US2817146A - Safety razor and guard means therefor - Google Patents

Safety razor and guard means therefor Download PDF

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US2817146A
US2817146A US365515A US36551553A US2817146A US 2817146 A US2817146 A US 2817146A US 365515 A US365515 A US 365515A US 36551553 A US36551553 A US 36551553A US 2817146 A US2817146 A US 2817146A
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Prior art keywords
blade
guard
edge
shaving
angle
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US365515A
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John G Roberts
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GEORGE C SINGER
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GEORGE C SINGER
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B26HAND CUTTING TOOLS; CUTTING; SEVERING
    • B26BHAND-HELD CUTTING TOOLS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B26B21/00Razors of the open or knife type; Safety razors or other shaving implements of the planing type; Hair-trimming devices involving a razor-blade; Equipment therefor
    • B26B21/08Razors of the open or knife type; Safety razors or other shaving implements of the planing type; Hair-trimming devices involving a razor-blade; Equipment therefor involving changeable blades
    • B26B21/14Safety razors with one or more blades arranged transversely to the handle
    • B26B21/18Safety razors with one or more blades arranged transversely to the handle involving blades with two cutting edges
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B26HAND CUTTING TOOLS; CUTTING; SEVERING
    • B26BHAND-HELD CUTTING TOOLS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B26B21/00Razors of the open or knife type; Safety razors or other shaving implements of the planing type; Hair-trimming devices involving a razor-blade; Equipment therefor
    • B26B21/08Razors of the open or knife type; Safety razors or other shaving implements of the planing type; Hair-trimming devices involving a razor-blade; Equipment therefor involving changeable blades
    • B26B21/14Safety razors with one or more blades arranged transversely to the handle
    • B26B21/22Safety razors with one or more blades arranged transversely to the handle involving several blades to be used simultaneously

Description

Dec. 24, 1957 J. G. ROBERTS ,1
SAFETY RAZOR AND GUARD MEANS THEREFOR Original Filed 001:. 31. 1946 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR Jb/m/ 6. Pose/e725 Dec. 24, 1957 .1. G. ROBERTS v 2,817,146
SAFETY RAZOR AND GUARD MEANS THEREFOR Original Filed Oct. 31, 1946 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR J/wv 6.790851975 BY 2., 1 14mm;
Dec. 24, 1957 I J. G. ROBERTS 2,817,146
SAFETY RAZOR AND GUARD MEANS THEREFOR Original-Filed Oct. 31, 1946 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR J/v/v 6 P055275 ATTORNEYS.
United States Patent SAFETY RAZOR AND GUARD MEANS THEREFOR John G. Roberts, Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., assignor to George C. Singer, Hastings-on-the-Hudson, N. Y.
Continuation of application Serial No. 706,936, October 31, 1946. This application July 1, 1953, Serial No. 365,515
2 Claims. (Cl. 30-73) This application is a continuation of my copending application, Serial No. 706,936, filed October 31, 1946, which is abandoned.
The invention herein disclosed relates to the art of shaving, being directed to the problem of stroking against the grain for a close shave-a problem heretofore unsolved satisfactorily because of its seemingly incongruous requirements of efficiency and security. To solve this problem is the main object of the invention. Other objects are concerned with features of construction of shaving instruments for most effectively carrying out the main object, such as precision in manufacture, durability and ease of replacement of parts, accuracy in their assembly, and rigidity of the instrument as a whole.
That stroking against the grain with a sharp blade in direct contact with the skin is potentially the proper procedure for close shaving has long been recognized. In no other way, apparently, could or can the hairs that emerge slantwise from follicles or lie in wrinkles be effectively attacked. Barbers, the customer willing, and some self shavers have gone as far as they dared in this manner, but, because of the ever increasing hazard to the skin as the shaving effort continued, have been compelled to desist short of satisfying results. The inhibition has been due to the digging action by the sharp-edged blade itself, resulting in gouging into the skin. A step intended to favor security for the self shaver was taken by the introduction of the guard bar to fix an upper limit on the slant, or shaving angle, of the blade. But, when experience indicated that a low angle (20 degrees or less) needed for safety was not high enough for close shaving, and that a high angle (30 degrees or more) needed for close shaving was dangerous, manufacturers of razors with guards were impelled to compromise at an intermediate shaving angle of about 25 degrees. This guard bar expedient, therefore, has been able to give but little encouragement to the timid and has failed to appease the fastidious. Likewise beset are the barber and others who still use the straight razor without guard. If the blade be poised steeply for close shaving, it is dangerous; if held flat enough against the skin for safety, it is impotent. For them, too, there has been nothing better, even with expert handling, than a compromise slant of the blade. No wonder men have been emerging freshly shaved from barber shops and homes with faces still shadowy in appearance or rough to the touch or else with damaged skins.
In designing razors according to this invention no compromise is necessary. A guard bar is provided set to require the blade to work at a low shaving angle that is definitely within the zone of safety, and there is provided a supplementary sharp edge, working in advance of the blade, set at a high enough clearance angle to take over the digging function efficiently, having a steep enough approach angle for safety and formed, preferably, at a wide enough angle to be durable. The construction thus becomes one in which twosharp edges work in tan- 2,817,146 Patented Dec. 24, 1957 dem, the supplementary edge leading and wedging harmlessly under and upturning the low lying hairs, and the trailing edge, on the blade, severing the upturned hairs closely and in entire safety. To provide mechanical protection for the supplementary edge while avoiding excessive friction and interference by flattening down still more the slanting hairs before being reached by the edge, the guard bar preferably has an outstanding, serrated, skin contacting section. With such an instrument and even the sharpest of blades, the timid can take courage, for stroking against the grain, even vigorously and rapidly, is entirely safe, and the fastidious will be of good cheer, for thoroughly close shaving, as close and as often as desired, is easy.
The following shaving routine has been found most satisfactory with this instrument: Cleanse the skin with soap and water. Soak the beard thoroughly with plain hot water. Then spread on a thin layer of liquid soap and shave. Such a lubricant is best because it permits close contact of both active edges with the skin. The final stroking to clean up by-passed areas is quite harmless, even though the skin be dry.
The invention is adaptable with especially advantageous results to the double-edged type of razor. In this adaptation the supplemental digging edge may be omitted on one side, but, preferably, the shaving angle is low and the guard bar is serrated on both sides. The one side mentioned should be used first for a once-over, with or against-the-grain rough shave. This may be designated the dark side. The other side is reserved for against-the-grain finishing, and it may be designated the light side. By means of distinguishable colors or markings on the two sides, respectively, the user will readily be informed of the proper shaving procedure-dark side first, then the light.
The invention is also adaptable for close shaving purposes to the clipper type of hair cutter by substituting for the blade a pair of serrated elements, one of which is caused to oscillate. In this adaptation the cutter works at a sharply acute angle to the skin and the guard, While its supplementary sharp but harmless edge serves, as in blade razor types of the invention, to dig under the lowlying hairs.
Having explained the general principle of the invention and, in a general way, the manner of applying it, reference may be had to the following detailed description and accompanying drawings of typical embodiments of it, and to the appended claims defining its scope.
In the drawings,
Figs. 1, 1A and 2 are diagrammatic representations, considerably enlarged, of the invention; Fig. 1, showing an arrangement of the parts of a blade razor that enter into the operation of shaving; Fig. 1A, an alternative arrangement; and Fig. 2 an application of the invention to a clipper type of hair cutter.
Fig. 3 is an enlarged end view, partly in section, of a double-edged razor embodying the invention in one of its preferred forms; and Fig. 4 is a fragmentary plan view of the head and guard piece of Fig. 3, the sectionalized parts of Fig. 3 being taken substantially in the plane 3-3 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 5 is an enlarged end view, partly in section, of an alternative construction in which the supplementary edge is formed on a strip of metal bolted to a razor guard; Fig. 6 is a plan view of Fig. 5 with parts of the cap and blade broken away; Fig. 7 is a view of a blade suitable for use in the structure of Figs. 5 and 6, and others herein disclosed; and Fig. 8 is a plan View (from the underside looking up, in the sense of Fig. 5) of the strip of metal on which the supplementary edge in Figs. 5 and 6 is formed.
Fig. 9 is an enlarged end view, partly in section, of another head-and-guard structure that may be cast in one piece and on which the supplementary edge may thereafter be formed.
Fig, 10 is an enlarged fragmental view, in section, of another head-and-guard structure wherein the supplementary edge is formed on a rod seated and cemented in place.
Figs. 11 and 12 are an enlarged end view and plan, respectively, of a head-and-guard assembly comprising two parts, the head and guard proper, bolted together with an intervening part of flexible metal, on each lateral portion of which a supplementary edge is formed.
Figs. 13 and 14 are an end view and plan, respectively, of'the head proper;
Fig. 15 is a viewof the flexible metal part as blanked out; and
Fig. 16 is a plan view of the guard proper, of Figs. 11 and 12.
Only fragments of a hair-cutting blade 1 and a supplementary hair-raising element 3 together with the immediately associated portions of a cap 5 and a guard 7 are shown in Fig. 1, thereby to illustrate diagrammatically the principle of the invention. The angles are important considerations and are indicated principally as related to a base-line arrow 9 pointing in the direction of the shaving movement, as defined by the cutting and hair-raising edges. The angular width of the blade at its edge may be 10 degrees, which is in accordance with commonly accepted practice. The trailing surface 11 of the blade at its edge makes a sharply acute angle of 20 degrees with the arrow. This is about the maximum shaving angle within a zone, extending about five degrees below 20, wherein the blade becomes impotent as a digger for low lying hairs and is, therefore, entirely safe, but wherein it remains an eflicient cutting tool against upstanding hairs. Also, at such exceptionally low and hitherto impractical shaving angles the blade will sever such hairs more squarely and with less drag than at higher angles.
The Working edge of the supplementary element 3 in Fig. 1 is sharp, and its leading surface 13 makes an angle of about 90 degrees with the arrow. This angle is within about 5 degrees of the maximum approach angle for efficient digging, but it may be several degrees less. It provides amply for security even though the actual width of the element at its edge be very acute. A lesser approach angle than 75 degrees is not desirable for reasons of security. Also, as indicated in Fig. 1, the trailing surface 15 of this element makes an angle of 30 degrees with the arrow and this approaches a minimum clearance angle to allow the edge to press well into the skin to reach the low-lying hairs.
Thus, with the approach angle at its useful maximum of about 95 degrees and the clearance angle at its useful minimum of about 30 degrees, the angular width of the supplementary edge would measure about 65 degrees. Preferred angles are about as follows: a shaving angle of degrees, an approach angle of 85 degrees, a clearance angle of 35 degrees and an angular width of 50 degrees.
As a practical alternative, the element 3 of Fig. 1 may be replaced by a blade-like hair-raising digger 4 as indicated in Fig. 1A. Here the preferred shaving angle remains at about 20 degrees, and the approach angle of the digger is 90 degrees. The digger, however, is tapered down at about 10 degrees to an edge that may be sharp but is preferably slightly blunted, as indicated, to present a flattened end surface of about 0.0001 inch in width. This blunting of its edge as well as its high approach angle renders the supplementary element impotent as a hair cutter and likewise quite harmless, but it is nonetheless effective as a digger. It will be noted that, while the flattened end surface presents a zero or nearly zero angle to the skin, it is too narrow to resist depression into the skin and its trailing surface 16 rises abruptly.
Such treatment and angular location of a blade-like digger fairly well adapts it to the purpose of this invention.
The blade edge of Fig. 1 is replaced in Fig. 2 by a pair of serrated jaws 17, 19, one of which, preferably 17, is oscillated by any suitable power means. The clearance angle of jaw 19, corresponding to the shaving angle of blade 1, Fig. 1, is 20 degrees and the structure and angles of its supplementary digging element 3 may be the same as those of the corresponding element 3 in Fig. 1 or 4 in Fig. 1A. The arrangement is well adapted for close dry shaving.
Figs. 3 and 4 illustrates an application of the invention by modification of a conventional type or double-edged razor. The middle portion of the guard on each side is replaced by a guard bar, preferably cylindrical and flattened on its skin contacting surface, this surface being so related to the blade at its edge that the shaving angle is reduced about 5 degrees, to bring that angle within the zone of safety. This necessitates trimming the upper surface of the cap 21 along its lateral edges 23 to enable the blade edge to contact the skin freely. On one side, which will be called the dark side, there is, preferably, no supplementary digging edge. On the other side, which will be called the light side, the bar is grooved longitudinally, forming thereby a sharp supplementary edge section 25 to work in advance of the blade edge 27 and a further advanced section, preferably serrated so as to leave only inconsiderable portions 29 that can contact the skin, thereby reducing friction to a minimum and avoiding substantially any tendency to press down on the hairs. The flattened surface of the guard on the dark side is also preferably serrated, as indicated, and for the same reason.
In the adaptation of the invention as shown in Figs. 5 to 8, a strip of metal 31, preferably stainless steel, provides the supplementary edge for the razor. It is notched at 33, 33 rearwardly of that edge for convenience of attachment to the guard bar portion 35 of the head 37 by a bolt, or bolts, comprising screw 39 and nut 41. In making the attachment the strip is first adjusted by an appropriate jig to its correct position. Replacements may be effected upon loosening the bolts. A pin 43, one at each end of the head, serves to position the blade and cap 47 accurately when the latter is drawn down to flex the blade, which may be accomplished by known means. In the movement of the parts into position, the pin is guided by a flared entrance to a close-fitting notch 49 in the blade and by a similarly flared entrance 51 to a close-fitting cavity 53 in the cap. A centrally located cut-out 55 in the blade allows for passage therethrough of the means to draw down the cap and reduces the blades resistance to flexing. The mid-sections at the ends of the head are concave, as shown at 57, to provide for gripping the blade to remove it for replacement by another. The outstanding lateral edges 59 of the guard bar provide mechanical protection for the blade on both sides, and for the supplementary edge on the light side. These edges 59 may be serrated, as shown, to minimize frictional resistance to the shaving movement on both the light and dark sides. On the dark side the supplementary edge may be included or, as indicated, omitted. The handle partly shown at 61 may be attached to the head in any known manner. The head is, preferably, a casting and provided with openings 63 for the easy passage of shaving refuse.
In Fig. 9, with cap, blade and handle omitted, is shown an alternative form of head-and-guard-bar combination that may be cast in one piece with corners squared, as indicated by dotted lines at 65 and 69. On one Side of it, or both if desired, a supplementary edge 67 is formed by a diagonal saw cut 65 into the upper outside corner of the guard-bar part. This supplementary edge may then be finished, as by honing, to present the correct angles and to occupy the correct location. If the other side is not to be formed likewise, it may be suitably trimmed, as indicated at 69. Serrations 71 along the sides of the guard bars may be formed by the mold or out after casting.
Another way of providing the supplementary edge is shown by Fig. 10, wherein the guard-bar part 73 of the head piece has a V-shaped trough in which a rod 75, preferably triangular in cross section, is seated and cemented. This rod is honed or polished at one of its corners 77, to present the correct angles for use as the supplementary edge and is adjusted to its proper position by using more or less cement between its side opposite corner 77 and the adjacent trough wall, as indicated at 79. A plastic cement is preferred so that it will soften on application of heat, thereby providing for easy assembly and replacements. The insert 75 may be of glass, metal or other hard and durable material.
In Figs. 11 to 16, inclusive, are shown three parts 81, 83, 85, held together by bolts 87 to make up a rigid headand-guard assembly, the cap 47, blade 45 and handle 61 being assembled as they were in Figs. 5 and 6. The upper part, or head proper, $1 and the lower part, or guard proper, 85, may be punchings of brass or other suitable sheet or strip material; and the middle part 83 may be a punching of thin stainless steel or other hard and flexible material, such as razor-blade stock. The lateral edges of the middle part are sharpened at the correct angles to serve as supplementary digging edges 89. Two dowel pins 91 tightly fixed in the head proper serve to position the blade by close lateral fitting through notches 93 in the middle part 83, and notches 95 in the lower part 85, serve to position it likewise. When the parts are drawn together, upstanding ridges 97 formed in the lower part 85 press upwardly against the middle part 83 near its edges, thereby flexing the latter and giving the entire head-and-guard assembly substantial rigidity. Openings 99 in the middle part and 101 in the lower part serve as exit channels for shaving refuse. The lateral edges of the lower part are preferably serrated as in the other embodiment shown herein, and the registering openings 103, 105 and 167 in the three parts, respectively, are for admission of a bolt or other means to flex the blade. If but one supplemental edge is desired, the middle part 83 may be narrowed by reducing one of its lateral edges to coincide substantially with a lateral edge of the upper part 81. In other words, the digger edge on one side, say the righthand side of the middle part, Fig. 15, may be omitted by cutting the part on the line marked by the two openings 99 near that edge.
Because of the elimination of hazard to the skin, effected by lowering the shaving angle, no covering of the extremities of the blade edge is necessary. As shown best in Fig. 6, the supplementary digger, the guard bar on which it is mounted or formed, and the cap may be of the same length as the blade, at its cutting edge, and the blade may be fashioned, as shown in Fig. 7, without the customary narrow end extensions of the hitherto conventional double-edge blade. This results in an overall reduction in the length of the razor to about that of the blade along its cutting edge and renders it more capable of close shaving in concave areas. The blade, as shown in Fig. 7, is well adapted for packaging without paper coverings in a container described in my Patent 2,569,072, issued September 25, 1951. While the structure illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4 is designed for use with the said hitherto conventional blade, it may obviously be redesigned to accommodate a blade like that of Fig. 7. Likewise the other structures herein illustrated may be redesigned to accommodate the hitherto conventional blade.
Obviously, single-edge razors, of either the straight or safety type, may by appropriate design be equipped with supplementary hair-digging elements in accordance with the principle of this invention.
I claim:
I. A shaving instrument comprising a head, a cap, a razor blade, a guard blade, abutment means on said head for supporting said guard blade in flexed position, and means cooperating between said cap and said head and said razor blade for supporting said razor blade in flexed position spaced from said guard blade, corresponding edges of said blades defining a working surface, the front face of said guard blade edge being substantially normal to said surface.
2. A shaving instrument according to claim 1, in which said blades are supported in flexed position with the concave faces facing each other.
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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3871073A (en) * 1972-11-17 1975-03-18 Gillette Co Shaving system with a fixed edge between the blade edge and the guard
US3949470A (en) * 1972-11-17 1976-04-13 Hall Charles L Safety razor
US4281453A (en) * 1978-09-18 1981-08-04 U.S. Philips Corporation Shaving apparatus
US4302876A (en) * 1980-03-14 1981-12-01 Warner-Lambert Company Razor blade with inclined edge
US5689883A (en) * 1995-05-08 1997-11-25 Warner-Lambert Company Shaving implement
US6167625B1 (en) 1999-05-18 2001-01-02 Warner-Lambert Company Shaving implement
US20020088122A1 (en) * 2000-12-22 2002-07-11 Jasper Zuidervaart Shaving head and shaver provided with such a shaving head
US20050022386A1 (en) * 2003-07-29 2005-02-03 Macove James A. Razor having separate blade groups for shaving and trimming/sculpting
JP2009530012A (en) * 2006-03-29 2009-08-27 ザ ジレット カンパニー Razor
JP2009530013A (en) * 2006-03-29 2009-08-27 ザ ジレット カンパニー Razor blade and razor
US20120159787A1 (en) * 2003-07-21 2012-06-28 Richard Hart Luxton Safety razors
US20160158949A1 (en) * 2014-12-08 2016-06-09 The Gillette Company Razor Cartridge Guard Structure
US20160158948A1 (en) * 2014-12-08 2016-06-09 The Gillette Company Razor Cartridge Guard Structure
CN108430716A (en) * 2016-12-02 2018-08-21 株式会社多乐可 Double twolip shaver

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB382504A (en) * 1932-02-17 1932-10-27 Edward Elias Von Tell Improvements in safety razors
US1935452A (en) * 1930-07-26 1933-11-14 Gillette Safety Razor Co Razor

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1935452A (en) * 1930-07-26 1933-11-14 Gillette Safety Razor Co Razor
GB382504A (en) * 1932-02-17 1932-10-27 Edward Elias Von Tell Improvements in safety razors

Cited By (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3871073A (en) * 1972-11-17 1975-03-18 Gillette Co Shaving system with a fixed edge between the blade edge and the guard
US3949470A (en) * 1972-11-17 1976-04-13 Hall Charles L Safety razor
US4281453A (en) * 1978-09-18 1981-08-04 U.S. Philips Corporation Shaving apparatus
US4302876A (en) * 1980-03-14 1981-12-01 Warner-Lambert Company Razor blade with inclined edge
US5689883A (en) * 1995-05-08 1997-11-25 Warner-Lambert Company Shaving implement
US6167625B1 (en) 1999-05-18 2001-01-02 Warner-Lambert Company Shaving implement
US20020088122A1 (en) * 2000-12-22 2002-07-11 Jasper Zuidervaart Shaving head and shaver provided with such a shaving head
US6655030B2 (en) * 2000-12-22 2003-12-02 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Shaving head and shaver provided with such a shaving head
US8567068B2 (en) * 2003-07-21 2013-10-29 The Gillette Company Safety razors
US20120159787A1 (en) * 2003-07-21 2012-06-28 Richard Hart Luxton Safety razors
US20090071011A1 (en) * 2003-07-29 2009-03-19 Macove James A Razor having separate blade groups for shaving and trimming/sculpting
US20050022386A1 (en) * 2003-07-29 2005-02-03 Macove James A. Razor having separate blade groups for shaving and trimming/sculpting
US7761999B2 (en) 2003-07-29 2010-07-27 Macove James A Razor having separate blade groups for shaving and trimming/sculpting
US20110197446A1 (en) * 2003-07-29 2011-08-18 Macove James A Razor having separate blade groups for shaving and trimming/sculpting
US8261451B2 (en) 2003-07-29 2012-09-11 Macove James A Razor having separate blade groups for shaving and trimming/sculpting
JP2009530012A (en) * 2006-03-29 2009-08-27 ザ ジレット カンパニー Razor
JP2009530013A (en) * 2006-03-29 2009-08-27 ザ ジレット カンパニー Razor blade and razor
US20160158949A1 (en) * 2014-12-08 2016-06-09 The Gillette Company Razor Cartridge Guard Structure
US20160158948A1 (en) * 2014-12-08 2016-06-09 The Gillette Company Razor Cartridge Guard Structure
CN108430716A (en) * 2016-12-02 2018-08-21 株式会社多乐可 Double twolip shaver

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