US2801630A - Cervical collar - Google Patents

Cervical collar Download PDF

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Publication number
US2801630A
US2801630A US55501355A US2801630A US 2801630 A US2801630 A US 2801630A US 55501355 A US55501355 A US 55501355A US 2801630 A US2801630 A US 2801630A
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section
collar
lower
neck
upper
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Arthur R Moore
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Arthur R Moore
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F5/00Orthopaedic methods or devices for non-surgical treatment of bones or joints; Nursing devices; Anti-rape devices
    • A61F5/01Orthopaedic devices, e.g. splints, casts or braces
    • A61F5/04Devices for stretching or reducing fractured limbs; Devices for distractions; Splints
    • A61F5/05Devices for stretching or reducing fractured limbs; Devices for distractions; Splints for immobilising
    • A61F5/055Cervical collars
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S128/00Surgery
    • Y10S128/23Cervical collars

Description

A. R. MOORE CERVICAL COLLAR Aug. 6, 1957 2,801,630

Filed Dec. 23, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR H ARTHLQR R. moons I ZY Aug. 6, 1957 A. R. MOORE CERVICAL COLLAR 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Deb. 25, 1955 INVENTOR MOORE BY :2 gm) ATTORNEY United States Patent CERVICAL COLLAR Arthur R. Moore, Daytona Beach, Fla. Application December 23, 1955, Serial No. 555,013

7 Claims. (Cl. 128-75) This invention relates to improvements in cervical collars used primarily for pathological conditions such as arthritis, wry neck" or torticollis, traumatic conditions such as whip lash injuries, subluxations and dislocations, muscular strains, and for post-fracture treatment.

The collar is designed for hyperextension and restriction of head motion but not for total fixed immobilization. In general the use is to take the load off the neck muscles.

The primary object of the invention is to provide a simple, light but sufficiently rigid collar structure that is adjustable for hyperextension but is also capable of lateral flexing so that it may be applied or removed by the patient when desired.

A further object of the invention is to provide a cervical collar of this character that is formed of two overlapping sheets of semi-rigid material adjustably interengaged to obtain the desired degree of hyperextension or tilt of the collar in use.

A still further object of the invention is to provide the collar with an upper head engaging and neck encircling section and a lower chest engaging section so interconnected to accommodate for the change of relationship of the sections when the collar encircles a patients neck and also permitting a conformation of lower section to the contour of the engaged chest of the patient.

These and other objects of the present invention will appear as the following description thereof proceeds, and in orderto more clearly understand the invention, reference may be made to the accompanying drawings in which:

Figure 1 is a side elevation of the cervical collar in applied position;

Figure 2 is a similar front view of Figure 1;

Figure 3 is a plan view of the cervical collar laid out flat;

Figure 4 is a vertical section on the line 4--4 of Figure 3;

Figure 5 is, a vertical section on the line 55 of Figure3;

Figure 6 is a partial section on the line 6--6 of Figure 3; and

Figure 7 is a fragmentary plan view of a portion of oneof the adjusting clamps.

The primary purpose of this cervical collar is to take the load off the neck muscles for the purposes noted. The collar may be adjusted for the desired degree of hyperextension and in use will restrict the head motion but it isnot intended for fixed immobilization such as results froI-ntheuse of a cast or some forms of removable braces. It is inherent in the structure employed that sufficient rigidity is maintained to obtain the desired result but the portable nature and intended use of the collar permits it to be flexed laterally to encircle the patients neck and strapped in that position.

The collar itself comprises an upper larger head engaging and neck encircling section 1 and a smaller lower overlapped chest engaging section 2. These sections 1 2,801,630 Patented Aug. 6, 1957 and 2 are formed of plastic sheet material that is semirigid but may be flexed laterally. At present a plastic identified as Kodapak #2 (a cellulose acetate-butyrate marketed by Eastman Company) is being used but a worker skilled in the art could readily select an appropriate common variety of cellulose acetate or nylon sheeting for such a use.

The upper section 1 adjacent one extremity carries a strap 3 of any suitable material secured thereto by a rivet 4. A conventional buckle 5 is adjustably mounted on the strap and said buckle may be secured by a stud fastener 6 to the other terminal end of the section 1. This provides a means for snugly and comfortably positioning the collar around a patients neck and permits easy removal when desired.

The upper edge of the upper section 1 is curved to substantially conform to the head engagement with the collar which is under the chin and around the back of above the neck. The entire edge that does not overlap the lower section 2 has stitched thereto a strip of suitable covering material 7 and the head engaging portion has a cushioning element 8, usually formed of rubber interposed between the edge of the section and covering material to avoid undue discomfort when the collar is in position.

The lower smaller section 2 of the collar is not as long as the section 1 and the extremities of the latter form substantially neck encircling portions. The central portion thereof overlaps the upper edge of the lower section as clearly shown in the drawings. The lower edge of the lower section 2 is curved downwardly as clearly shown in the drawings to conform to the chest portion of the patients body. The entire edge has stitched thereto a strip of suitable covering material 15 and substantially the entire lower edge has a cushioning element 16 similar to the cushioning element 8, usually formed of rubber interposed between the lower edge of the section and covering material 15 to avoid undue discomfort when the plastic collar is in position.

The sections 1 and 2 are primarily interengaged where the extremities of the lower smaller section 2 are overlapped by the upper larger section 1 by rivets 9 and '10 passing through substantially horizontal slots 11 in the upper section 1 and crossing substantially vertical slots 11 in the lower section 2. The slots 11 accommodate for the change of relationship of the two sections when the collar is flexed to circular form for positioning on the patients neck and the slots 11 permit substantially vertical change at this point when necessary and furthermore permits the lower edge of the lower section to conform to the contour of the chest by slight rotation on the rivets 9 and 10. At the central front of the overlapped edges of the sections 1 and 2 there is an additional engaging and guiding means in the nature of a stud 12. The stud 12 is slidable in a vertical slot 14 in the section 1 as clearly shown in Figure 4.

For the purpose of adjusting the collar vertically, there is provided a pair of adjusting clamps 17 adjacent each side of front center of the collar and angled vertically with respect thereto as clearly shown in the drawings. As these clamps 17 are of identical construction only one will be described in detail. The clamps comprise an upper member 18 comprising a fiat metal strip 19 riveted at 20 at its upper end to the upper section 1 adjacent itsupper edge and having an elongated slot 21 running from adjacent the rivet 20 to a point adjacent the lower end of the strip 19. A lower member 22 of the clamp 17 similar in general shape to the upper member 13 is riveted at 23 at its lower end to the lower section 2 adjacent the lower edge thereof. The lower member 22 also has an elongated slot 24 similar to the slot 21 in the upper member 18. As the clamps are mounted outside the collar the members thereof are of such a length they will overlap a portion of their length. The upper end of the lower member 22 is provided with a terminal angled tongue 25 which has a sliding fit in the elongated slot 21 in the upper member 18 for the purpose of slidably interlocking the members 18 and 22 when positioned as shown. The tongue 25 is held in the slot by lateral tongues 25' as shown inFigure 7.

For the purpose of adjusting the clamps 17 to vary the etfective height of the collar there is provided a metal screw 26 positioned through the slot 24 of the lower member 22 and engageable in a threaded opening 27 at the lower end of the member 18 below the slot 21. By releasing the screw 26 the members 18 and 22 may be adjusted vertically to move the sections 1 and 2 of the collar toward or from each other and thus adjust the collar to'the desired height. When this point is ascertained the screw 26 is tightened to clamping position. The riveted connections and slot by which the sections 1 and 2 are secured together previously described permit the vertical adjustment of the plastic collar just described without bending the set configuration or the same.

In use the collar is snugly arranged around the patients neck. The properly adjusted buckle on the strap 3 is engaged with the fastener 6 to secure the collar in position. When so arranged the curved lower edge of the section 2 of the collar rests upon the patients chest and curved upper edge engages the patients head beneath the chin and around the back of the neck. Thus the weight of the patients head is supported by the collar on the chest and shoulders to take the load oif the neck muscle and the movement of the head is restricted. The collar may be vertically adjusted or tilted by the means described to secure the desired hyperextension. The collar being formed of sheet plastic material is'provided with ventilating openings 28 through the upper and lower sections 1 and 2.

This invention provides a very simple, economical and extremely light form of easily positioned and adjusted orthopedic appliance. The weight of the patients head is carried entirely by this substantially unitary structure resting on the chest and shoulders of the patient and the neck muscles are relieved of any strain in maintaining the desired hyperextension. The rigidity of the sheet plastic material from which the collar is formed is sufiicient to accomplish the desired purpose supplemented by the clamps 17.

Although the improved cervical collar has been illustrated and described herein to a detailed extent, it will be understood, of course, that the invention is not to be regarded as limited correspondingly in scope, but includes all variations coming within the terms of the appended claims.

I claim:

l. A cervical collar formed of two partly overlapped sheets of semi-rigid material, interconnecting means between the overlapped sheets permitting conforming movement therebetween in applying and adjusting said collar, and adjustable clamps between the sheets to vertically adjust one sheet with respect to the other.

2. A cervical collar formed of an upper section comprising a sheet of semi-rigid material adapted to encircle the neck of a patient with its upper edge engaging the patients head, a smaller lower section comprising a sheet of semi-rigid material having its upper edge portion overlapped by the central bottom edge portion of the upper section and the lower edge of said lower section adapted to engage the patients chest, means to vertically adjust the sections with respect to each other, and means on the upper section to removably secure the collar around the patients neck.

3. A cervical collarformed of an upper section comprising a sheet of semi-rigid material adapted to encircle the neck of a patient with its upper edge engaging the patients head, a smaller lower section comprising a sheet of semi-rigid material having its upper edge portion overlapped by the central bottom edge portion of the upper section and the lower edge of said lower section adapted to engage the patients chest, interconnecting means between the overlapped portions of the sections permitting conforming movement therebetween in applying and adjusting the sections around a patients neck, means carried by the sections to vertically adjust the sections with respect to each other, and means on the upper section to removably secure the collar around the patients neck.

4. A cervical collar comprising, a neck section of sernirigid material of a length to encompass the neck of a wearer and having a top edge contoured to engage beneath and support the wearers chin, a chest section of semirigid material dimensioned to overlie the chest of a wearer and having a bottom edge contoured to engage and seat upon thewearers chest, the bottom marginal portion of the neck section overlapping the top marginal portion of the chest section in slidable face contact, fasteners carried by the overlapped marginal portions of the sections and connecting them together, and manually movable means fixed on one section and in slidable connection engagement with the other section for movement to various positions of adjustment vertically between said contoured edges of the sections to increase or decrease the area of overlap and thereby raise or lower the necksection relative to the chest section. Y

5. In the collar of claim 4, certain ones of the fasteners being adjacent the intersections of the bottom edge of the neck section and the contoured edge of the chest section and having a floating mounting in each section permitting both horizontal and vertical shifting of the fas teners relative to the sections. I

6. In the collar of claim 4, said fasteners including one adjacent each intersection of the bottom edge of the neck section and the contoured edge of the chest section, and a third fastener midway therebetween, said third fastener including a shank passed transversely through both sec.- tions in fixed relation teens and movable in avertical guide slot in the other. 1.

7. In the collar of claim 5, said floating mounting coin prising a guide slot in each section, the slots intersecting substantially perpendicular to one another, and each of said certain ones of the fasteners including a shank passed transversely through both sections and movable freely in the slot of each. :1

References Cited in the file of this patent Orthopaedic Appliance Atlas, published by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons in 1952, p. 223. (Copies in Scientific Library.)

US2801630A 1955-12-23 1955-12-23 Cervical collar Expired - Lifetime US2801630A (en)

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Cited By (40)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2828736A (en) * 1957-01-24 1958-04-01 Louis P Monfardini Cervical collars
US2911970A (en) * 1958-12-01 1959-11-10 Prosthetic & Orthopedic Supply Cervical collar
US2955594A (en) * 1959-07-09 1960-10-11 Richards Mfg Company Hip splint
US3024784A (en) * 1960-06-14 1962-03-13 Florida Brace Corp Single piece adjustable cervical collar
US3027894A (en) * 1958-05-28 1962-04-03 Florida Mfg Corp All purpose cervical collar
US3042027A (en) * 1959-03-24 1962-07-03 Florida Brace Corp Cervical collars
US3055358A (en) * 1959-08-05 1962-09-25 Palma Leon J Di Cervical collar
US3060930A (en) * 1959-12-14 1962-10-30 Grassl Simon Neck supporting device
US3075521A (en) * 1960-06-29 1963-01-29 Grassl Simon Cervical collars
US3306284A (en) * 1962-03-12 1967-02-28 Paul E Mckinley Cervical brace
US3313297A (en) * 1962-06-18 1967-04-11 Surgical Appliance Ind Cervical splint
US3916885A (en) * 1974-11-14 1975-11-04 Medical Specialties Inc Adjustable cervical collar
US4827915A (en) * 1988-09-21 1989-05-09 Gorsen Robert M Spring loaded cervical collar
US4969453A (en) * 1987-07-28 1990-11-13 Dieter Heimann Cervical collar
US5520619A (en) * 1993-05-20 1996-05-28 Ambu International A/S Adjustable cervical collar
US5588957A (en) * 1993-05-20 1996-12-31 Ambu International A/S Cervical collar
US5797863A (en) * 1995-11-30 1998-08-25 Ambu International A/S Collapsible cervical collar
US5993403A (en) * 1993-05-20 1999-11-30 Ambu International A/S Adjustable cervical collar
US6036664A (en) * 1994-02-22 2000-03-14 Ambu International A/S Automatic adjustable cervical collar
USRE36745E (en) * 1994-09-29 2000-06-20 Ambu Inc. Extrication cervical collar with adjustable supports
US6090058A (en) * 1996-12-23 2000-07-18 Laerdal Medical Corporation Multiple-size cervical collar
US20020156409A1 (en) * 2001-03-19 2002-10-24 Lee Freddy T. Cervical immobilization device
US20020169401A1 (en) * 2000-05-03 2002-11-14 Walpin Lionel A. Multi-positional support device
US6726643B1 (en) 1994-02-22 2004-04-27 Ambu International A/S Automatic adjustable cervical collar
US6770046B2 (en) * 2002-10-29 2004-08-03 Kyle J. Hansen Minimally invasive extrication cervical collar
US6913584B2 (en) 1999-10-27 2005-07-05 Ambu Inc. Cervical immobilizing device
US20110040224A1 (en) * 2005-09-28 2011-02-17 Life Core Technologies, Llc Cervical immobilization collar with arterial cooling elements and method of using the same
US20110040223A1 (en) * 2005-09-28 2011-02-17 Life Core Technologies Llc Cervical immobilization collar with arterial cooling elements
US20110046527A1 (en) * 2005-09-28 2011-02-24 Life Core Technologies, Llc Arterial cooling elements for use with a cervical immobilization collar
USD647623S1 (en) * 2010-08-06 2011-10-25 Ossur Hf Height adjustment mechanism for cervical collar
US8657768B1 (en) 2010-07-22 2014-02-25 Salvatore Calabrese Cervical collar having flexible chin support
US8858481B2 (en) 2008-12-03 2014-10-14 Ossur Hf Cervical collar with reduced vascular obstruction
US8932243B2 (en) 2010-12-20 2015-01-13 Salvatore Calabrese Cervical collar with independent height and circumference adjustability
US9084670B2 (en) 2005-09-28 2015-07-21 Cryothermic Systems, Inc. Cervical immobilization collar with arterial cooling elements and method of using the same
US9089411B2 (en) 2005-09-28 2015-07-28 Cryothermic Systems, Inc. Cervical immobilization collar with arterial cooling elements and method of using the same
US9226847B2 (en) 2005-09-28 2016-01-05 Cryothermic Systems, Inc. Arterial cooling elements for use with a cervical immobilization collar
US20160008158A1 (en) * 2014-07-10 2016-01-14 Otto Bock Healthcare Lp Cervical collar with height adjustment mechanism
CN105326597A (en) * 2010-10-27 2016-02-17 冷冻热法系统公司 Cervical immobilization collar with arterial cooling elements and methods of using the same
US9687380B1 (en) 2014-05-12 2017-06-27 David L. Falk Cervical collar brace kit, collar blanks, methods of forming a model of a patient, and methods of forming collar blanks
US9713546B2 (en) 2012-05-21 2017-07-25 Ossur Hf Cervical collar

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US928573A (en) * 1909-03-12 1909-07-20 Horace A Aldred Collar-stay.
DE353631C (en) * 1920-12-22 1922-05-20 Ida Frenzel Geb Friedewald Rigid holder for the collar of women's blouses and Stehumlegekragen with two parallel, resiliently held apart tires
US2102069A (en) * 1936-06-17 1937-12-14 Hanicke Paul William Cervical splint

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US928573A (en) * 1909-03-12 1909-07-20 Horace A Aldred Collar-stay.
DE353631C (en) * 1920-12-22 1922-05-20 Ida Frenzel Geb Friedewald Rigid holder for the collar of women's blouses and Stehumlegekragen with two parallel, resiliently held apart tires
US2102069A (en) * 1936-06-17 1937-12-14 Hanicke Paul William Cervical splint

Cited By (51)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2828736A (en) * 1957-01-24 1958-04-01 Louis P Monfardini Cervical collars
US3027894A (en) * 1958-05-28 1962-04-03 Florida Mfg Corp All purpose cervical collar
US2911970A (en) * 1958-12-01 1959-11-10 Prosthetic & Orthopedic Supply Cervical collar
US3042027A (en) * 1959-03-24 1962-07-03 Florida Brace Corp Cervical collars
US2955594A (en) * 1959-07-09 1960-10-11 Richards Mfg Company Hip splint
US3055358A (en) * 1959-08-05 1962-09-25 Palma Leon J Di Cervical collar
US3060930A (en) * 1959-12-14 1962-10-30 Grassl Simon Neck supporting device
US3024784A (en) * 1960-06-14 1962-03-13 Florida Brace Corp Single piece adjustable cervical collar
US3075521A (en) * 1960-06-29 1963-01-29 Grassl Simon Cervical collars
US3306284A (en) * 1962-03-12 1967-02-28 Paul E Mckinley Cervical brace
US3313297A (en) * 1962-06-18 1967-04-11 Surgical Appliance Ind Cervical splint
US3916885A (en) * 1974-11-14 1975-11-04 Medical Specialties Inc Adjustable cervical collar
US4969453A (en) * 1987-07-28 1990-11-13 Dieter Heimann Cervical collar
US4827915A (en) * 1988-09-21 1989-05-09 Gorsen Robert M Spring loaded cervical collar
US6245033B1 (en) 1993-05-20 2001-06-12 Ambu International A/S Adjustable cervical collar
US5588957A (en) * 1993-05-20 1996-12-31 Ambu International A/S Cervical collar
US5728054A (en) * 1993-05-20 1998-03-17 Ambu International A/S Adjustable cervical collar
US5520619A (en) * 1993-05-20 1996-05-28 Ambu International A/S Adjustable cervical collar
US5993403A (en) * 1993-05-20 1999-11-30 Ambu International A/S Adjustable cervical collar
US6036664A (en) * 1994-02-22 2000-03-14 Ambu International A/S Automatic adjustable cervical collar
US6726643B1 (en) 1994-02-22 2004-04-27 Ambu International A/S Automatic adjustable cervical collar
USRE36745E (en) * 1994-09-29 2000-06-20 Ambu Inc. Extrication cervical collar with adjustable supports
US5797863A (en) * 1995-11-30 1998-08-25 Ambu International A/S Collapsible cervical collar
US6090058A (en) * 1996-12-23 2000-07-18 Laerdal Medical Corporation Multiple-size cervical collar
US6913584B2 (en) 1999-10-27 2005-07-05 Ambu Inc. Cervical immobilizing device
US20020169401A1 (en) * 2000-05-03 2002-11-14 Walpin Lionel A. Multi-positional support device
US20020156409A1 (en) * 2001-03-19 2002-10-24 Lee Freddy T. Cervical immobilization device
US7297127B2 (en) 2001-03-19 2007-11-20 Ambu Inc. Cervical immobilization device
US6770046B2 (en) * 2002-10-29 2004-08-03 Kyle J. Hansen Minimally invasive extrication cervical collar
US9226847B2 (en) 2005-09-28 2016-01-05 Cryothermic Systems, Inc. Arterial cooling elements for use with a cervical immobilization collar
US20110040223A1 (en) * 2005-09-28 2011-02-17 Life Core Technologies Llc Cervical immobilization collar with arterial cooling elements
US20110046527A1 (en) * 2005-09-28 2011-02-24 Life Core Technologies, Llc Arterial cooling elements for use with a cervical immobilization collar
US9084670B2 (en) 2005-09-28 2015-07-21 Cryothermic Systems, Inc. Cervical immobilization collar with arterial cooling elements and method of using the same
US8262597B2 (en) 2005-09-28 2012-09-11 Life Core Technologies, Llc Cervical immobilization collar with arterial cooling elements and method of using the same
US8267877B2 (en) 2005-09-28 2012-09-18 Life Core Technologies, Llc Cervical immobilization collar with arterial cooling elements
US8267878B2 (en) 2005-09-28 2012-09-18 Life Core Technologies, Llc Arterial cooling elements for use with a cervical immobilization collar
US20110040224A1 (en) * 2005-09-28 2011-02-17 Life Core Technologies, Llc Cervical immobilization collar with arterial cooling elements and method of using the same
US9517160B2 (en) 2005-09-28 2016-12-13 Cryothermic Systems, Inc. Cooling elements with bands
US9089411B2 (en) 2005-09-28 2015-07-28 Cryothermic Systems, Inc. Cervical immobilization collar with arterial cooling elements and method of using the same
US8858481B2 (en) 2008-12-03 2014-10-14 Ossur Hf Cervical collar with reduced vascular obstruction
US8870800B2 (en) 2008-12-03 2014-10-28 össur hf Cervical collar
US9668906B2 (en) 2008-12-03 2017-06-06 Ossur Hf Cervical collar
US8657768B1 (en) 2010-07-22 2014-02-25 Salvatore Calabrese Cervical collar having flexible chin support
USD647623S1 (en) * 2010-08-06 2011-10-25 Ossur Hf Height adjustment mechanism for cervical collar
CN105326597A (en) * 2010-10-27 2016-02-17 冷冻热法系统公司 Cervical immobilization collar with arterial cooling elements and methods of using the same
CN105326597B (en) * 2010-10-27 2018-05-22 冷冻热法系统公司 Fixing collar and neck artery use with a cooling element
US8932243B2 (en) 2010-12-20 2015-01-13 Salvatore Calabrese Cervical collar with independent height and circumference adjustability
US9713546B2 (en) 2012-05-21 2017-07-25 Ossur Hf Cervical collar
US9687380B1 (en) 2014-05-12 2017-06-27 David L. Falk Cervical collar brace kit, collar blanks, methods of forming a model of a patient, and methods of forming collar blanks
US20160008158A1 (en) * 2014-07-10 2016-01-14 Otto Bock Healthcare Lp Cervical collar with height adjustment mechanism
US9913746B2 (en) * 2014-07-10 2018-03-13 Otto Bock Healthcare Lp Cervical collar with height adjustment mechanism

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