US2825408A - Oil recovery by subsurface thermal processing - Google Patents

Oil recovery by subsurface thermal processing Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2825408A
US2825408A US34111353A US2825408A US 2825408 A US2825408 A US 2825408A US 34111353 A US34111353 A US 34111353A US 2825408 A US2825408 A US 2825408A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
sand
input
pipe
oil
gases
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Kenneth M Watson
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Sinclair Oil and Gas Co
Original Assignee
Sinclair Oil and Gas Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/16Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons
    • E21B43/24Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons using heat, e.g. steam injection

Description

March 4, 1958 K. M. WATSON OIL RECOVERY BY SUBSURF'ACE THERMAL PROCESSING 2 she ts-sheet 1 Filed March 9, 1953 INVENTOR KEN NETH M. WA TSON ATTO RN EYS ilnite States Pate 'rit 2,825,463 on. nscavssv av son sunraca THERMAL PRGCESSING Kenneth M. 'Watson, LakeZurich, lli., assign'or'to'Sinclair Gil & Gas Company, a corporation of Maine s pu'csaonrueichs, i953, senu No. 341,11:

Claims. (fil. 166 11)' This inventiton relates to the recovery of oil from subsurface formations of unconsolidated oil-containing sands, e. g. tar sands, by subsurface thermal processing.

In the region surrounding the Athabasca River in Alberta, Canada,there el tist very large deposits of tar sands; The significance of these deposits as potential source of world oil is apparent from these dataz The deposits,--it has been estimated, contain about ZOO billion barrels of oil. Theoil present on Athabasca tar sand has a gravity of between 8 and 12 API and is present to the extent of 14 to lSWeight percent. j I V ;The r ecovery problem however presents a number of difiiculties, both from the technical andeconomic standpoint, Proposals have been'made to mine the sands and recover oil from the mined sand aggregates by various operations requiringmechanical preparation followed by washing or heating methods. The cost of these operations, were they to be performed on a large scale, would be excessive both in terms of capital investment and operating expenses. Although the recovery problem in the Athabasca region is aggravated by the climate and by transportation dilficulties, similar considerations apply to the recovery of oil from the similar tar sands occurring in theWestern region of the United States. ,7 V

I My invention provides a readilyapplied in situ system for recovery of oil from tar sands by thermal means. It comprises drilling an input bore from the 7 surface through the overburden to the subsurface sands and then is essentially characterized by the establishment of; a zoneof heated'circulating sand, vapors and gases through the erosive action of hot inert gases injected throughan input pipe lowered through the input bore into the formation. In effect, a fluidized or turbulent regionof moving sand is set up by the action of the hot input gases in melting the tar, vaporizing and cracking the hydrocarbons and eroding the sand structure in combination withthe simultaneous release of vapors and gasesfrom the upper portion of the heated region, During the initiation of the operation, the release of vapors and gases is advantageously effected through the input bore, for example by means of an annulus surrounding the input pipe and connections. As theprocess proceeds and the area of heated moving sand is enlarged; one or more output wells advantageously are drilled in a manner permittingrelease of vapors and gases through them. My invention further is essentially characterizedby progressively enlarging the eroded and'heated region of moving sand by vertical movement of the input pipe within the formation. I

My invention will be further described reference to the accompanying drawings of which Fig. l a simplified schematic sketch of an input Well with 'fje ion or pmcnt at an early stage of the operation, thawing part of thgsubsurfac'e' structure in section.

Fig 2 is a similar view "at a later. stagof the operation illusti ting utilization of output wells for release of vapors snag ssh p,

Fig. 3 is similar to Fig. 2 but also shows aii arrange:

hydrocarbon gases and non-condensible gases in simplified diagrammatic fiow plan form. I b

As shown in the drawings, an input well 10 is drilled throughthe overburden into the formation and is; cased to provide an annular section ll surrounding input pipe 12. As shown, fuel gas and air are conducted by separate gas and air lines 13 and 14 respectively to a burner pipe which comprises the last section of the input pipe 12; Alternatively, the mixture of air and fuel gas can be burned above the surface of the ground to provide a mixture of hot inert flue gases for injection by the input pipe 12 into the formation. 7 p

In the operation, an injection gas stream at a temperature higher than the cracking temperature is desired and hence is most conveniently provided by combustion of a fuel gas with air either at the surface or below the surlface at the point of injection into the formation. I have tound however that it is important to control the combustion in a manner avoiding the presence of excess 03ygen so that an inert input gas stream is provided. The pressure of the input gas stream is limited by the overburden. In the absence of cap rock sealing the formation approximately one pound of pressure can be tolerated for each foot of overburden thickness. in the tar sands typically occurring in Canada and the United States there is about 50 to 700 feet of overburden. Because of the limi ration placed on the pressure of the injection gases by the thickness of overburden, it is advantageous to drillfthe input Well to the foot of the formation in order to initiate the operation and then to conduct the progressive extension of the hot eroded zone by raising the input pipe or burner gradually up through the formation to the overburden. 7

As shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the injection of hot inert gases and simultaneous release of vapors and gases through the annulus ilsurrounding input pipe 12 results in melting of the tar, vaporization and cracking of the hydrocarbons and destruction of the sand structure by erosion. The vapors and gases are released from annulus 11 into pipe 15 which may be one of a series of gathering pipes leading to an oil separation and gas recovery system. The non-condensible gas recovered may be recycled, if this is desired, but if it is substantially inert, it should be blended with the combustion gas mixture after combustion rather than beforehand if satisfactory combustion control is to be expected. The release of vapors and gas directly frorn the input or eroded region, rather than by attempted passage through the formation to a spaced output well as in conventional gas pressuring operations, in the course of the injection process is essential if an enlarging eroded region of hot-circulating or fluidized sand is to be created. As the operation proceeds and the temperature level in the input region raised to about the cracking temperature, i. e. about 700 to 1200 F., the progressive erosion of the subsurface structure is gradually eittended by lowering the input pipe gradually deeper into the format on, or conversely by gradually raising the input pipe up through the structure if the well has been originally drilled to the foot of the formation. In this way, the serious problem of formation iniperrneabilit-y is overcome, and t.e heat introduced by the hot inert gases can reach the oil in successive increments by continuous convection while the products of vaporization and cracking are carried away by gas flow. The effect of the traveling action of the input pipe is to produce a continuously enlarging erosion zone within the formation in roughly conical form. As shown in Figs. 2. and 3, output wells 16 which are representative of a number of wells drilled about the perimetei' of eroded zone are desirably cased and connected to valved "around the subsurface cone.

by cooler 27 into a secondary separator 28. The condensate separated in separator 24 may be gas recovery system; V V

The amount of heat necessary for a given formation may be '7 calculated from determinations of the heat capacityof the sand and the heats, of vaporization and reaction of the tar contained in the sand. Ordinarily, an

input gas stream at about 1800 to 1900" F. is desirable, 7

but as temperature equilibrium is approached the gas temperature may be-gradually reduced to about ll50 to l200 F. It should be maintained aboverabout 1000 F.

' 7 Approximately a month or more maybe required/to approach temperature equilibrium. The progress of the subsurface operation can be followed by gas analysis or by drilling window wells and inserting thermocouples or other analytical equipment at formation level. Advarr, tage ously, a patternof input and output wells is planned that will efiiciently cover an entire field or selected area or a large field.

in the process for subsequent separation of oil and recycle of non-condensible gases, if desired, is illustrated in diagrammatic form'in Fig. 3. "In the initial stages of the operation; the vapors and gases produced are recovered through an annulus in the input well but as the subsurface cone is formed and enlarges duringprocessing, recovery is effected through a plurality of perimeter wells The hot stream of vapors and gases advantageously is first passed by means of line 20' through one or more cyclone separators 21 wherein sand and othersolid patticles are removed from the gas stream The gas stream then may be passed by means of line 22 through air 'cooler '23 and thence into separating drum 24. It may be desirable to supplement the air cooler with a water-cooled exchanger system although the conditions maybe controlled in separator 24 by means of reflux to provide addi tional' cooling. Separator .24 also is advantageously ro I very lines 17 connecting thexoil separation and 7 I v 7 cover'was a thermowell made of Af'stainless tubing The method of recovery of vapors and gases produced equipped with metal fabric demisting wires to eliminate fog. Nevertheless it usually will be found desirable to pass the nncondensed stream, by means of connection 25,'through an electrical precipitation system 26, followed introduced by means of connection 2? to an upper portion of absiorber tower wherein it is contacted countercurrently with the'treated gas stream 05 separator 28 which is introduced at the foot of absorber'3t) by means of line 31. The condensed mist collected in separator 28 may be introduced into anintermediate section of absorber 30 by connection 32. Uncondensed gaseous components arevented from absorber 36 by means of line 33, to be utilized in part as recycle gas if: desired, or to be otherwise disposed of. The oil stream from the bottom of absorber 30 is passed by connection 34 to distillation lower 35. Heat may be introduced to the tower by conventional means such as a steam or bottoms reboiler; A stripped heavy oil fraction is removed as bottoms'by means of line 36 from'which a portion is returned through line 37 as absorber oil to the top of absorber tower 30. The overhead from tower. is passed through condenser-38 to separating drum 39. Uncondensed gas'may be returned to absorber 30 by means of {by small scale testing of my invention are providedi i The size distribution of the sand'present in a sample 7 of Athabasca tar sand was determined by extracting the oil with benzene and then running a sieve analysis on the remaining sand. It was:found that the sieve analysis of the original sand could be closely approximated by a mixture of Wausau graded sand. This mixture was made with nineparts of No. 1/2 grade and one part of No-2/O grade sand.. The physical characteristics of the Athabasca crude were approximated'byblending 57 weight ithese thermaltests ona small scale in a section'of pipe,

percent of a vacuum still bottoms with 43 weight percent of a straight run residuum. The gravity of this blend was 14.3 API. The synthetic tar' sand used in these tests was made with 86 weightpercent of the graded sand mixture and 14 percent of the blended heavy hydrocarbons.

The first series of tests was run inan insulatedise'c- 1 tion of four-inch pipe, four feet long. This section of pipe, which had a flange opening at the top, was mounted in .a vertical position within a tripod frame; .In this test elevenpounds of the: synthetic tar'sand were tamped into 7 p the pipe. This tar sand section-was 40'. in depth; :The-

flanged cover for this pipe had twoopening's; jonefor admitting the burner and the other to provide an exit for 'the flue gases along with the. liberated hydrocarbon vapors."

The burner usedi in-this test could be pushed down through the bed through a seal. Also located on the flange which extended to the bottom of the sand bed. f In order to ignite the top surface of the tar sand the flange cover was propped up. to, leave a two-inch gapbetween the'flange faces. The burner was then-lighted, using acetylene and air as the'fuel. After the thermocouple in the upper por tion of the sand bed indicated that .at leastltwo inches." 1

of the bed was over 1100 F., the flangecover was bolted down. The acetylene was turned off and only air at the rate of 45 cu. ft. per hour was fed to the lance type. burner. Temperaturerreadings indicated that thesand bed was ignited and combustion could 'be sustained by air alone. The lance was then pushed down throughthe bed at the rate'of'abo'ut one inch perminute. The tem'- perature readings made, indicated that. the bed temperatures were above 120 0 R, which was the limit of the available recorder; The hydrocarbons were driven-oif'a's a dense brown smoke whichfcould not be condensed; In-

dicationswere thatthe hydrocarbons on the sand that In the second test, the section of the pipe was packed with synthetic tar sand in the same manner as .in the first test. The object of this second test was to determine whether or' not itwas possible to ignite'the bottom of the sand section and burn upthrough the tar sand; taking the vaporized oil and products of combustion out the was provided to the bottom top. in this'test a connection of the pipe section, '7 When cold, the tamped synthetic tar sands in the pipe had suflicient permeability to allow about cu.;ft. per

hour to pass through the 40 sand section with a 273 p. s. i. pressure drop. "The bottom of the pip'e's'ection was heatedexternally. byan acetylene torchfuntil the 7 thermocouple in the bottomof the sandindicatedra.12 00. F. plus temperature. At that temperature the heating was discontinued andair wasstarted into the bed at about cu. ft. .per hour. Within fifteenminutes the pressure drop on the bed increased so that only about35 'cu. fL'

per hour of air could pass through'the bed with a total pressure drop of 90 p. s. i. across the sand sectionfl'As time went on. the air rate diminished so'that at the end of one hour the. flow through the bed was practically nil. j a

This blocking of the sand to the passage ofthe air'was due to oil which was being released from the. hot'sand p a at the bottom of pipe condensing on cold tar sand higher; in the pipe. Temperature surveys made during the course ofthe a'ir' blowing indicated that ignition of the tarsa'nds had not been established. M 7 7 Because of the difliculties attendant with carrying out it was decided to repeat this. series of tests on a larger scale. In the larger scaletests a new burner" was utilized in which the gaseous fuel. and the air were introduced:

through three stainless steel tubes 6" in insidefdiameter.

One was used to bring the'gas to the combustion zone while two were used to introduce the 'air into the combustion zone. In order to promote proper burning within the combustion zone the gas and air must be introduced into the combustion zone so that they produce a rotary mixing current. This was done by taking the three tubes, the gas line being sandwiched between the two air lines, and giving them a three-quarter corkscrew twist as they entered the combustion zone. The combustion zone of the burner consisted of a six-inch length of zirconia oxide refractory. The inside diameter of this refractory was A" and the outside diameter was one inch. The refractory was slipped into a seven-inch length of standard one inch stainless steel pipe. The one inch stainlesssteel pipe in turn was slipped into another section of l /t-inch standard stainless steel pipe. The A annular space between the. outside of the one-inch pipe and the inside .of I A-inch pipe served as a passage for the inert gas, nitrogen or fine gas which was blended into the combustion gases in order to lower the temperature of the gases emerging from the burner. This inert gas used for blending also served to cool the burner thus enabling it to withstand hours of operation without apparent damage.

The larger scale tests were run with the synthetic tar sands contained in 100# grease drums. These drums are 15" in diameter and 20" in depth. Two fire bricks were placed on the bottom of the drum prior to packing it with the synthetic tar sand mixture. It was intended that these bricks would protect the drum bottom from the hot gases emerging from the burner. The drum was then loaded with 205 of synthetic tar sand which was tamped very firmly. After the drum was loaded, a cover made of A" steel plate was welded to the top of the drum. A cylindrical baflie 7 in diameter and 4" deep was welded into the lid of the drum. This was to prevent gases from bypassing travel through the sand by going across the top of sand below the cover plate.

A two-inch coupling was welded to the center of this cover plate. A two-inch T was connected to this coupling. The burner was introduced into the drum through the top of this T. There was an O-ring seal around the burner pipe, making it possible to move the burner down into the sand bed during the course of the test. The side of the T was the exit for the produced gases. Also located on the cover plate of the drum were four collecting lines for the produced gas. These consisted of four /2-inch couplings, located on a 10 diameter circle, welded to the plate. The four collecting lines were connected to a common line with which was also connected the line from the two-inch T. The produced gas passed into a cyclone sand trap in order to remove the sand blown out of the drum and then into a water cooled condenser. A block valve was installed on the line which connected the side of the T located above the center of the cover plate to the four collecting lines on the cover plate. This block valve was left open while the burner was being forced into the sand bed in order to allow sand to be blown out but as soon as the burner was forced to the bottom of the bed this valve was blocked, thus causing all the hot gases to pass through the sand before emerging through the collecting lines. The sand bed temperatures in the drum quantity runs were determined by thermocouples inserted in thermo- Wells which pass the entire depth of the bed. These thermowells were introduced into the drum through Ts located on the four collector lines. The uncondensed gas, along with the smoke produced by the heating went into a Cottrell precipitator. This precipitator consisted of a 24" section of 2" copper tubing which was insulated by means of Teflon from a fine wire electrode suspended axially through it. The center electrode was maintained at a potential of 13,000 volts D. C. This Cottrell proved to be very efiective in condensing the smoke fog given oif by the sand mass when it was heated. The 100# grease drum of synthetic tar sand was placed in a 30 6 gallon open top oil drum and then the open annular. space filled in with looseinsulation for. these tests.

In a test on the dr'um sized sample, the burnerswas adjusted to give flue gaseswith a temperature. of 1 300" F. with no oxygen present. Thiswas done .by feeding the theoretical mixture of gas, in this case hydrogen, and .air plus sufiicient nitrogen to bring the temperature down to 1300 F. These qualities weremeasured by means .of rotometers. The total of flue gases at standardconditions was 210 cu. ft. per hour. After heating 12 /2 hours at this rate, this run was interruptedand the oilrecovered in the sand trap was weighed and found to total 9.#. Practically no oil was recovered from the system beyond this trap. Since examination of this oil showed that it was essentially as viscous as the material mixed with the sand, the test was'resumed and the inert gas temperature was raised to l-500 with a total volume of :300..cu. ft. perhour. This heating period totaled l3hours. The

additional oil recoveredweighed l7# but did not show any appreciable viscosity reduction. The total oil recovered was 26;? out of the 30# originally mixed with the sand. This recovered oil was extracted with benzene and found to contain 8% sand. No water was recovered with this oil. The total oil recovered with of the original charge. Original gravity as 14.3" API; final gravity 8.0 API.

Because the oil recovered in the previous test was essentially unaltered, it was decided to make another test at a higher temperature. For this run the drum was packed with tar sand as in the previous test. The burner was adjusted to give a flue gas temperature of about 1850 F. with a volume of about 380 cu. ft. per hour. This test lasted 12 hours. The back pressure on the burner inlet pipe was 3 to 54 per square inch during this test.

The oil recovered by the condensers and Cottrell weighed 11# with water content of 20.0%, having a gravity of 26 API compared to the 143 APT of the starting 'oil.

I claim:

1. A process for the recovery of oil from a subsurface formation of unconsolidated oil-containing sands which comprises providing an input bore to the said subsurface sands, inserting an input pipe in the said bore to extend to the said subsurface sands, injecting hot inert gases through the said input pipe into the said subsurface sands to raise the temperature thereof to a hydrocarbon vaporizing and cracking temperature of about 700 to 1200 F. thereby establishing a zone of eroded and heated circulating sands, vapors and gases within said subsurface sands providing an exit for said released vapors and gases to the earths surface, enlarging the said eroded and heated zone by the progressive vertical movement of the said input pipe within the subsurface sands and thereafter recovering oil produced by the process from the released and withdrawn vapors and gases.

2. The process of claim 1 in which the point of injection is initially near the upper surface of the formation and is moved progressively downwardly into the formation in the course of the process.

3. The process of claim 1 in which the point of injection is initially near the lower surface of the formation and is progressively moved upwardly through the formation in the course of the operation.

4. A process for the recovery of oil from a subsurface formation 'of unconsolidated oil-containing sands which comprises providing an input bore and an output bore to the said subsurface sands, inserting an input pipe in the said input bore to extend to the said subsurface sands, injecting hot inert gases through the said input pipe into the said subsurface sands to raise the temperature thereof to a hydrocarbon vaporizing and cracking temperature of about 700 to 1200 F. thereby establishing a zone of eroded and heated circulating sands, vapors and gases within said subsurface sands providing an exit for said released vapors and gases through the output bore provided in .theregion or the heated circulating samenlarging the said eroded and heated zone by theprogre'ssive verticalfimovement of the said input pipe the subsurface sands and thereafter recovering oil produced 'by the process fromthe-releasedand withdrawn vapors i and gases. 7 s V I Sr A' process for the'recovery of 'oil from a'subsurface formation of unconsolidated oil-containing sands which thereby forming anannulus between said input pipe and a 'said input boreQinjcting hot inert gases through the said input pipe into the 'said subsurface sandsto raise the temperature'thereof to a hydrocarbon vaporizing and sands, vapors andgases within said ,subsurface'sands, enlarging the said eroded and heated zone by the progressive 7' comprises providing aninput bore andanoutput bore to V the saidsubsur face sands, inserting an input pipe in the I said input bore to extend to' the said subsurface sands 15'- 'cracking temperatureof about 700 to 1200' F. thereby t establishing a zone of eroded and heatedicirculating vertical movement ofthe said, inputpipe sub- 4 surface sands;;'providing-'an-rexit for said released vapors :out'put bore provided in the;region10f ;heatedcirculating sandsand thei-eafterrrecovering' oil produced :by' the jpro- ReferencesCitedin fileiof this patent UNITEDLS'IATESPATENISI bass ,from the released and withdrawnvapors and gases.

V: :tn'lr 5h 'a 1" sit ear m

Claims (1)

1. A PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF OIL FROM A SUBSURFACE FORMATION OF UNCONSOLIDATED OIL-CONTAINING SANDS WHICH COMPRISES PROVIDING AN INPUT BORE TO THE SAID SUBSURFACE SANDS, INSERTING AN INPUT PIPE IN THE SAID BORE TO EXTEND TO THE SAID SUBSURFACE SANDS, INJECTING HOT INERT GASES THROUGH THE SAID INPUT PIPE INTO THE SAID SUBSURFACE SANDS TO RAISE THE TEMPERATURE THEREOF TO A HYDROCARBON VAPORIZING AND CRACKING TEMPERATURE OF ABOUT 700 TO 1200* F. THEREBY ESTABLISHING A ZONE OF ERODED AND HEATED CIRCULATING SANDS, VAPORS AND GASES WITHIN SAID SUBSURFACE SANDS PROVIDING AN EXIT FOR SAID RELEASE VAPORSS AND GASES TO THE EARTH''S SURFACE ENLARGINGTE SAID ERODED AND HEATED ZONE BY TE PROGRESSIVE VERTICAL MOVEMENT OF THE SAID INPUT PIPE WITHIN THE SUBSURFACE SANDS AND THEREAFTER RECOVERING OIL PRODUCED BY THE PROCESS FROM THE RELEASED AND WITHDRAWN VAPORS AND GASES.
US2825408A 1953-03-09 1953-03-09 Oil recovery by subsurface thermal processing Expired - Lifetime US2825408A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2825408A US2825408A (en) 1953-03-09 1953-03-09 Oil recovery by subsurface thermal processing

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2825408A US2825408A (en) 1953-03-09 1953-03-09 Oil recovery by subsurface thermal processing

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2825408A true US2825408A (en) 1958-03-04

Family

ID=23336291

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US2825408A Expired - Lifetime US2825408A (en) 1953-03-09 1953-03-09 Oil recovery by subsurface thermal processing

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2825408A (en)

Cited By (51)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2930598A (en) * 1957-08-26 1960-03-29 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ combustion of carbonaceous deposits
US2969226A (en) * 1959-01-19 1961-01-24 Pyrochem Corp Pendant parting petro pyrolysis process
US3057404A (en) * 1961-09-29 1962-10-09 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc Method and system for producing oil tenaciously held in porous formations
US3088520A (en) * 1958-03-07 1963-05-07 Jersey Prod Res Co Producing fluid from an unconsolidated subterranean reservoir
US3233668A (en) * 1963-11-15 1966-02-08 Exxon Production Research Co Recovery of shale oil
US3342257A (en) * 1963-12-30 1967-09-19 Standard Oil Co In situ retorting of oil shale using nuclear energy
US3468376A (en) * 1967-02-10 1969-09-23 Mobil Oil Corp Thermal conversion of oil shale into recoverable hydrocarbons
US4026357A (en) * 1974-06-26 1977-05-31 Texaco Exploration Canada Ltd. In situ gasification of solid hydrocarbon materials in a subterranean formation
EP0002306A1 (en) * 1977-12-06 1979-06-13 Stamicarbon B.V. Process for transformation of coal in situ, particularly gazification
FR2600714A1 (en) * 1986-06-26 1987-12-31 Inst Francais Du Petrole Method and system for production assisted by injection, from a central well, of a displacing agent
EP0251881A1 (en) * 1986-06-26 1988-01-07 Institut Francais Du Petrole Enhanced recovery method to continually produce a fluid contained in a geological formation
US20030079877A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation in a reducing environment
US20030080604A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US20030098149A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US20030155111A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-21 Shell Oil Co In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US20030173081A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US20030173085A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Upgrading and mining of coal
US20030192691A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-16 Vinegar Harold J. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers
US20030192693A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-16 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US20040020642A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2004-02-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US6893615B1 (en) 2001-05-04 2005-05-17 Nco2 Company Llc Method and system for providing substantially water-free exhaust gas
US20050269088A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Inhibiting effects of sloughing in wellbores
US7011154B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US7051808B1 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7073578B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-07-11 Shell Oil Company Staged and/or patterned heating during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7104319B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US20060218905A1 (en) * 2001-05-04 2006-10-05 Nco2 Company Llc Method and system for obtaining exhaust gas for use in augmenting crude oil production
US7121342B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US20070045265A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Mckinzie Billy J Ii Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes
US20070108201A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-17 Vinegar Harold J Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase wye configuration
US20070289733A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2007-12-20 Hinson Richard A Wellhead with non-ferromagnetic materials
US7445761B1 (en) 2003-05-02 2008-11-04 Alexander Wade J Method and system for providing compressed substantially oxygen-free exhaust gas for industrial purposes
US7540324B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-06-02 Shell Oil Company Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a checkerboard pattern staged process
US7549470B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-06-23 Shell Oil Company Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090194333A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Macdonald Duncan Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US7640987B2 (en) 2005-08-17 2010-01-05 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Communicating fluids with a heated-fluid generation system
US20100147521A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-06-17 Xueying Xie Perforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
US7770643B2 (en) 2006-10-10 2010-08-10 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Hydrocarbon recovery using fluids
US7798220B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-09-21 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US7809538B2 (en) 2006-01-13 2010-10-05 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Real time monitoring and control of thermal recovery operations for heavy oil reservoirs
US20100258291A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Everett De St Remey Edward Heated liners for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US7832482B2 (en) 2006-10-10 2010-11-16 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Producing resources using steam injection
US20110088904A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2011-04-21 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8151907B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-04-10 Shell Oil Company Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US8631866B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-01-21 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8701768B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations
US8820406B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-02 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore
US9016370B2 (en) 2011-04-08 2015-04-28 Shell Oil Company Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US9033042B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-19 Shell Oil Company Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US9309755B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2016-04-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations
US9353611B2 (en) 2012-11-02 2016-05-31 Trimeteor Oil & Gas Corp. Method and apparatus for the downhole injection of superheated steam

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US797529A (en) * 1905-02-18 1905-08-15 Fidelio H Oliphant Method of treating oil-wells.
US1898926A (en) * 1931-02-02 1933-02-21 Walter Franciscus Cornelis Baa Method of making bore holes
US2327482A (en) * 1939-04-18 1943-08-24 Linde Air Prod Co Mineral cutting and piercing
US2390770A (en) * 1942-10-10 1945-12-11 Sun Oil Co Method of producing petroleum
US2481051A (en) * 1945-12-15 1949-09-06 Texaco Development Corp Process and apparatus for the recovery of volatilizable constituents from underground carbonaceous formations

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US797529A (en) * 1905-02-18 1905-08-15 Fidelio H Oliphant Method of treating oil-wells.
US1898926A (en) * 1931-02-02 1933-02-21 Walter Franciscus Cornelis Baa Method of making bore holes
US2327482A (en) * 1939-04-18 1943-08-24 Linde Air Prod Co Mineral cutting and piercing
US2390770A (en) * 1942-10-10 1945-12-11 Sun Oil Co Method of producing petroleum
US2481051A (en) * 1945-12-15 1949-09-06 Texaco Development Corp Process and apparatus for the recovery of volatilizable constituents from underground carbonaceous formations

Cited By (300)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2930598A (en) * 1957-08-26 1960-03-29 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ combustion of carbonaceous deposits
US3088520A (en) * 1958-03-07 1963-05-07 Jersey Prod Res Co Producing fluid from an unconsolidated subterranean reservoir
US2969226A (en) * 1959-01-19 1961-01-24 Pyrochem Corp Pendant parting petro pyrolysis process
US3057404A (en) * 1961-09-29 1962-10-09 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc Method and system for producing oil tenaciously held in porous formations
US3233668A (en) * 1963-11-15 1966-02-08 Exxon Production Research Co Recovery of shale oil
US3342257A (en) * 1963-12-30 1967-09-19 Standard Oil Co In situ retorting of oil shale using nuclear energy
US3468376A (en) * 1967-02-10 1969-09-23 Mobil Oil Corp Thermal conversion of oil shale into recoverable hydrocarbons
US4026357A (en) * 1974-06-26 1977-05-31 Texaco Exploration Canada Ltd. In situ gasification of solid hydrocarbon materials in a subterranean formation
EP0002306A1 (en) * 1977-12-06 1979-06-13 Stamicarbon B.V. Process for transformation of coal in situ, particularly gazification
FR2600714A1 (en) * 1986-06-26 1987-12-31 Inst Francais Du Petrole Method and system for production assisted by injection, from a central well, of a displacing agent
EP0251881A1 (en) * 1986-06-26 1988-01-07 Institut Francais Du Petrole Enhanced recovery method to continually produce a fluid contained in a geological formation
US20110088904A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2011-04-21 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8789586B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2014-07-29 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8485252B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2013-07-16 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7011154B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US8225866B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2012-07-24 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6991032B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US20030102124A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a blending agent from a relatively permeable formation
US20030102126A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Sumnu-Dindoruk Meliha Deniz In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate
US20030111223A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-19 Rouffignac Eric Pierre De In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources
US20030116315A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-26 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation
US20030131995A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation to increase permeability of the formation
US20030131996A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections
US20030131993A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 Etuan Zhang In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property
US20030136559A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation
US20030137181A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US20030136558A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product
US20030141067A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Rouffignac Eric Pierre De In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to increase permeability of the formation
US20030141066A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Karanikas John Michael In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking
US20030141068A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Pierre De Rouffignac Eric In situ thermal processing through an open wellbore in an oil shale formation
US20030142964A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate
US20030148894A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-07 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20030146002A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-07 Vinegar Harold J. Removable heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20030155111A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-21 Shell Oil Co In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US20030164239A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-09-04 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment
US20030102125A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation in a reducing environment
US20030102130A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control
US20030098605A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US20030173078A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-09-18 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a condensate
US20030173080A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-09-18 Berchenko Ilya Emil In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US20030098149A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US8608249B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2013-12-17 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20080314593A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2008-12-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US20030080604A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US7225866B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2007-06-05 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US7096942B1 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation while controlling pressure
US7066254B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US7055600B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate
US20040211557A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2004-10-28 Cole Anthony Thomas Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20040211554A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2004-10-28 Vinegar Harold J. Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US6877555B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-04-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking
US6880633B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-04-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product
US7051811B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing through an open wellbore in an oil shale formation
US7051807B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control
US6915850B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections
US6918442B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment
US6918443B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6923257B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-08-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a condensate
US6929067B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-08-16 Shell Oil Company Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7040400B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation using an open wellbore
US6948562B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-09-27 Shell Oil Company Production of a blending agent using an in situ thermal process in a relatively permeable formation
US6951247B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-10-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources
US6964300B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-11-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with backproduction through a heater wellbore
US6966374B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-11-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US7040398B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation in a reducing environment
US7013972B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-03-21 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a natural distributed combustor
US7040399B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate
US7032660B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-04-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US7735935B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2010-06-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation containing carbonate minerals
US20030079877A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation in a reducing environment
US7004247B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-28 Shell Oil Company Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7004251B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and remediation of an oil shale formation
US6997518B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and solution mining of an oil shale formation
US6994169B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property
US6991033B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation
US6981548B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US6991036B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company Thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation
US20100270015A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2010-10-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7765794B2 (en) 2001-05-04 2010-08-03 Nco2 Company Llc Method and system for obtaining exhaust gas for use in augmenting crude oil production
US20060218905A1 (en) * 2001-05-04 2006-10-05 Nco2 Company Llc Method and system for obtaining exhaust gas for use in augmenting crude oil production
US6893615B1 (en) 2001-05-04 2005-05-17 Nco2 Company Llc Method and system for providing substantially water-free exhaust gas
US20030201098A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-30 Karanikas John Michael In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using one or more simulations
US20030192693A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-16 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US20030173085A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Upgrading and mining of coal
US7165615B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-23 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US20030192691A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-16 Vinegar Harold J. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers
US7156176B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-02 Shell Oil Company Installation and use of removable heaters in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030196788A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. Producing hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon containing materials when treating a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8627887B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2014-01-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6969123B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-11-29 Shell Oil Company Upgrading and mining of coal
US6932155B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-08-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well
US20030173081A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US7051808B1 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20050092483A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2005-05-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20040040715A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2004-03-04 Wellington Scott Lee In situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7063145B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-06-20 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation in situ with an opening contacting the earth's surface at two locations
US20030196810A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US20040020642A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2004-02-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US7077199B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-07-18 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US7077198B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-07-18 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers
US20030196801A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well
US7086465B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-08 Shell Oil Company In situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7090013B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US20030205378A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-11-06 Wellington Scott Lee In situ recovery from lean and rich zones in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7100994B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-05 Shell Oil Company Producing hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon containing materials when treating a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7104319B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US6991045B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company Forming openings in a hydrocarbon containing formation using magnetic tracking
US7461691B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2008-12-09 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7066257B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-06-27 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from lean and rich zones in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7128153B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-10-31 Shell Oil Company Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US7073578B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-07-11 Shell Oil Company Staged and/or patterned heating during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7121341B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Conductor-in-conduit temperature limited heaters
US8238730B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-08-07 Shell Oil Company High voltage temperature limited heaters
US8224164B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Insulated conductor temperature limited heaters
US7219734B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2007-05-22 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting wellbore deformation during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8224163B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US7360588B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2008-04-22 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7640980B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2010-01-05 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US8579031B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2013-11-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7942203B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2011-05-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7121342B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7964148B1 (en) 2003-05-02 2011-06-21 Nco2 Company Llc System for providing compressed substantially oxygen-free exhaust gas
US7445761B1 (en) 2003-05-02 2008-11-04 Alexander Wade J Method and system for providing compressed substantially oxygen-free exhaust gas for industrial purposes
US20050269077A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Start-up of temperature limited heaters using direct current (DC)
US20050269095A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Fairbanks Michael D Inhibiting reflux in a heated well of an in situ conversion system
US20060289536A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2006-12-28 Vinegar Harold J Subsurface electrical heaters using nitride insulation
US20050269092A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Vacuum pumping of conductor-in-conduit heaters
US7320364B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-01-22 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting reflux in a heated well of an in situ conversion system
US7353872B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-04-08 Shell Oil Company Start-up of temperature limited heaters using direct current (DC)
US7357180B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-04-15 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting effects of sloughing in wellbores
US20050269093A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US7370704B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-05-13 Shell Oil Company Triaxial temperature limited heater
US7383877B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-06-10 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with thermally conductive fluid used to heat subsurface formations
US8355623B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2013-01-15 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with high power factors
US7424915B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-09-16 Shell Oil Company Vacuum pumping of conductor-in-conduit heaters
US7431076B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-10-07 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters using modulated DC power
US20050269094A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Harris Christopher K Triaxial temperature limited heater
US20050269090A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heaters with thermally conductive fluid used to heat subsurface formations
US20050269088A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Inhibiting effects of sloughing in wellbores
US20060005968A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2006-01-12 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heaters with relatively constant current
US7481274B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-01-27 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with relatively constant current
US7490665B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-02-17 Shell Oil Company Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US20050269091A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Guillermo Pastor-Sanz Reducing viscosity of oil for production from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7510000B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-03-31 Shell Oil Company Reducing viscosity of oil for production from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20050269089A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Temperature limited heaters using modulated DC power
US20050269313A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heaters with high power factors
US20070133960A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-14 Vinegar Harold J In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
US7546873B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-06-16 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barriers for use with in situ processes
US7527094B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-05-05 Shell Oil Company Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process
US7500528B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-03-10 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing
US7435037B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2008-10-14 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes
US8027571B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-09-27 Shell Oil Company In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
US20080217321A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2008-09-11 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor
US20070045268A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Vinegar Harold J Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US8233782B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-31 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
US8230927B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-31 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US7575053B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-08-18 Shell Oil Company Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers
US7575052B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-08-18 Shell Oil Company In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US20070137856A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-21 Mckinzie Billy J Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process
US8224165B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor
US20070133961A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-14 Fairbanks Michael D Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US20070045266A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Sandberg Chester L In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US8070840B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-12-06 Shell Oil Company Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process
US7986869B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-07-26 Shell Oil Company Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US20070119098A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-31 Zaida Diaz Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process
US20070045267A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Vinegar Harold J Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US7942197B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-05-17 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US20070108201A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-17 Vinegar Harold J Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase wye configuration
US7860377B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-12-28 Shell Oil Company Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US20070108200A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-17 Mckinzie Billy J Ii Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing
US7831134B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-11-09 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
US20070144732A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-28 Kim Dong S Low temperature barriers for use with in situ processes
US20070045265A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Mckinzie Billy J Ii Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes
US7640987B2 (en) 2005-08-17 2010-01-05 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Communicating fluids with a heated-fluid generation system
US7549470B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-06-23 Shell Oil Company Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20110168394A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2011-07-14 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US7581589B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-09-01 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US7635025B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-12-22 Shell Oil Company Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US7562706B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-21 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations
US8606091B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2013-12-10 Shell Oil Company Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates
US7556096B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-07 Shell Oil Company Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations
US8151880B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2012-04-10 Shell Oil Company Methods of making transportation fuel
US7584789B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-09-08 Shell Oil Company Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products
US7559368B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-14 Shell Oil Company Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US7559367B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-14 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation
US7556095B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-07 Shell Oil Company Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent
US7591310B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-09-22 Shell Oil Company Methods of hydrotreating a liquid stream to remove clogging compounds
US7809538B2 (en) 2006-01-13 2010-10-05 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Real time monitoring and control of thermal recovery operations for heavy oil reservoirs
US7866385B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
US7635023B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-12-22 Shell Oil Company Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7785427B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-08-31 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US20070289733A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2007-12-20 Hinson Richard A Wellhead with non-ferromagnetic materials
US7793722B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-09-14 Shell Oil Company Non-ferromagnetic overburden casing
US8192682B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2012-06-05 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US7912358B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-03-22 Shell Oil Company Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US7631689B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-12-15 Shell Oil Company Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US8083813B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-12-27 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing transportation fuel
US7683296B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-03-23 Shell Oil Company Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters
US7533719B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-05-19 Shell Oil Company Wellhead with non-ferromagnetic materials
US8857506B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2014-10-14 Shell Oil Company Alternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes
US20100272595A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2010-10-28 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US7597147B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-10-06 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
US7610962B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-11-03 Shell Oil Company Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment
US7673786B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-03-09 Shell Oil Company Welding shield for coupling heaters
US7604052B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-10-20 Shell Oil Company Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process
US7832482B2 (en) 2006-10-10 2010-11-16 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Producing resources using steam injection
US7770643B2 (en) 2006-10-10 2010-08-10 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Hydrocarbon recovery using fluids
US7841401B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process
US7845411B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-12-07 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US20100276141A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2010-11-04 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US7562707B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-07-21 Shell Oil Company Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process
US8555971B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2013-10-15 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US7635024B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-12-22 Shell Oil Company Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures
US7717171B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-05-18 Shell Oil Company Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
US7540324B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-06-02 Shell Oil Company Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a checkerboard pattern staged process
US7730947B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US7673681B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-09 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones
US7730946B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US7730945B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process
US7703513B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-04-27 Shell Oil Company Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US7681647B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-23 Shell Oil Company Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US7631690B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-12-15 Shell Oil Company Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence
US7677314B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-16 Shell Oil Company Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations
US7677310B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-16 Shell Oil Company Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations
US7644765B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-01-12 Shell Oil Company Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US8191630B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2012-06-05 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US8381815B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-02-26 Shell Oil Company Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation
US8327681B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2012-12-11 Shell Oil Company Wellbore manufacturing processes for in situ heat treatment processes
US7950453B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-05-31 Shell Oil Company Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations
US9181780B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2015-11-10 Shell Oil Company Controlling and assessing pressure conditions during treatment of tar sands formations
US8459359B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-06-11 Shell Oil Company Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones
US8791396B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-07-29 Shell Oil Company Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations
US7798220B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-09-21 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US7931086B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-04-26 Shell Oil Company Heating systems for heating subsurface formations
US8662175B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-03-04 Shell Oil Company Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities
US7832484B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-16 Shell Oil Company Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US7841425B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures
US7849922B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-12-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8042610B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-10-25 Shell Oil Company Parallel heater system for subsurface formations
US7841408B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US8536497B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2013-09-17 Shell Oil Company Methods for forming long subsurface heaters
US8196658B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-06-12 Shell Oil Company Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US8011451B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-09-06 Shell Oil Company Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US7866388B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel
US8276661B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-10-02 Shell Oil Company Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier
US8272455B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-09-25 Shell Oil Company Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations
US20090194333A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Macdonald Duncan Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US8162059B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-24 Shell Oil Company Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations
US8146661B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-03 Shell Oil Company Cryogenic treatment of gas
US8113272B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-02-14 Shell Oil Company Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations
US8146669B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-03 Shell Oil Company Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation
US8240774B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-08-14 Shell Oil Company Solution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds
US7866386B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company In situ oxidation of subsurface formations
US8752904B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2014-06-17 Shell Oil Company Heated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8636323B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2014-01-28 Shell Oil Company Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8562078B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2013-10-22 Shell Oil Company Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8162405B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-04-24 Shell Oil Company Using tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8177305B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-05-15 Shell Oil Company Heater connections in mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8151907B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-04-10 Shell Oil Company Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US8172335B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-05-08 Shell Oil Company Electrical current flow between tunnels for use in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US9528322B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2016-12-27 Shell Oil Company Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US8256512B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-04 Shell Oil Company Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8281861B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-10-09 Shell Oil Company Circulated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US9129728B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods of forming subsurface wellbores
US8267185B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-18 Shell Oil Company Circulated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation
US8267170B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-18 Shell Oil Company Offset barrier wells in subsurface formations
US8261832B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-11 Shell Oil Company Heating subsurface formations with fluids
US20100147521A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-06-17 Xueying Xie Perforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
US8220539B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US9051829B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-06-09 Shell Oil Company Perforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
US9022118B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-05-05 Shell Oil Company Double insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations
US8881806B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2014-11-11 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors
US20100147522A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-06-17 Xueying Xie Systems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors
US20100155070A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-06-24 Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria Roes Organonitrogen compounds used in treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100206570A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-08-19 Ernesto Rafael Fonseca Ocampos Circulated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation
US20100224368A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-09-09 Stanley Leroy Mason Deployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations
US8353347B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2013-01-15 Shell Oil Company Deployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations
US20110042084A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2011-02-24 Robert Bos Irregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation
US8327932B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2012-12-11 Shell Oil Company Recovering energy from a subsurface formation
US20100258291A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Everett De St Remey Edward Heated liners for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100258309A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Oluropo Rufus Ayodele Heater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US20100258265A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 John Michael Karanikas Recovering energy from a subsurface formation
US8851170B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2014-10-07 Shell Oil Company Heater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US8434555B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2013-05-07 Shell Oil Company Irregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation
US8448707B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2013-05-28 Shell Oil Company Non-conducting heater casings
US20100258290A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Ronald Marshall Bass Non-conducting heater casings
US9022109B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-05 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US9399905B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2016-07-26 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8631866B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-01-21 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8833453B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-16 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with tapered copper thickness
US9033042B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-19 Shell Oil Company Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8820406B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-02 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore
US9127538B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Methodologies for treatment of hydrocarbon formations using staged pyrolyzation
US8739874B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-06-03 Shell Oil Company Methods for heating with slots in hydrocarbon formations
US9127523B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Barrier methods for use in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8701769B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology
US8701768B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations
US9016370B2 (en) 2011-04-08 2015-04-28 Shell Oil Company Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US9309755B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2016-04-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations
US9353611B2 (en) 2012-11-02 2016-05-31 Trimeteor Oil & Gas Corp. Method and apparatus for the downhole injection of superheated steam

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3456721A (en) Downhole-burner apparatus
US3586377A (en) Method of retorting oil shale in situ
US3454958A (en) Producing oil from nuclear-produced chimneys in oil shale
US3342257A (en) In situ retorting of oil shale using nuclear energy
US3209825A (en) Low temperature in-situ combustion
US3598182A (en) Method and apparatus for in situ distillation and hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials
US3513914A (en) Method for producing shale oil from an oil shale formation
US3465819A (en) Use of nuclear detonations in producing hydrocarbons from an underground formation
US3384569A (en) Oil shale retorting
US3362751A (en) Method and system for recovering shale oil and gas
US3618663A (en) Shale oil production
US3548938A (en) In situ method of producing oil from oil shale
US3294167A (en) Thermal oil recovery
US3521709A (en) Producing oil from oil shale by heating with hot gases
US3180411A (en) Protection of well casing for in situ combustion
US3480082A (en) In situ retorting of oil shale using co2 as heat carrier
US3310109A (en) Process and apparatus for combination upgrading of oil in situ and refining thereof
US3127935A (en) In situ combustion for oil recovery in tar sands, oil shales and conventional petroleum reservoirs
US3132692A (en) Use of formation heat from in situ combustion
US3233668A (en) Recovery of shale oil
US3084919A (en) Recovery of oil from oil shale by underground hydrogenation
US3181613A (en) Method and apparatus for subterranean heating
US3036632A (en) Recovery of hydrocarbon materials from earth formations by application of heat
US3208519A (en) Combined in situ combustion-water injection oil recovery process
US4006778A (en) Thermal recovery of hydrocarbon from tar sands