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Perforation wells

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US2805722A
US2805722A US56760456A US2805722A US 2805722 A US2805722 A US 2805722A US 56760456 A US56760456 A US 56760456A US 2805722 A US2805722 A US 2805722A
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emulsion
agent
phase
weighting
fluid
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Bryan E Morgan
Gerald G Priest
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ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co
Esso Research and Engineering Co
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ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/11Perforators; Permeators
    • E21B43/119Details, e.g. for locating perforating place or direction
    • E21B43/1195Replacement of drilling mud; decrease of undesirable shock waves
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S507/00Earth boring, well treating, and oil field chemistry
    • Y10S507/925Completion or workover fluid

Description

Sept 10, 1957 B. E. MORGAN ET AL 2,805,722

PERFORATING WELLS Filed Feb. 24, 1956 FLAG/N6 EMULSION PERFORAT/IIG WASH/N6 OUT AND PRODUCING SETTING TUB/NI INVENTORS. Bryan E. Morgan, BY Gerald G, Priest,

ATTOR E United States Patent PrnroRArrNG WELLS Bryan E. Morgan and Gerald G. Priest, Houston, Tex assrgnors, by mesne assignments, to Esso Research and Engineering Company, Elizabeth, N. J., a corporation of Delaware Application February 24, 1956, Serial N 0. 567,604

Claims. (Cl. 166-35) The present invention is directed to a method for completing oil and gas wells. More particularly, the invention is directed to a method for completing oil and gas wells in which a drilling fluid or mud is used to control the well. In its more particular aspects, the invention s directed to a method for completing an oil or gas well 1n which a column of drilling mud is maintained in a casing to control the well.

Current practice when completing wells, such as oil and gas wells, through perforated casings is to have drilling fluids, such as mud, salt Water, water, or oil, in the well casing and to perforate the casing with bullet, shaped charge, chemical or punch-type perforators. When the pressure of a formation traversed by the well exceeds the hydrostatic pressure of a column of oil or Water at the completion depth, it is customary to use weighted salt water or normal drilling mud having a density great enough to exceed formation pressure in order to control the well while perforating the casing and performing other routine completion operations. In the case of a well filled with drilling mud when the casing is perforated, the drilling mud flows into the perforations because of the pressure diflerential existing between the interior of the casing and the formation. The perforations are thereby partially or completely plugged with mud and this plugging is aggravated by the heat and instantaneous pressure evolved by the propellant power in the case of 'bullet perforators and the high explosive .in the case of the jet or shaped charge perforators. Where chemical or punch-type perforators are employed, it is not uncommon for the drilling mud to lose water rapidly to the formation resulting in the drilling mud becoming dehydrated and forming plugs. Data are available which indicate thatsuch plugs whether formed by dehydration of the drilling mud by heat, and/or pressure or by loss of water to the formation are difiicult to remove by subsequent flow from the formation into the well bore and that the productivity of a perforating interval in a producing formation is significantly reduced. Field completion attempts of wells indicate that such plugging of the perforations may cause formations to be tested as being non-productive and thereby condemned when actually the formation may contain economically producible oil or gas. Thus it is clear that the problem of plugging of perforations is serious and is a source of expense in well completions and of erroneous conclusions in exploratory work which may cause major hydrocarbon reserves to remain undiscovered.

Another problem which exists .in perforating wells is that it is necessary to provide control of the well during ICC perforations. This is accordingly accomplished by maintaining a hydrostatic column which exerts a pressure greater than the formation pressure exposed when the casing is perforated. However, to provide a column having a suflicient hydrostatic pressure, it is necessary to add weighting agents such .as barite, sand, and other solid heavy materials to the fluid column maintained in the Well.

In accordance with the present invention the problem of plugging perforations in a well casing in which a column of drilling mud is maintained to control the Well'is eliminated by providing in the well casing adjacent the producing formation a zone from which the drilling mud is removed or excluded and then perforating the casing in the zone such that the drilling mud does not plug the perforations.

The present invention may, therefore, be briefly described as involving the replacing or displacing of the drilling mud at least in the region of the formation to be penetrated With a solids-free emulsion of an oily and aqueous medium containing a soluble weighting agent dissolved in one of the components of the emulsion, the emulsion being characterized by having a low fluid loss into the formation and having the property of displacing the drilling mud from the region of the casing to be perforated.

The emulsion employed in the practice of the present invention is used in the sense of the emulsions described in Sutheimns Introduction of Emulsions, Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, 1947, page 1 where an emulsion is described as follows: Emulsions are intimate mixtures of two immiscible liquids, one of them being dispersed in the other in the form of fine droplets. The emulsion of the present invention contains, dissolved in one of the components of the emulsion, a Weighting agent which is soluble in one of the components. The weighting agent may be soluble either in the aqueous phase or the oily phase of the emulsion. For example, the water phase may contain a water-soluble, inorganic weighting agent.

The oily phase may suitably be a hydrocarbon, such as crude petroleum and fractions thereof, such as gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, diesel oil, and the like. Other hydrocarbonaceous materials or derivatives of hydrocarbons, such as carbon tetrachloride and the like, may form all or part of the oily phase.

The emulsion may either be heavier or lighter than the drilling fluid and suitably may have a density in pounds per gallon in the range from about 7 to about 18 pounds per gallon. The emulsion where lighter than the drilling fluid may have a suitable viscosity suflicient to displace the drilling mud and to prevent displacement thereof by the drilling mud. For example, the viscosity .of the emulsion replacing the drilling mud may range from about to about 4000 centipoises at 60 F.

The emulsion of the present invention may suitably contain film-strengthening agents and emulsifying agents. As examples of the emulsifying agentsmay bementioned sorbitan mono-oleate, sorbitan sesquioleate, .polyoxyethylene esters of mixed fatty and resin acids, polyoxyethylene sorbitan .mono-stearate, polyoxyethylene .lauryl alcohol, sodium lignosulfonate, polyoxyethylene asorbitol tetraoleate, polyoxyethylene sorbitolmonolaurate, and the like.

bromide alkali metal chlorides, zinc chloride, calcium chloride,

barium chloride, ferric chloride, and the like. Potassium carbonate, zinc chloride, calcium chloride, and sodium chloride are particularly useful. 7 Examples of the watersoluble inorganic weighting agents are presented in the following tablet j f H TABLEI Water soluble' inorganic compounds suitable as weighting agents F Name Formula Specific i Gravity Aluminum chloride Barium nitrite Cadmium acetate Cadmium bromate monohydrate..-. Cd(BlO3)2-H2O Cadmium bromide CdBr Cadmium chlorate Cd(ClOz)2. Cadmium chloride- CdOl' Cadmium iodide. GdIz Cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate Cadmium sulfate heptahydrate. Calcium bromate monohydrate. Calcium bromide C B Calcium chloride Calcium iodide CaI Calcium nitrate Cupric bromate hexahydrate" Cupric bromide Cupric chloride.; Cupric nitrate hexahydrate. Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate hexahydrate- Ferric sulfate monohydrate. Ferrous bromide. Ferrous ch1oride--;. Lead acetate trihydrate. Lead chlorate monohydrate. Lead nitrate.;..

Fez(SO4 FeB s 2-H2O Manganese bromide MnBm" Manganese chloride tetrahydrate. MnClzAHzO Manganese iodide MnIz Nickel bromide N iBri Nickel nitrate hexahydrate N l.(NO3)2- 61120 Potassium acetate.. Potassium carbonate Potassium fluoride.

c Sodium chloride.. Sodium hydroxide.. Sodium iodide Sodium nitrate.

Sodium nitrite aNOi Sodium phosphate monobasic. NaHiP 04.2Hz Zinc bromide ZnBrz Zinc carbonate. ZnC O1 Zinc chloride ZnClz Zinc iodide 7T1Tn Zinc nitrate hexahydrate- Z11(NO3)2.6H20 Zinc sulfate ZnSO4 Bromonaphthalene 4 TABLE II Organic weighting agents Name Formula Specific Gravity m-Aminobenzoic acid NH2CeH4C O OH 1. 511 n-Amy1bromide-.... 1 218 Anthracene. Anthraquinon his) men

Benzene hexa chloride Benzoic acid- Benzanilidem CH O p-Bromoacetauilide. BrCoHiNHCoCHi Bromoacetophenone CeH C O CHzBr Bromoiodoethane (1,1) 1,2 Bromoiodoethane.- Bromoiodomethane.

BICHzCHfl BICHQI Bromosuccinic acid.

BICaHrCHa BroaH ojHa CHBrs C2H5CHzCH2I CHIa BICzHzBl 2.

It is to be noted that, in allcases, the soluble weighting agents of Tables I and II have specific gravities greater than that of water.

The emulsion employed in the present invention will suitably consist essentially of from about 5% to about by volume of water With'a. preferred range from about 20 torabout 80% by volume of water, from about 5% to about'95% of oil with a preferred range from about 20 to 80 volume percent of oil, and an emulsifying agent of the'type illustrated in an amount in the range from about 0.5 to about .20 grams per ml. of the external phase of the emulsion. The weight percent of the inorganic weightingagent or salt dissolved in the aqueous 1 or water phase-will range from 1% up .to about saturation, while the weight percent of organic compound or weighting agent dissolved in the oil phase will range from 1% up to about saturation. Thefilm-strengtheningagent of the type illustrated where required may range from about 0.1 to about 1.0 grams per 100ml; of the aqueous phase of the emulsion. It is to be understood, of course, that when a weighting agent is used in the aqueous phase one ordinarilywillnot be required in the oil phase' or vice versa although it is contemplated that, under some circumstancesboth phases may contain a weighting agent merals 12 13, and 14. Intervals 12 and 14 may be provirtue of the emulsion 23 being free of solid materials ductive of hydrocarbons, such as oil and gas, while inand having the characteristics of low fluid loss and further terval 13 may be non-productive. A casing 15 is arranged the characteristic of displacing driling mud, the perforain the wellbore 11 and is cemented in place with primary tions 27 are clean and hydrocarbons may be easily procement 16. A tubing 17 is arranged in the casing 15 with duced from the formation 12. its lower open end 18 arranged above the uppermost of Thereafter, as illustrated in Fig. 4, the perforator 25 the intervals 12, 13, and 14. is withdrawn on wire line 26 and a second tubular mem- The casing 15 is shown fille'd with drilling mud indiber, such as 28, which is similar to tubular member 20 cated by the numeral 19. except of greater length, is lowered on wire line 26 en- In Fig. 2 a tubular extension member 20 is lowered gaged to fishing head 29 and landed and supported in through the tubing 17 by means of a wire line, not shown, landing nipple 21. Thereafter the drilling mud 19, both and landed, supported, and suspended in a landing nipple, above and below the emulsion 23 may be circulated out 21 which may be a landing nipple of the type illustrated in of the well by flowing a washing liquid, such as water, the Composite Catalog of Oil Field and Pipeline Equipindicated generally by the numeral 30, down the annulus t, 19th diti 1952-1953, page 4063, Th t b l between the tubing 17 and the casing 15. However, it is extension member is suitably provided with a sealing to be understood that the emulsion may be used as the means to seal between the upper end 22 of the tubular Washing liquid to remove the drilling mud by circulating memb 20 a d th tubing 17, the emulsion down the annulus betweenthe tubing 17 In accordance with the present invention at least a porand th C s g 15- The Washing liquid causes the mud tion of the drilling mud 19 is replaced by a body 23 of 20 and emulsion to be flowed up through the tubular extenemulsion such as illustrated by pumping the emulsion 23 i m r 28 and thence upwardly through the tubing d th t bi 17 d out th 1 15 1 t n i member 17. Production is then had from the clean perforations 20 to provide a sandwich of emulsign 23 arranged be- 27 into the casing 15. The tubular extension member 28 tween the displaced bodies of drilling mud 19, as shown y be Withdrawn and Production Continued through the in Fig. 2. After the emulsion 23 has been placed, as 25 p end 18 01H}!e tubing ho i Fi 2, th tubular extension member 20 i In order to illustrate the present invention further, a trieved from the tubing 17 by engaging a suitable wire number of compositions of emulsions in accordance with li fi hi l, not h i h h fi hi k 24 f the present invention were made. In these operations, the extension 20 and retrieving the tubular member 20 emulsions Were P p y miXiHg y materials th from the tubing 17. Thereafter a gun perforator, such Water containing inorganic Salts as Weighting agentsas 25, which may be a tubing gun perforator or one of Various amounts of the several emulsifying agents were the shaped charge type or a punch type or chemical peradded and the mixtures emulsified in a high speed agitator. forator or one which perforates casing by mechanical The Properties of the emulsion, Such as density and API means is lowered through the tubing 17 by a wire line 26 fluid 108s, are also givenand is inserted and/or located in the emulsion 23. The The composition and properties of emulsion prepared perforator 25 is then operated or fired to form a plurality h Sodium Chloride as a Soluble Weighting agent are of perforations 27 in the formation or interval 12. By presented in Table III: 1

TABLE III The composition and properties of several emulsions prepared with sodium chloride as a soluble weighting agent Composition of Aqueous Phase 011 Phase Emulsifier Properties of Ex- Emulsion ternal Aqueous Sample Phase Phase, Number of the Vol. Film-Strengthening Agent grams/ API Emul- Per- N 9.01, Vol. 100 ml. Density, Fluid S1011 cent Wt. Identity Per- Identity Exlbs/gal. Loss, Identity grams] Percent cent ternal ml./30

100 m1. Phase min.

80 70-DH OMO- 2.0 26 20 Span 80 5.0 9. 3 0.2 80 Filcon SPF 1. 25 26 20 d 5.0 9.3 0.0 78 XHi. Vis. OMC .0 26 22 2.50 9. 2 4.2 75 Filcon SPF 1. 67 26 25 5.0 9.1 0.8 75 Filcon SPF 5 26 25 4. 0 9. 3 0. 5 75 XHi. Vis. CMC 1. 0 26 25 2. 9. 1 3. 8 80 -DH CMC 2. 0 5 20 5. 0 8.2 1.0 67 XHi. Vls. CMCL... 1. 0 none -d0. 33 1. 67 7. 1. 4 so 70-11 CMC 2. 0 26 88 l3 5. o 10. 0 4. 0 75 Filcon SPF 6. s7 26 Ea 2 do 10 10 1. 0

5 25 Span 4. 0 9. 3 4. 5 t 0. 0 20 Saltkem- 5. 0 9. 3 2. 4 0.0 20 d 6. 25 9. 3 0.0 t 0. 0 28 7. 95 9. 1 2. 2 0.0 20 5.0 9. 3 2. 4 0.0 45 4. 0 8. 5 6.2 0. 0 50 4. 0 8. 3 8. 4 0. 0 60 5. 0 8. 33 5. 8 0.0 65 6. 7. 85 5. 8 0.0 67 16. 7 7. 75 2, 0 0. 0 70 10. 0 7. 65 4. 6 0. 0 l7 7. 10.3 2. 5 l 0.0 33 3.18 11:6 4.2

Frogn the, data-pr esentd in. Table IV it will be nqte d that @mulsions having densities rangingfrpm above 7 sh &' 'nu d 9 W 11 P5 2 [0: 'ms'pouhdri p.61? gallon-c havinglow fiuid losses were" Th1s 1s highly des1rable= prepared. v 0

9 It will be noted from an examination of the date in Table V that the emulsions had low fluid losses and had densities ranging from 10 to nearly 13 pounds per gallon. Additional emulsions were prepared with zinc chloride as the weighting agents. The composition and properties of these emulsions are presented in Table VI:

TABLE VI The composition and properties of several emulsions prepared with zinc chloride as a weighing agent Composition of Aqueous Phase 011 Phase Emulsifier Properties of Ex- Emulsion ternal Aqueous Sample Phase Phase,

Number of the Vol. Film-Strengthening Agent grams] API Emul- Per- ZnCh, 7 Vol. 100 ml. Density, Fluid sion cent Wt. Identity Per- Identity Exlbs/gal. Loss,

Identity grams] Percent cent ternal m1./3O

100 ml. 1 Phase min.

75 XHi. Vis. CMC...... 1.0 53 Diesel 011.... 25 3.3 11.6 10.8 75 do 1. 58 CC 25 3. 3 13.3 7.8 75 1.5 53 25 2.5 13.3 10.6 75 d0 1. 5 53 2. 5 13. 3 9. 0 75 Filcon SPF 6. 7 70 25 10.0 15. 6 1. 0 Guar flour 2.0 53 25 2. 5 13. 3 12. 0 75 Driscose 6.0 53 25 2. 5 13. 3 19.0 0. 0 70 20 5.0 15.8 1. 8 10. 0 70 5. 0 14. 8 2. 0 0. 0 20 5. 0 l3. 0 0. 0 0. 0 47 20 10 12. 2 9 0.0 25 5.0 15. 6 5.0 0.0 60 35 5.0 11.8 1.2 0. 0 4.7 33 10 11.2 3. 9 0. 0 70 25 6. 7 15. 6 2. 5 0.0 47 48 do 6.15 12.9 8.4

from about 180 F. to 190 F. and the properties thereof determined after varying periods of exposure to the aforesaid temperatures. The composition and the filtration rate of the selected emulsions before and after exposure to the high temperatures are presented in Table VII:

TABLE VII Filtration rate of selected emulsions before and after exposure to high temperature Composition 0! Aqueous Phase 011 Phase Emulsifier Properties of Emulsion External Aquev Sampl Phase ous Film-Strengthening Weighting Agent grams] API Numof the Phase, Agent 100 m1. Den- Fluid API Fluid ber Emul- Vol. -Identity Vol. Identity Exsity, Loss, Loss.

sion Percent Percent terual 1bs./ cc./30 cc./30 min.

Identity grams} Identity Wt. v Phase gal. min.

. 100ml. "Percent 80 Filcon SPF-.- 1.25 NBC! 5.0 9.3 0.0 1.0 (3 hr.)

NaCl 5.0 9. 3 0.5 0.5 (19 hr.) NaCl 5.0 9. 3 v 2. 4 6.0 (19 hr.) v75 09.011 10.0 10.0 1. 0 1.4 (24 hr.) 75 KzQQ; 5.0 12. 8 1. 8 0.2 (48 hr.) 75 ZnCh 10.0 15. 6 1. 0 9.0 (48 hr.) 75 zno V 10.0 15.6 13.0 High (48 hr.) 75 ZnCh 6. 7 15.6 5.0 9.0 (48 hr.)

1 After erposure at ISO- F. {or the indicated number of hours.

were;

Examination of the :data in Table'VII shows that the emulsions are quite stable and retain their property of low fluid loss even after extended periods of exposure to high temperature. This importantin well completion -.In,order to illustrate the invention-further, several perforating targets were prepared by cementing 10" by 3V2" Berea outcrop cores into 4%" casing. A steel plate was provided atone end to simulate well perforating bmethods i p fi range indicated m 5 conditions. Emulsions were prepared in accordance with e encoun ere in we s t a i the presentomvention and placed in the perforatmgchams gg g g g g zi g zi film'strengtb her and the targets and chambers were maintained at g g p y p 180 F. for 24 hours. A pressure diilerential of 500 t TABLE VIII ounds er s uare inch was laced across the target with P P P lnfqrmaflon film'sfrengthemng flgents S911 I" p .the pressure differential into the core and then the target of emulsw was perforated'by firing into the target. After allowing Trade Designation Chemical Composition Manufacturer F? W }h vaned from about to about 24 hours, the target was backfiowed to determine if any moon SPF A Summated polymer 1 Mgnsamo Chemical .15breakdown-pressure. was required. The final permeabilompany. Driscose Sodium carboxymethyl Hercules Powder Comof the Perforated l j kerosene obtamed and M1 0M0 cegul ose pagy. 7 compared to the targets lfilllal permeability before perit sg d 58: forating. In two of the cases the target perforations were 7 o. o. t

Guar Flour Milled endosperm of General Mills. Inc. aclfllzed wlth 5% acldlzmg"'the final perme guar seeds. o t t ability of each treated target to kerosene was then ob- Smlmm hgnosulfmatem 533 cmpora' tained. The targets were then cut open and the perfora- XHLVisCMO. Sodium carboxyrnethyl Dow Chemical Comi d th d l a t d The results of these cellulose. panyl operations are presented in Table X. Y

1 Filcou is a registered trade name of'Monsanto Chemical Co., the data m Table w" i f usmgmanufacturer. The product disclosed lnthis application is a high emulsions as perforating fluid .give quite satisfactory rei f gg i gz ig phemland formaldehyde sults The first two emulsions had a very low' fluid lossverage otOZ sodium carbo r'iyineglgg group per angiydaoglirgotghmit, 1nto the target; The ihlrd emulsion, WhlCh was an O1l-' 1118 um VISCOSI y orm, VlSCOSl y 0 SO 11 1011 a .5 .7 cp. l v' v h 3 Average of 0.7 sodium carboxymethyl group per anhydroglucose unit, m'water type 9 to a water In ofl'type'of high viscosity form, viscosity or 1% solution at 25 0.;1300-2200cp. first two, gave ahigher fluid loss but the recovered per-.

fffi g gfi t g per anhydmglume unit meability indicates little, if'any, filtrate damage tothe 58013. 1g VSOlyOl.

A ras 0f0.7 sodium carboxymethvlgro p ap y g g s u t, core. The results'also show that acid zmg the cores'1ntzlgloslied form of CMC-7O H, viscosity of 1% solution at 25 0.: 1300 creases i i Permeabqity' In one cast? g p g g Average of p'g q p carboxymethyl oup per an ydmafter acidization was higher than the original permeab lity gucose unmexfm of the core. -Observations on the perforated targets.in-

1 Table slmllal t0 Y but glves the chem? dicated that a very small pressure dilferential initiated P si yin agents m l fiOW- v the Several Ples: The fact that only a small pressure difierential was AB required to initiate flow through the perforations is con- T LE IX 40 sidered very lmportant. This means, that 111 a well all Information m fi 1 p p of perforations made in an emulsion perforating medium emulslons will open to flow. This is not the case where mud is used as a perforating medium. Trade pesigna- Chemical Composition Class of Manufacturer It will be seen from the foregoing several examples Agent that an improved perforating technique has been provided which allows clean perforations to be formed by i span sorb tan monooleate non Ionic igi gifi" perforatmg with a clean emulsion whlch 1s free of sohds. fi a r gw a g q g gfi gg- Furthermore, it has been possible to provide emulsions p g which have the property of displacing the drilling fluid.

Reflex 30 g fi i gg a ffi gg g without being displaced by the drilling fluid. In other resin acidg words, an emulsion which has an inorganic weighting Tween g agentisprovided which is free of solids and is of sulfi- Brij a0 Pollyoiclyiathylene Iauryl Do. cient weight and/or viscosity to displace the drilling mud.

a c0 0 I g Saltkem Sodium lignosulfonate... anionic Marathon perforatmg i 9 the present 9 me G 2854 P 1 th 1 b 1 i At(llor%oratiion. of being free of solids, is also of value for use 1n work- Y Y ne .1 nn cu as 0W 7 ml temo1eate Company over operations besides perforation 1n wells. For ex Span20 Sorbitan monolaurate n do. Do. ample, the fluids may be used wherever there s danger 671020 l gg gfggfigg f a of damaging-a formation by contact with fluids which might plug-or reduce the permeability or porosity of the TABLE-X Data on targets perforated in en'tztlsion perforating fluid Perforating Fluid Composition Emulsion Properties Target Permeabillties Test No. on Phase, Water Film- Weighting Fluid Fluid Loss Before After Per- 1' After Percent by Phase, Strengthen- Emulsifier -Agent, Weight, Loss, into Pertoratforating, Acidizv01. Percent ing Agent Percent by lbs/gal. .API Target ing,'milmillidaring,mi1-

by v01. 7 vol. lidareies cies lidarcies 335 as (D. o. M 5% F1lcon 1% s on so 26% Nae 9.3 V 4.5 15.8 cc.[4.2 1 196 125 (after in 11 0. in oil. a s. 4 ase 25 (D. 0.)..- 75 do do do i 9.3 0.5 16i?cc./24' 215 15% 1mm; 200

V 1'5. 8, S o 337 20(D. 0.).-. None---. 5% Saltkem -.-d0 9.3 2.4 66.7/4.5 hrs.. 240 187 (a er 316 EH10. 7days).

formation. Washing and circulating operations are exemplary of uses where the emulsion perforating fluids may be employed.

The present invention is, therefore, of considerable utility and advantage in perforating wells.

The nature and objects of the present invention having been completely described and illustrated, what we wish to claim as new and useful and to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. A method for completing a well penetrating a subsurface earth formation while maintaining said well under control with a fluid column having a hydrostatic pressure in excess of formation pressure which comprises replacing only a portion of the drilling fluid in a casing in said well with a solids-free heat stable emulsion which consists of from about to about 95 by volume of an aqueous medium, from about 5% to about 95 by volume of an oily medium, a weighting agent in an amount within the range between 1% to about saturation soluble and dissolved in at least one of said media, said weighting agent having a specific gravity greater than the specific gravity of the aqueous medium, and an emulsifying agent selected from the group consisting of sorbitan monooleate, sorbitan sesqui-oleate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono-stearate, polyoxyethylene lauryl alcohol, sodium lignosulfonate, polyoxyethylene sorbitol tetraoleate, polyoxyethylene sorbitol monolaurate, unpurified sorbitan mono-oleate, sorbitan monolaurate, and polyoxyethylene esters of mixed fatty and resin acids in an amount within the range between 0.2 and about 20 grams per ml. of the external phase of the emulsion, inserting a perforator in the emulsion, and operating the perforator in the emulsion to form clean perforations in said casing, said emulsion having a weight in the range from about 7 to about 18 pounds per gallon, being heat stable, and having a low fluid loss at high well temperatures whereby said earth formation is protected from damage by contact with fluids which might plug or reduce the permeability or porosity of the formation.

2. A method in accordance with claim 1 in which the soluble weighting agent is dissolved in the aqueous medium.

3. A method in accordance with claim 1 in which the soluble weighting agent is dissolved in the oily medium.

4. A method in accordance with claim 1 in which the soluble weighting agent is an inorganic metal salt dissolved in the aqueous medium.

5. A method in accordance with claim 1 in which an organic weighting agent having a specific gravity in the from about 0.1 to about 10 grams per 100 ml. of the aqueous phase of the emulsion.

7. A heat stable well completion composition having a weight in the range from about 7 to about 18 pounds per gallon which consists of a solids-free emulsion containing from about 5% to about by volume of an aqueous medium, from about 5% to about 95 by volume of an oily medium, a weighting agent having a specific gravity greater than the specific gravity of the aqueous medium in an amount within the range between 1% by weight to about saturation dissolved in at least one of said media, and an emulsifying agent selected from the group consisting of sorbitan mono-oleate, sorbitan sesquioleate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono-stearate, polyoxyethylene lauryl alcohol, sodium lignosulfonate, polyoxyethylene sorbitol tetraoleate, polyoxyethylene sorbitol monolaurate, unpurified sorbitan mono-oleate, sorbitan monolaurate, and poly'oxyethylene esters of mixed fatty and resin acids in an amount in the range between 0.2 and about 20 grams per ml. of the external phase of the emulsion, said composition being heat. stable and having a low fluid loss at high well temperatures.

8. A composition in accordance with claim 7 in which the emulsion contains a film-strengthening agent in an amount in the range from about 0.1 to about 10 grams per 100 m1. of the aqueous medium of the emulsion.

9. A composition in accordance with claim 7 in which the weighting agent is dissolved in the aqueous medium.

10. A composition in accordance with claim 7 in which the weighting agent is dissolved in the oily medium.

11. A composition in accordance with claim 7 in which the oily medium contains carbon tetrachloride.

12. A composition in accordance with claim 7 in which sodium chloride is the weighting agent dissolved in the aqueous phase.

13. A composition in accordance with claim 7 in which calcium chloride is the weighting agent dissolved in the aqueous phase.

14. A composition in accordance with claim 7 in which potassium carbonate is the weighting agent dissolved in the aqueous phase.

15. A composition in accordance with claim 7 in which zinc chloride is the weighting agent dissolved in the aqueous phase.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,430,039 Anderson Nov. 4, 1947 2,693,856 Allen Nov. 9, 1954 2,745,495 Taylor May 15, 1956 2,748,079 Weiss May 29, 1956 2,766,828 Rachford Oct. 16, 1956

Claims (1)

1. A METHOD FOR COMPLETING A WELL PENETRATING A SUBSURFACE EARTH FORMATION WHILE MAINTAINING SAID WELL UNDER CONTROL WITH A FLUID COLUMN HAVING A HYDROSATIC PRESSURE IN EXCESS OF FORMATION PRESSURE WHICH COMPRISES REPLACING ONLY A PORTION OF THE DRILLING FLUID IN A CASING IN SAID WELL WITH A SOLIDS-FREE HEAT STABLE EMULSION WHICH CONSISTS OF FROM ABOUT 5% TO ABOUT 95% BY VOLUME OF AN AQUEOUS MEDIUM, FROM ABOUT 5% TO ABOUT 95% BY VOLUME OF AN OILY MEDIUM, A WEIGHTING AGENT IN AN AMOUNT WITHIN THE RANGE BETWEEN 1% TO ABOUT SATURATION SOLUBLE AND DISSOLVED IN AT LEAST ONE OF SAID MEDIA, SAID WEIGHTING AGENT HAVING A SPECIFIC GRAVITY GREATER THAN THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF THE AQUEOUS MEDIUM, AND AN EMULSIFYING AGENT SELECTED FROM THE GROUP CONSISTING OF SORBITAN MONO OLEATE, SORBITAN SESQUI-OLEATE, POLYOXYLETHYL SORBITAN MON-STEARATE, POLYOXYETHYLENE LAURYL ALCOHOL, SODIUM LIGNOSULFONATE, POLYOXYETHYLENE SORBITOL TETRAOLEATE, POLYOXYETHYLENE SORBITOL MONOLAURATE, UNPRIFIED SORBITAN MONO-OLEATE, SORBITAN MONOLAURATE, AND POLYOXYETHYLENE ESTERS OF MIXED FATTY AND RESIN ACIDS IN AN AMOUNT WITHIN THE RANGE BETWEEN 0.2 AND ABOUT 20 GRAMS PER ML. OF THE EXTERNAL PHASE OF THE EMULSION, INSERTING A PERFORATOR IN THE EMULSION, AND OPERATING THE PERFORATOR IN THE EMULSION TO FORM CLEAN PERFORATIONS IN SAID CASING, SAID EMULSION HAVING A WEIGHT IN THE RANGE FROM ABOUT 7 TO ABOUT 18 POUNDS PER GALLON, BEING HEAT STABLE, AND HAVING A LOW FLUID LOSS AT HIGH WELL TEMPERATURES WHEREBY SAID EARTH FORMATION IS PROTECTED FROM DAMAGE BY CONTACT WITH FLUIDS WHICH MIGHT PLUG OR REDUCE THE PERMEABILITY OR POROSITY OF THE FORMATION.
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Cited By (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2894584A (en) * 1956-12-24 1959-07-14 Jersey Prod Res Co Well completion
US2898294A (en) * 1956-12-24 1959-08-04 Jersey Prod Res Co Well completion fluids
US2963088A (en) * 1958-06-20 1960-12-06 Jersey Prod Res Co Completion of tubeless wells
US2999811A (en) * 1957-08-07 1961-09-12 Amchem Prod Inhibitor composition
US3000818A (en) * 1958-09-18 1961-09-19 Texaco Inc Well completion and workover fluid
US3007865A (en) * 1957-11-18 1961-11-07 Jersey Prod Res Co Method of preparing a well completion and servicing fluid
US3012606A (en) * 1958-10-17 1961-12-12 Phillips Petroleum Co Method of protecting a well casing and tubing against leakage, collapse, and corrosion
US3014863A (en) * 1957-11-18 1961-12-26 Jersey Prod Res Co Preparation of well completion and servicing fluid
US3014528A (en) * 1958-11-03 1961-12-26 Phillips Petroleum Co Method of packing off the annulas between the casing and tubing in a well with a packer fluid
US3044548A (en) * 1957-02-27 1962-07-17 Sinclair Oil & Gas Company Method for selectively plugging a subterranean location in a well with liquid organic resin-forming material
US3090435A (en) * 1959-02-05 1963-05-21 Jersey Prod Res Co Method for consolidating incompetent formations
US3126950A (en) * 1964-03-31 Steel coupons in
US3146199A (en) * 1958-10-10 1964-08-25 Jersey Prod Res Co Water base drilling fluid and method of drilling a well utilizing the same
US3210310A (en) * 1959-07-09 1965-10-05 Sinclair Research Inc Composition of alkylidene bisacrylamide and ethylenic monomers with calcium chloride
US3212576A (en) * 1962-08-28 1965-10-19 Schlumberger Well Surv Corp Methods and apparatus for completing earth formations
US3246692A (en) * 1962-02-07 1966-04-19 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc Method employing weighted well fluid
US3272741A (en) * 1962-03-29 1966-09-13 Texaco Inc Well completion or workover fluid
US3277963A (en) * 1964-05-27 1966-10-11 Pan American Petroleum Corp Completing wells
US3375886A (en) * 1963-09-24 1968-04-02 Gulf Research Development Co Method of treating abrasive-laden drilling liquid
US3433305A (en) * 1967-11-06 1969-03-18 Schlumberger Technology Corp Methods for discharging fluent substances into well bores
US3623979A (en) * 1967-06-29 1971-11-30 Texaco Inc Composition and process for inhibiting corrosion in oil wells
US3625889A (en) * 1969-08-28 1971-12-07 Phillips Petroleum Co Well completion fluids
US3754599A (en) * 1971-12-15 1973-08-28 Marathon Oil Co Use of micellar solutions to improve perforating process
FR2364957A1 (en) * 1976-09-20 1978-04-14 Halliburton Co Fluid spacing for oil wells, obtaining it and its application
WO1980000590A1 (en) * 1978-09-05 1980-04-03 Dow Chemical Co Improved method of servicing wellbores
US4292183A (en) * 1978-12-13 1981-09-29 Great Lakes Chemical Corporation High-density fluid compositions
WO1982002898A1 (en) * 1981-02-23 1982-09-02 Dow Corning Invert emulsions for well-drilling comprising a polydiorganosiloxane and method therefor
US4490262A (en) * 1978-09-05 1984-12-25 The Dow Chemical Company Method of servicing wellbores
US4521316A (en) * 1983-03-11 1985-06-04 Fmc Corporation Oil well completion fluid
US4541487A (en) * 1984-02-06 1985-09-17 Halliburton Company Well perforating methods
US4552234A (en) * 1981-07-13 1985-11-12 Halliburton Company Spiral gun apparatus
US4725372A (en) * 1980-10-27 1988-02-16 The Dow Chemical Company Aqueous wellbore service fluids
US4900456A (en) * 1986-05-30 1990-02-13 The British Petroleum Company P.L.C. Well bore fluid
US5207953A (en) * 1991-11-27 1993-05-04 Trisol Inc. Fire retarded solvents
US5674816A (en) * 1995-01-25 1997-10-07 Loree; Dwight N. Olefin based frac fluid
US6173776B1 (en) * 1995-10-03 2001-01-16 Nor Industries, Inc. Cleaning compositions for oil and gas wells, lines, casings, formations and equipment and methods of use
US6632777B1 (en) * 1999-11-26 2003-10-14 Eni S.P.A. Drilling fluids comprising oil emulsions in water

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US2430039A (en) * 1945-12-22 1947-11-04 Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Oil base drilling fluid
US2693856A (en) * 1952-04-01 1954-11-09 Standard Oil Dev Co Well completion method
US2745495A (en) * 1953-05-19 1956-05-15 Johnston Testers Inc Method of completing oil wells
US2748079A (en) * 1950-09-06 1956-05-29 Texaco Development Corp Drilling fluids
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2430039A (en) * 1945-12-22 1947-11-04 Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Oil base drilling fluid
US2748079A (en) * 1950-09-06 1956-05-29 Texaco Development Corp Drilling fluids
US2693856A (en) * 1952-04-01 1954-11-09 Standard Oil Dev Co Well completion method
US2745495A (en) * 1953-05-19 1956-05-15 Johnston Testers Inc Method of completing oil wells
US2766828A (en) * 1953-07-20 1956-10-16 Exxon Research Engineering Co Fracturing subsurface formations and well stimulation

Cited By (42)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3126950A (en) * 1964-03-31 Steel coupons in
US2898294A (en) * 1956-12-24 1959-08-04 Jersey Prod Res Co Well completion fluids
US2894584A (en) * 1956-12-24 1959-07-14 Jersey Prod Res Co Well completion
US3044548A (en) * 1957-02-27 1962-07-17 Sinclair Oil & Gas Company Method for selectively plugging a subterranean location in a well with liquid organic resin-forming material
US2999811A (en) * 1957-08-07 1961-09-12 Amchem Prod Inhibitor composition
US3007865A (en) * 1957-11-18 1961-11-07 Jersey Prod Res Co Method of preparing a well completion and servicing fluid
US3014863A (en) * 1957-11-18 1961-12-26 Jersey Prod Res Co Preparation of well completion and servicing fluid
US2963088A (en) * 1958-06-20 1960-12-06 Jersey Prod Res Co Completion of tubeless wells
US3000818A (en) * 1958-09-18 1961-09-19 Texaco Inc Well completion and workover fluid
US3146199A (en) * 1958-10-10 1964-08-25 Jersey Prod Res Co Water base drilling fluid and method of drilling a well utilizing the same
US3012606A (en) * 1958-10-17 1961-12-12 Phillips Petroleum Co Method of protecting a well casing and tubing against leakage, collapse, and corrosion
US3014528A (en) * 1958-11-03 1961-12-26 Phillips Petroleum Co Method of packing off the annulas between the casing and tubing in a well with a packer fluid
US3090435A (en) * 1959-02-05 1963-05-21 Jersey Prod Res Co Method for consolidating incompetent formations
US3210310A (en) * 1959-07-09 1965-10-05 Sinclair Research Inc Composition of alkylidene bisacrylamide and ethylenic monomers with calcium chloride
US3212577A (en) * 1959-07-09 1965-10-19 Sinclair Research Inc Method for decreasing the permeability of a permeable well area
US3246692A (en) * 1962-02-07 1966-04-19 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc Method employing weighted well fluid
US3272741A (en) * 1962-03-29 1966-09-13 Texaco Inc Well completion or workover fluid
US3212576A (en) * 1962-08-28 1965-10-19 Schlumberger Well Surv Corp Methods and apparatus for completing earth formations
US3375886A (en) * 1963-09-24 1968-04-02 Gulf Research Development Co Method of treating abrasive-laden drilling liquid
US3277963A (en) * 1964-05-27 1966-10-11 Pan American Petroleum Corp Completing wells
US3623979A (en) * 1967-06-29 1971-11-30 Texaco Inc Composition and process for inhibiting corrosion in oil wells
US3433305A (en) * 1967-11-06 1969-03-18 Schlumberger Technology Corp Methods for discharging fluent substances into well bores
US3625889A (en) * 1969-08-28 1971-12-07 Phillips Petroleum Co Well completion fluids
US3754599A (en) * 1971-12-15 1973-08-28 Marathon Oil Co Use of micellar solutions to improve perforating process
FR2364957A1 (en) * 1976-09-20 1978-04-14 Halliburton Co Fluid spacing for oil wells, obtaining it and its application
US4141843A (en) * 1976-09-20 1979-02-27 Halliburton Company Oil well spacer fluids
WO1980000590A1 (en) * 1978-09-05 1980-04-03 Dow Chemical Co Improved method of servicing wellbores
US4304677A (en) * 1978-09-05 1981-12-08 The Dow Chemical Company Method of servicing wellbores
US4490262A (en) * 1978-09-05 1984-12-25 The Dow Chemical Company Method of servicing wellbores
US4292183A (en) * 1978-12-13 1981-09-29 Great Lakes Chemical Corporation High-density fluid compositions
US4725372A (en) * 1980-10-27 1988-02-16 The Dow Chemical Company Aqueous wellbore service fluids
US4381241A (en) * 1981-02-23 1983-04-26 Dow Corning Corporation Invert emulsions for well-drilling comprising a polydiorganosiloxane and method therefor
WO1982002898A1 (en) * 1981-02-23 1982-09-02 Dow Corning Invert emulsions for well-drilling comprising a polydiorganosiloxane and method therefor
US4552234A (en) * 1981-07-13 1985-11-12 Halliburton Company Spiral gun apparatus
US4521316A (en) * 1983-03-11 1985-06-04 Fmc Corporation Oil well completion fluid
US4541487A (en) * 1984-02-06 1985-09-17 Halliburton Company Well perforating methods
US4900456A (en) * 1986-05-30 1990-02-13 The British Petroleum Company P.L.C. Well bore fluid
US5207953A (en) * 1991-11-27 1993-05-04 Trisol Inc. Fire retarded solvents
US5674816A (en) * 1995-01-25 1997-10-07 Loree; Dwight N. Olefin based frac fluid
US6173776B1 (en) * 1995-10-03 2001-01-16 Nor Industries, Inc. Cleaning compositions for oil and gas wells, lines, casings, formations and equipment and methods of use
US6260621B1 (en) * 1995-10-03 2001-07-17 Nor Industries, Inc. Process for fracing an oil or gas formation
US6632777B1 (en) * 1999-11-26 2003-10-14 Eni S.P.A. Drilling fluids comprising oil emulsions in water

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