presented to the body, and an inductor input circuit between said electrodes.

9. For discharging alternating current into a human body from a discharge electrode, surgical apparatus comprising a work circuit for supplying the current to the electrode, an electronic device having an output circuit for controlling the supply of current to said work circuit and a control electrode having an inoperative potential at which the potential across the output circuit prevents supply of current to the work circuit and an operative potential at which the potential across the output circuit supplies current to the work circuit, direct current bias means for supplying said potentials, and an input circuit including said body and electrodes for changing said in operative potential to operative potential when the discharge electrode is presented to the body, the output current being connected to the working circuit at a point between the source of alternating current and the discharge electrode so that the electrode requires only one conductor, and a condenser in the working circuit between the source of alternating current and said point.

10. For discharging alternating current into a human body from a discharge electrode, surgical apparatus comprising a work circuit for supplying the current to the electrode, an electronic device having an output circuit for controlling the supply of current to said work circuit and a control electrode having an inoperative potential V at which the potential across the output circuit prevents supply of current to the work circuit and an operative potential at which the potential across the outputcircuit supplies current to the work circuit, direct current bias means for supplying said potentials, and an input circuit including said body and electrodes for changing said inoperative potential to operative potential when the discharge electrode is presented to the body, the control References Cited in the file of this patent current being connected to the supply circuit at a point UNITED STATES PATENTS between the source of alternating current and the electrode so that the electrode requires only one conductor, 2,251,277 Hart et Aug 51 1941 and an inductor in the control circuit between said 5 2293851 Rogers 1942 dectrodes. 2,379,837 Stahrner July 3, 1945 2,443,232 Fagen June 15, 1948 2,526,597 Winslow Oct. 17, 1950

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Cited By (64)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1099658B (en) * 1959-04-29 1961-02-16 Siemens Reiniger Werke Ag Selbsttaetige switch-frequency surgical devices for high
DE1139927B (en) * 1961-01-03 1962-11-22 Friedrich Laber RF Chirurgiegeraet
DE1146989B (en) * 1958-07-11 1963-04-11 Parisienne D Expl Des Etabliss The electrosurgical unit for electric cuts and electrocoagulation
US3110925A (en) * 1961-09-12 1963-11-19 Cincinnati Butchers Supply Co Electric stunner for livestock
US3122776A (en) * 1960-06-30 1964-03-03 John J Root Animal stunner
US3315678A (en) * 1964-07-17 1967-04-25 Epilatron Inc Epilating machine and control circuit
US3359982A (en) * 1965-02-08 1967-12-26 Guiorguiev Methodi Sensing control for a surgical needle or instrument
US3642008A (en) * 1968-09-25 1972-02-15 Medical Plastics Inc Ground electrode and test circuit
DE2540968A1 (en) * 1975-09-13 1977-03-17 Erbe Elektromedizin Circuit for bipolar coagulation tweezers - permits preparation of tissues prior to coagulation
FR2502935A1 (en) * 1981-03-31 1982-10-08 Dolley Roger Diathermic knife for coagulating tissues - has monitoring current added to HF coagulating current in order to control end of operation as function or resistance of coagulating tissues
US4414979A (en) * 1981-02-23 1983-11-15 Telectronics Pty. Ltd. Monitorable bone growth stimulator
US5496312A (en) * 1993-10-07 1996-03-05 Valleylab Inc. Impedance and temperature generator control
US5514129A (en) * 1993-12-03 1996-05-07 Valleylab Inc. Automatic bipolar control for an electrosurgical generator
US6210403B1 (en) 1993-10-07 2001-04-03 Sherwood Services Ag Automatic control for energy from an electrosurgical generator
US6402747B1 (en) 1997-07-21 2002-06-11 Sherwood Services Ag Handswitch cord and circuit
US20040147918A1 (en) * 2002-12-10 2004-07-29 Keppel David S. Variable output crest factor electrosurgical generator
US20050004564A1 (en) * 2003-05-01 2005-01-06 Wham Robert H. Method and system for programming and controlling an electrosurgical generator system
US20050101951A1 (en) * 1998-10-23 2005-05-12 Robert Wham Vessel sealing system
US20050113818A1 (en) * 2003-11-20 2005-05-26 Sartor Joe D. Connector systems for electrosurgical generator
US20050113819A1 (en) * 2003-11-21 2005-05-26 Wham Robert H. Automatic control system for an electrosurgical generator
US20050203504A1 (en) * 1998-10-23 2005-09-15 Wham Robert H. Method and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US7044948B2 (en) 2002-12-10 2006-05-16 Sherwood Services Ag Circuit for controlling arc energy from an electrosurgical generator
US20060161148A1 (en) * 2005-01-13 2006-07-20 Robert Behnke Circuit and method for controlling an electrosurgical generator using a full bridge topology
US7137980B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2006-11-21 Sherwood Services Ag Method and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US20070208339A1 (en) * 2006-03-03 2007-09-06 Sherwood Services Ag System and method for controlling electrosurgical snares
US7364577B2 (en) 2002-02-11 2008-04-29 Sherwood Services Ag Vessel sealing system
USRE40388E1 (en) 1997-04-09 2008-06-17 Covidien Ag Electrosurgical generator with adaptive power control
US7396336B2 (en) 2003-10-30 2008-07-08 Sherwood Services Ag Switched resonant ultrasonic power amplifier system
US7513896B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2009-04-07 Covidien Ag Dual synchro-resonant electrosurgical apparatus with bi-directional magnetic coupling
US7628786B2 (en) 2004-10-13 2009-12-08 Covidien Ag Universal foot switch contact port
US20090306648A1 (en) * 2008-06-10 2009-12-10 Podhajsky Ronald J System and Method for Output Control of Electrosurgical Generator
US7637907B2 (en) 2006-09-19 2009-12-29 Covidien Ag System and method for return electrode monitoring
US7648499B2 (en) 2006-03-21 2010-01-19 Covidien Ag System and method for generating radio frequency energy
US7651492B2 (en) 2006-04-24 2010-01-26 Covidien Ag Arc based adaptive control system for an electrosurgical unit
US7731717B2 (en) 2006-08-08 2010-06-08 Covidien Ag System and method for controlling RF output during tissue sealing
US7749217B2 (en) 2002-05-06 2010-07-06 Covidien Ag Method and system for optically detecting blood and controlling a generator during electrosurgery
US7766905B2 (en) 2004-02-12 2010-08-03 Covidien Ag Method and system for continuity testing of medical electrodes
US7780662B2 (en) 2004-03-02 2010-08-24 Covidien Ag Vessel sealing system using capacitive RF dielectric heating
US7794457B2 (en) 2006-09-28 2010-09-14 Covidien Ag Transformer for RF voltage sensing
US7834484B2 (en) 2007-07-16 2010-11-16 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Connection cable and method for activating a voltage-controlled generator
US7927328B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2011-04-19 Covidien Ag System and method for closed loop monitoring of monopolar electrosurgical apparatus
US7947039B2 (en) 2005-12-12 2011-05-24 Covidien Ag Laparoscopic apparatus for performing electrosurgical procedures
US7972328B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2011-07-05 Covidien Ag System and method for tissue sealing
US8034049B2 (en) 2006-08-08 2011-10-11 Covidien Ag System and method for measuring initial tissue impedance
US8104956B2 (en) 2003-10-23 2012-01-31 Covidien Ag Thermocouple measurement circuit
US8147485B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2012-04-03 Covidien Ag System and method for tissue sealing
US8216220B2 (en) 2007-09-07 2012-07-10 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp System and method for transmission of combined data stream
US8216223B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2012-07-10 Covidien Ag System and method for tissue sealing
US8486061B2 (en) 2009-01-12 2013-07-16 Covidien Lp Imaginary impedance process monitoring and intelligent shut-off
US8512332B2 (en) 2007-09-21 2013-08-20 Covidien Lp Real-time arc control in electrosurgical generators
US8551088B2 (en) 2008-03-31 2013-10-08 Applied Medical Resources Corporation Electrosurgical system
US8663214B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2014-03-04 Covidien Ag Method and system for controlling an output of a radio-frequency medical generator having an impedance based control algorithm
US8685016B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2014-04-01 Covidien Ag System and method for tissue sealing
US8734438B2 (en) 2005-10-21 2014-05-27 Covidien Ag Circuit and method for reducing stored energy in an electrosurgical generator
US8753334B2 (en) 2006-05-10 2014-06-17 Covidien Ag System and method for reducing leakage current in an electrosurgical generator
US8777941B2 (en) 2007-05-10 2014-07-15 Covidien Lp Adjustable impedance electrosurgical electrodes
US8808161B2 (en) 2003-10-23 2014-08-19 Covidien Ag Redundant temperature monitoring in electrosurgical systems for safety mitigation
US9186200B2 (en) 2006-01-24 2015-11-17 Covidien Ag System and method for tissue sealing
USD748259S1 (en) 2014-12-29 2016-01-26 Applied Medical Resources Corporation Electrosurgical instrument
US9320563B2 (en) 2010-10-01 2016-04-26 Applied Medical Resources Corporation Electrosurgical instruments and connections thereto
US9474564B2 (en) 2005-03-31 2016-10-25 Covidien Ag Method and system for compensating for external impedance of an energy carrying component when controlling an electrosurgical generator
US9636165B2 (en) 2013-07-29 2017-05-02 Covidien Lp Systems and methods for measuring tissue impedance through an electrosurgical cable
US9872719B2 (en) 2013-07-24 2018-01-23 Covidien Lp Systems and methods for generating electrosurgical energy using a multistage power converter
US10149713B2 (en) 2014-05-16 2018-12-11 Applied Medical Resources Corporation Electrosurgical system

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US2379837A (en) * 1944-09-11 1945-07-03 Stahmer Bernhardt Control system
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Cited By (114)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1146989B (en) * 1958-07-11 1963-04-11 Parisienne D Expl Des Etabliss The electrosurgical unit for electric cuts and electrocoagulation
DE1099658B (en) * 1959-04-29 1961-02-16 Siemens Reiniger Werke Ag Selbsttaetige switch-frequency surgical devices for high
US3122776A (en) * 1960-06-30 1964-03-03 John J Root Animal stunner
DE1139927B (en) * 1961-01-03 1962-11-22 Friedrich Laber RF Chirurgiegeraet
US3110925A (en) * 1961-09-12 1963-11-19 Cincinnati Butchers Supply Co Electric stunner for livestock
US3315678A (en) * 1964-07-17 1967-04-25 Epilatron Inc Epilating machine and control circuit
US3359982A (en) * 1965-02-08 1967-12-26 Guiorguiev Methodi Sensing control for a surgical needle or instrument
US3642008A (en) * 1968-09-25 1972-02-15 Medical Plastics Inc Ground electrode and test circuit
DE2540968A1 (en) * 1975-09-13 1977-03-17 Erbe Elektromedizin Circuit for bipolar coagulation tweezers - permits preparation of tissues prior to coagulation
US4414979A (en) * 1981-02-23 1983-11-15 Telectronics Pty. Ltd. Monitorable bone growth stimulator
FR2502935A1 (en) * 1981-03-31 1982-10-08 Dolley Roger Diathermic knife for coagulating tissues - has monitoring current added to HF coagulating current in order to control end of operation as function or resistance of coagulating tissues
US5496312A (en) * 1993-10-07 1996-03-05 Valleylab Inc. Impedance and temperature generator control
US6210403B1 (en) 1993-10-07 2001-04-03 Sherwood Services Ag Automatic control for energy from an electrosurgical generator
US5514129A (en) * 1993-12-03 1996-05-07 Valleylab Inc. Automatic bipolar control for an electrosurgical generator
USRE40388E1 (en) 1997-04-09 2008-06-17 Covidien Ag Electrosurgical generator with adaptive power control
US6402747B1 (en) 1997-07-21 2002-06-11 Sherwood Services Ag Handswitch cord and circuit
US7137980B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2006-11-21 Sherwood Services Ag Method and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US20050101951A1 (en) * 1998-10-23 2005-05-12 Robert Wham Vessel sealing system
US8105323B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2012-01-31 Covidien Ag Method and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US7901400B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2011-03-08 Covidien Ag Method and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US9168089B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2015-10-27 Covidien Ag Method and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US9113900B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2015-08-25 Covidien Ag Method and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US7303557B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2007-12-04 Sherwood Services Ag Vessel sealing system
US8287528B2 (en) 1998-10-23 2012-10-16 Covidien Ag Vessel sealing system
US20050203504A1 (en) * 1998-10-23 2005-09-15 Wham Robert H. Method and system for controlling output of RF medical generator
US7364577B2 (en) 2002-02-11 2008-04-29 Sherwood Services Ag Vessel sealing system
US7749217B2 (en) 2002-05-06 2010-07-06 Covidien Ag Method and system for optically detecting blood and controlling a generator during electrosurgery
US7044948B2 (en) 2002-12-10 2006-05-16 Sherwood Services Ag Circuit for controlling arc energy from an electrosurgical generator
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