US2812160A - Recovery of uncontaminated cores - Google Patents

Recovery of uncontaminated cores Download PDF

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Publication number
US2812160A
US2812160A US365206A US36520653A US2812160A US 2812160 A US2812160 A US 2812160A US 365206 A US365206 A US 365206A US 36520653 A US36520653 A US 36520653A US 2812160 A US2812160 A US 2812160A
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Prior art keywords
barrel
outer barrel
cooling chamber
core
drill
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US365206A
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Robert C West
Jr George G Binder
Jr William A Freeman
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ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co
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ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B36/00Heating, cooling, insulating arrangements for boreholes or wells, e.g. for use in permafrost zones
    • E21B36/001Cooling arrangements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B25/00Apparatus for obtaining or removing undisturbed cores, e.g. core barrels, core extractors
    • E21B25/08Coating, freezing, consolidating cores; Recovering uncontaminated cores or cores at formation pressure

Description

2 Sheets-Sheet 1 R. c. wEs'r Erm.V v

RECOVERY oF UNCONTAMINATED coREs Nov. s, 1957 Fuga June so, 1953 ma()` ATTORNEYk R. C'. WEST ETAL RECOVERY 0F UNCONTAMINATED CORES Nov. 5, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 30, 1953.

BORE I-IOLE ORE BARREL INNER BARREL OUTER BARREL OUTT INGS MOVING UF FROZEN CORE LIQUID EXPANSION VALVE AUGER TO 4CARRY OUTTINGB TO .CUTTING BASKET |NvENToRs BINDERJR AN .JR

ATTO RN E Y United `States Patent O 2,812,160 Y RECOVERY F UNCONTAMINATED CORES Robert C. West, George G. Binder, Jr., and William A. Freeman, Jr., Tulsa, Okla., assignors to Esso Research and Engineering Company, a corporation of Delaware Application June 30, 1953, Serial No. 365,206

2 Claims. (Cl. Z55-1.4)

The present invention is concerned broadly with the production of oil. The invention is more specically concerned with the recovery of uncontaminated cores during a coring operation. In oil well drilling practice, a sample of subsurface rock penetrated in the course of drilling operations isreferred-to as a core. The operation by which such a sample is obtained in order to ascertain the properties of a given formation is known in the art as coring. The devices employed to collect these cores are known as core barrels and are usually so constructed as to be attached to the lower end of a drill pipe. In accordance with the present invention, an uncontaminated core is secured by freezing the core as it is being recovered from the earths substrata.

The cores obtained by all types of core barrels known at present are essentially similar in the respect that these cores are exposed to a constantly diminishing pressure from the moment the core begins its upward movement until it arrives at the surface. Mineral oil and gas found in subsurface foundations are generally under a high pressure which is commonly referred to as the formation pressure. The extent of this pressure depends upon the depth of the formation and in general is proportional to the hydrostatic pressure exerted on the formation in which oil or gas is found. It is a well known fact that when oil or gas-bearing formations are exposed to a pressure lower than the formation pressure, the oil or gas contained in them has a tendency to expand and leave the formation. Consequently, the reduction in pressure on a core obtained by present methods of coring during its travel to the surface brings about a considerable change in theoil and gas content of the core, thereby rendering the core unreliable.

Thus, one diiculty has been to secure a core accurately representing the exact nature of the earths substrata'from which it was removed. This is particularly critical in view of a growing interest in water flooding and other secondary recovery methods, since it is essential that a direct and accurate measurement of residual oil and water saturations be determined prior to employing a selected secondary recovery operation.

At the present time estimates of residual oil saturation in the reservoir can be obtained from past production records, data on crude oil, interstitial water content, porosity, pay sand, and the like. However, lack of knowledge of some of the above factors, together with such features and oil migration and water influx, make estimat ing residual oil saturation in the depleted reservoir prior to secondary recovery operations uncertain. In accordance with the present invention, a core is frozen or cooled in situ as it is being cored, thus preventing or substantially reducing the migration of oil and water from the core, or the adsorption of oil and other contaminants from sources foreign to the core.

The process of the present invention may be more fully understood by reference to the drawings illustrating one apparatus which is satisfactory for freezing or chilling the core in situ as it is being recovered.

Fig. 1 is a sectional view in elevation showing a portionl of the drill string of the apparatus.

ice

Fig. 1a is a vertical sectional view of a portion of the outer barrel and core barrel members of the apparatus.

Fig. lb is a vertical sectional view of another portion of the core barrel and outer barrel members of the apparatus and also the coring bit.

Referring specifically to the drawings, a drill stem or string 1 is shown disposed within the borehole 2 penetrating from the earths surface to substrata. A refrigerant pipe 3 lis shown concentrically disposed within the string I1. A packing element 4 closes off the area below the packing from the area above the packing without the refrigerant pipe 3, and within the drill stem. In operation one method is to use a selected refrigerant such as sulfur dioxide, ammonia, freon, and the like, which is pumped down within the drill stem from the earths surface. This refrigerant ows down passageway 23 in refrigerant pipe 3 into a coil 8, positioned in area 5 which is a hollow annular space disposed within the wall portion of the outer barrel 7 of the coring element. The refrigerant flows through this wound coil element 8 in area S and is discharged from the core element through liquid expansion valve 9 into area 5. The refrigerant is vaporized and flows upwardly in area 5, thus chilling the inner barrel 6. The refrigerant flows upwardly through gas return port 10 and passes via annular passageway 21 between refrigerant pipe 3 and the drill string 1 and thence through ports 11 into the area between the drill string and the borehole. A swivel element 12 permits the inner barrel 6 to remain stationary while the outer barrel 7 rotates in the coring operation. Coring bit 13 is positioned at the lower end of the bit element. An auger element 14 is positioned around the outer barrel which causes the cut- Y tings to llow upwardly in the borehole and to be discharged into cutting basket 15.

The process of the present invention is concerned with an operation wherein the core is frozen in situ as it is being recovered. This prevents contamination of the core and also prevents loss of valuable fluids from the core as it is being raised to the earths surface.

What is claimed is:

1. An improved coring apparatus for obtaining an uncontaminated core sample from the earth substrata which comprises in combination a string of drill pipe, an outer barrel member attached to the lower end of the drill string and provided with a coring bit, an inner core receiving barrel concentrically disposed within said outer barrel, means permiting rotation of said outer barrel relative to said inner barrel, a cooling chamber disposed within said outer barrel, a spiral coil conduit Within said cooling chamber and surrounding said inner barrel, irst conduit means arranged to transmit a vaporizable liquid refrigerant from the drill string to one end of said coil, expansion valve means at the opposite end of said coil arranged to vaporize said refrigerant and to discharge the vapors into said cooling chamber, second conduit means for conveying said vapors from said cooling chamber to the annular space between the drill string and the surrounding earth strata, an auger attached to the outer periphery of the outer barrel and arranged to transport drill cuttings upward from the coring bit.

2. An apparatus as defined in claim 1 including a cutting basket arranged to receive said cuttings.

References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTSv

Claims (1)

1. AN IMPROVED CORING APPARATUS FOR OBTAINING AN UNCONTAMINATED CORE SAMPLE FROM THE EARTH SUBSTRATA WHICH COMPRISES IN COMBINATION A STRING OF DRILL PIPE, AN OUTER BARREL MEMBER ATTACHED TO THE LOWER END OF THE DRILL STRING AND PROVIDED WITH A CORING BIT, AN INNER CORE RECEIVING BARREL CONCENTRICALLY DISPOSED WITHIN SAID OUTER BARREL, MEANS PERMITING ROTATION OF SAID OUTER BARREL RELATIVE TO SAID INNER BARREL, A COOLING CHAMBER DISPOSED WITHIN SAID OUTER BARREL, A SPIRAL COIL CONDUIT WITHIN SAID COOLING CHAMBER AND SURROUNDING SAID INNER BARREL, FIRST CONDUIT MEANS ARRANGED TO TRANSMIT A VAPORIZABLE LIQUID REFRIGERANT FROM THE DRILL STRING TO ONE END OF SAID COIL, EXPANSION VALVE MEANS AT THE OPPOSITE END OF SAID COIL ARRANGED TO VAPORIZE SAID REFRIGERANT AND TO DISCHARGE THE VAPORS INTO SAID COOLING CHAMBER, SECOND CONDUIT MEANS FOR CONVEYING SAID VAPORS FROM SAID COOLING CHAMBER TO THE ANNULAR SPACE BETWEEN THE DRILL STRING AND THE SURROUNDING EARTH STRATA, AN AUGER ATTACHED TO THE OUTER PERIPHERY OF THE OUTER BARREL AND ARRANGED TO TRANSPORT DRILL CUTTING UPWARD FROM THE CORING BIT.
US365206A 1953-06-30 1953-06-30 Recovery of uncontaminated cores Expired - Lifetime US2812160A (en)

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Cited By (38)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2905444A (en) * 1957-07-26 1959-09-22 Jr Alva P Shepard Core barrel
US2915285A (en) * 1956-05-23 1959-12-01 Jersey Prod Res Co Coring subterranean formations
US3447615A (en) * 1966-03-11 1969-06-03 Clifford L Schick Core sample retrieving apparatus
US3612192A (en) * 1969-04-14 1971-10-12 James C Maguire Jr Cryogenic drilling method
US3650337A (en) * 1969-07-31 1972-03-21 Aerojet General Co Cryogenically cooled drill
US4371045A (en) * 1981-04-01 1983-02-01 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Method and apparatus for recovering unstable cores
US4809790A (en) * 1987-09-04 1989-03-07 Manchak Frank Device for sampling soils and retaining volatiles therein and method of using same
US6216804B1 (en) * 1998-07-29 2001-04-17 James T. Aumann Apparatus for recovering core samples under pressure
DE10131973A1 (en) * 2001-07-02 2003-01-30 Keller Grundbau Gmbh Sample obtaining method for a ground treated with hardenable bonding agents or mortar involves insertion of a double-walled pipe into the ground before hardening takes place
US20050173156A1 (en) * 2004-02-09 2005-08-11 Ch2M Hill, Inc. Horizontal bore cryogenic drilling method
US20080087426A1 (en) * 2006-10-13 2008-04-17 Kaminsky Robert D Method of developing a subsurface freeze zone using formation fractures
US20080185184A1 (en) * 2007-02-06 2008-08-07 Maguire James Q Cryogenic drilling method
US20080230219A1 (en) * 2007-03-22 2008-09-25 Kaminsky Robert D Resistive heater for in situ formation heating
US20080277167A1 (en) * 2007-05-09 2008-11-13 Marcel Viel Dry drilling and core acquisition system
US20090229382A1 (en) * 2008-03-14 2009-09-17 Jilin University Sampling method and sampler for gas hydrates by hole bottom freezing
US7631691B2 (en) 2003-06-24 2009-12-15 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Methods of treating a subterranean formation to convert organic matter into producible hydrocarbons
US7669657B2 (en) 2006-10-13 2010-03-02 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Enhanced shale oil production by in situ heating using hydraulically fractured producing wells
US8082995B2 (en) 2007-12-10 2011-12-27 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Optimization of untreated oil shale geometry to control subsidence
US8087460B2 (en) 2007-03-22 2012-01-03 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Granular electrical connections for in situ formation heating
US8122955B2 (en) 2007-05-15 2012-02-28 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Downhole burners for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations
US8146664B2 (en) 2007-05-25 2012-04-03 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Utilization of low BTU gas generated during in situ heating of organic-rich rock
US8151877B2 (en) 2007-05-15 2012-04-10 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Downhole burner wells for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations
US8151884B2 (en) 2006-10-13 2012-04-10 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Combined development of oil shale by in situ heating with a deeper hydrocarbon resource
US8230929B2 (en) 2008-05-23 2012-07-31 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Methods of producing hydrocarbons for substantially constant composition gas generation
US8540020B2 (en) 2009-05-05 2013-09-24 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Converting organic matter from a subterranean formation into producible hydrocarbons by controlling production operations based on availability of one or more production resources
US8596355B2 (en) 2003-06-24 2013-12-03 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Optimized well spacing for in situ shale oil development
US8616280B2 (en) 2010-08-30 2013-12-31 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Wellbore mechanical integrity for in situ pyrolysis
US8616279B2 (en) 2009-02-23 2013-12-31 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Water treatment following shale oil production by in situ heating
US8622127B2 (en) 2010-08-30 2014-01-07 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Olefin reduction for in situ pyrolysis oil generation
US8641150B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2014-02-04 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company In situ co-development of oil shale with mineral recovery
US8770284B2 (en) 2012-05-04 2014-07-08 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Systems and methods of detecting an intersection between a wellbore and a subterranean structure that includes a marker material
US8863839B2 (en) 2009-12-17 2014-10-21 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Enhanced convection for in situ pyrolysis of organic-rich rock formations
US8875789B2 (en) 2007-05-25 2014-11-04 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Process for producing hydrocarbon fluids combining in situ heating, a power plant and a gas plant
US9080441B2 (en) 2011-11-04 2015-07-14 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Multiple electrical connections to optimize heating for in situ pyrolysis
US9394772B2 (en) 2013-11-07 2016-07-19 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Systems and methods for in situ resistive heating of organic matter in a subterranean formation
US9506307B2 (en) 2011-03-16 2016-11-29 Corpro Technologies Canada Ltd. High pressure coring assembly and method
US9512699B2 (en) 2013-10-22 2016-12-06 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Systems and methods for regulating an in situ pyrolysis process
US9644466B2 (en) 2014-11-21 2017-05-09 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Method of recovering hydrocarbons within a subsurface formation using electric current

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE329896C (en) * 1914-05-24 1920-12-01 Charbonnages De Beeringen Sa D Method and apparatus for drilling of Shechita, in particular by wasserfuehrende layers
US1870696A (en) * 1929-07-16 1932-08-09 Thomas G Taylor Self cooling, drilling, and coring bit
US2040889A (en) * 1933-05-23 1936-05-19 Sullivan Machinery Co Core drill
US2617296A (en) * 1946-12-20 1952-11-11 Core Lab Inc Process for treating core samples

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE329896C (en) * 1914-05-24 1920-12-01 Charbonnages De Beeringen Sa D Method and apparatus for drilling of Shechita, in particular by wasserfuehrende layers
US1870696A (en) * 1929-07-16 1932-08-09 Thomas G Taylor Self cooling, drilling, and coring bit
US2040889A (en) * 1933-05-23 1936-05-19 Sullivan Machinery Co Core drill
US2617296A (en) * 1946-12-20 1952-11-11 Core Lab Inc Process for treating core samples

Cited By (57)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2915285A (en) * 1956-05-23 1959-12-01 Jersey Prod Res Co Coring subterranean formations
US2905444A (en) * 1957-07-26 1959-09-22 Jr Alva P Shepard Core barrel
US3447615A (en) * 1966-03-11 1969-06-03 Clifford L Schick Core sample retrieving apparatus
US3612192A (en) * 1969-04-14 1971-10-12 James C Maguire Jr Cryogenic drilling method
US3650337A (en) * 1969-07-31 1972-03-21 Aerojet General Co Cryogenically cooled drill
US4371045A (en) * 1981-04-01 1983-02-01 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Method and apparatus for recovering unstable cores
US4809790A (en) * 1987-09-04 1989-03-07 Manchak Frank Device for sampling soils and retaining volatiles therein and method of using same
AU602789B2 (en) * 1987-09-04 1990-10-25 Frank Manchak Jr. Device for sampling soils and retaining volatiles therein and method of using same
US6216804B1 (en) * 1998-07-29 2001-04-17 James T. Aumann Apparatus for recovering core samples under pressure
US6230825B1 (en) 1998-07-29 2001-05-15 James T. Aumann Apparatus for recovering core samples under pressure
US6305482B1 (en) 1998-07-29 2001-10-23 James T. Aumann Method and apparatus for transferring core sample from core retrieval chamber under pressure for transport
US6378631B1 (en) 1998-07-29 2002-04-30 James T. Aumann Apparatus for recovering core samples at in situ conditions
US6659204B2 (en) 1998-07-29 2003-12-09 Japan National Oil Corporation Method and apparatus for recovering core samples under pressure
DE10131973A1 (en) * 2001-07-02 2003-01-30 Keller Grundbau Gmbh Sample obtaining method for a ground treated with hardenable bonding agents or mortar involves insertion of a double-walled pipe into the ground before hardening takes place
DE10131973C2 (en) * 2001-07-02 2003-12-04 Keller Grundbau Gmbh A process for removal of sample cores
US8596355B2 (en) 2003-06-24 2013-12-03 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Optimized well spacing for in situ shale oil development
US20100078169A1 (en) * 2003-06-24 2010-04-01 Symington William A Methods of Treating Suberranean Formation To Convert Organic Matter Into Producible Hydrocarbons
US7631691B2 (en) 2003-06-24 2009-12-15 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Methods of treating a subterranean formation to convert organic matter into producible hydrocarbons
US7000711B2 (en) 2004-02-09 2006-02-21 Ch2M Hill, Inc. Horizontal bore cryogenic drilling method
US20050173156A1 (en) * 2004-02-09 2005-08-11 Ch2M Hill, Inc. Horizontal bore cryogenic drilling method
US8641150B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2014-02-04 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company In situ co-development of oil shale with mineral recovery
US7516785B2 (en) 2006-10-13 2009-04-14 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Method of developing subsurface freeze zone
US7516787B2 (en) 2006-10-13 2009-04-14 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Method of developing a subsurface freeze zone using formation fractures
US20090101348A1 (en) * 2006-10-13 2009-04-23 Kaminsky Robert D Method of Developing Subsurface Freeze Zone
US20090107679A1 (en) * 2006-10-13 2009-04-30 Kaminsky Robert D Subsurface Freeze Zone Using Formation Fractures
US8104537B2 (en) 2006-10-13 2012-01-31 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Method of developing subsurface freeze zone
US8151884B2 (en) 2006-10-13 2012-04-10 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Combined development of oil shale by in situ heating with a deeper hydrocarbon resource
US7647971B2 (en) 2006-10-13 2010-01-19 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Method of developing subsurface freeze zone
US20080087426A1 (en) * 2006-10-13 2008-04-17 Kaminsky Robert D Method of developing a subsurface freeze zone using formation fractures
US7669657B2 (en) 2006-10-13 2010-03-02 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Enhanced shale oil production by in situ heating using hydraulically fractured producing wells
US7647972B2 (en) 2006-10-13 2010-01-19 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Subsurface freeze zone using formation fractures
US20080185184A1 (en) * 2007-02-06 2008-08-07 Maguire James Q Cryogenic drilling method
US8622133B2 (en) 2007-03-22 2014-01-07 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Resistive heater for in situ formation heating
US9347302B2 (en) 2007-03-22 2016-05-24 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Resistive heater for in situ formation heating
US8087460B2 (en) 2007-03-22 2012-01-03 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Granular electrical connections for in situ formation heating
US20080230219A1 (en) * 2007-03-22 2008-09-25 Kaminsky Robert D Resistive heater for in situ formation heating
US20080277167A1 (en) * 2007-05-09 2008-11-13 Marcel Viel Dry drilling and core acquisition system
US8122955B2 (en) 2007-05-15 2012-02-28 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Downhole burners for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations
US8151877B2 (en) 2007-05-15 2012-04-10 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Downhole burner wells for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations
US8875789B2 (en) 2007-05-25 2014-11-04 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Process for producing hydrocarbon fluids combining in situ heating, a power plant and a gas plant
US8146664B2 (en) 2007-05-25 2012-04-03 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Utilization of low BTU gas generated during in situ heating of organic-rich rock
US8082995B2 (en) 2007-12-10 2011-12-27 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Optimization of untreated oil shale geometry to control subsidence
US20090229382A1 (en) * 2008-03-14 2009-09-17 Jilin University Sampling method and sampler for gas hydrates by hole bottom freezing
US8074739B2 (en) * 2008-03-14 2011-12-13 Jilin University Sampling method and sampler for gas hydrates by hole bottom freezing
US8230929B2 (en) 2008-05-23 2012-07-31 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Methods of producing hydrocarbons for substantially constant composition gas generation
US8616279B2 (en) 2009-02-23 2013-12-31 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Water treatment following shale oil production by in situ heating
US8540020B2 (en) 2009-05-05 2013-09-24 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Converting organic matter from a subterranean formation into producible hydrocarbons by controlling production operations based on availability of one or more production resources
US8863839B2 (en) 2009-12-17 2014-10-21 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Enhanced convection for in situ pyrolysis of organic-rich rock formations
US8622127B2 (en) 2010-08-30 2014-01-07 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Olefin reduction for in situ pyrolysis oil generation
US8616280B2 (en) 2010-08-30 2013-12-31 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Wellbore mechanical integrity for in situ pyrolysis
US9506307B2 (en) 2011-03-16 2016-11-29 Corpro Technologies Canada Ltd. High pressure coring assembly and method
US9080441B2 (en) 2011-11-04 2015-07-14 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Multiple electrical connections to optimize heating for in situ pyrolysis
US8770284B2 (en) 2012-05-04 2014-07-08 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Systems and methods of detecting an intersection between a wellbore and a subterranean structure that includes a marker material
US9512699B2 (en) 2013-10-22 2016-12-06 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Systems and methods for regulating an in situ pyrolysis process
US9394772B2 (en) 2013-11-07 2016-07-19 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Systems and methods for in situ resistive heating of organic matter in a subterranean formation
US9739122B2 (en) 2014-11-21 2017-08-22 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Mitigating the effects of subsurface shunts during bulk heating of a subsurface formation
US9644466B2 (en) 2014-11-21 2017-05-09 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Method of recovering hydrocarbons within a subsurface formation using electric current

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