Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Thermal process for in-situ decomposition of oil shale

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2780449A
US2780449A US32814452A US2780449A US 2780449 A US2780449 A US 2780449A US 32814452 A US32814452 A US 32814452A US 2780449 A US2780449 A US 2780449A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
formation
oil
gas
shale
well
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Frank R Fisher
Harry L Pelzer
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Sinclair Oil and Gas Co
Original Assignee
Sinclair Oil and Gas Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/16Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons
    • E21B43/24Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons using heat, e.g. steam injection
    • E21B43/243Combustion in situ

Description

2,780,449 THERMAL PROCESS FOR IN-SITU DECOMPOSITION OF OIL SHALE 1957 F. R. FISHER ETAL Filed Dec. 26, 1952 mmDhODmhm M435 :0

, FRANK R. FISHER HARRY L. PELZER ATTORNEYS United States Patent THERMAL PROCESS FOR IN-SITU DECOMPOSI- TION OF OIL SHALE Frank R. Fisher, Hastings on Hudson, N. Y., and Harry L. Pelzer, Catoosa, Okla, assignors to Sinclair Oil and Gas Company, Tulsa, Okla, a corporation of Maine Application December 26, 1952, Serial No. 328,144

5 Claims. (Cl. 262-3) Our invention relates to improvements in the recovery of oil from subsurface oil shale formations and particularly relates to a process providing in situ means for decomposition of the oil shale and for recovery of its oil content. Although vast reserves of oil in the form of shale oil are potentially available both in this country and abroad, the high costs of mining the oil shale, crushing and grinding it as a preliminary to any feasible recovery method such as by high temperature retorting make shale oil as a source of additional oil completely infeasible from the present economic standpoint. Thus before shale oil is available in crude form comparable to ordinary crude petroleum, the operations of stripping or drilling the overburden, mining the rock, transporting the rock to the surface and/or a suitable processing point, crushing the shale and grinding the crushed rock to a particle size permitting efiective heat treating and retorting the shale particles at high temperature must be performed. Even though potential recovery of shale oil may approximate as high as 50 to 75 gallons per ton of shale processed, the aggregate mining and processing costs impose such an economic burden that it would seem that shale oil could not become a significant energy supply factor unless a real and substantial shortage of petroleum developed.

The object of our invention is to provide a practical process for recovering shale oil by in situ means which will eliminate the costly operations of mining, transporting and processing the rock. More particularly, we accomplish in situ decomposition of the oil shale and induce flow of the shale oil in a manner permitting practical recovery by thermal means. Although application of underground burning or thermal methods has been proposed for recovery of shale oil, these proposals have failed to take into account the extreme impernieability of oil shale and hence have been unable to effect recovery except from the immediate locality of the input source of thermal energy. Obviously, a requirement that a great number of closely spaced wells must be drilled to effect recovery renders the recovery process as non-competitive with ordinary petroleum production as the requirements for mining and subsequent processing of the rock.

According to our invention, more fully described and illustrated by the accompanying drawing a plurality of wells, including an input well 3 and one or more output wells 20, may be employed in a manner similar to the well spacing patterns employed in recovery of crude oil by secondary methods. Thus an input and an output well may be drilled in a manner providing access to the oil shale formation over substantially its entire cross-section. Where outcropping of the shale formation occurs, only an input well need be drilled, and the oil may be produced from the outcrop instead of a drilled output well. A fluid pressuring medium, e. g. gas or water, is introduced through conduit 9 into the formation at an elevated pressure sufficient to penetrate the naturally occurring seams and small cracks or fissures in the shale and cause parting and cracking of the formation 15. The fluid pressuring medium can be introduced through one well until communication by pressure parting of the naturally occurring seams and cracks is established with a second well. Alternatively, the fluid pressuring medium can be introduced simultaneously through more than one well until the communication between wells has been nearly established whereupon the output well is vented and the operation is completed by fluid pressuring from the input well. Once communication between a plurality of wells, or between an input well and an outcrop, has been accomplished so as to permit passage of gases with pressure drops within the range of operation with practical compression equipment, a hot zone 12 is established within the formation at the bottom of an input well 3 by burning fuel gas or other extraneous fuel introduced via conduit 6 with air or oxygen injected through conduit 9 for a period of time sufiicient to heat a portion of the formation surrounding the input bore to a temperature promoting combustion of the carbonaceous matter left in the shale by vaporization or decomposition of the shale oils. The flow of hot combustion gases through the channels and communicating seams established during the pressure parting operation releases the trapped shale oil from the shale particles by vaporization and desorption so that the released shale oil can flow into the system of communicating passages. As the flowing oil passes into the cold unheated portions of the formation 15, condensation and increase in viscosity of course occurs, but the pressure drive effect of the combustion gases continues flow into the region of the output well which can be produced by pumping or other means.

In operation according to our invention, the potential producing field 15 is advantageously handled as a whole by drilling a plurality of wells 3 spaced in a manner designed to cover the subsurface formation efficiently but economically. Advantageously, a 5-spot or 9-spot pattern with a central input well may be employed as in conventional secondary petroleum recovery operations. The input well 3, or wells if more than one is employed, should be cased and capped for the pressure parting operation by cementing off the bore below the overburden line. As noted above, more than one well is advantageously employed in pressure parting operations until communication between the wells is nearly completed when the output Well or wells are vented. The pressure required to separate or pressure part the oil shale formation varies with the depth of the formation, its structure and permeability and the nature of the surrounding geologic structures. The pressure is best determined by actual trial in each individual formation, but as a rule of thumb, approximately one p. s. i. is required for each foot of depth. With shallow formations a pressure from about 50 percent in excess of the calculated overburden pressure to 350-400 pounds indicated as pressure above the overburden pressure may be required. If the structure or thickness of the oil shale formation requires, well bore packers may be installed at varying distances to reduce the equipment requirements for obtaining the necessary pressures for parting and cracking formation.

After formation parting and cracking has been accomplished a hot zone 12 should be established within the formation in the region of the input well or wells. The heating operation may be effected for example by piping air and fuel gas separately through conduits 9 and 6, respectively, to the bottom of the well in an explosive ratio, mixing the air and fuel at the bottom of the well and igniting the mixture by means of a pilot burner, a spark ignition device, a time delay bomb or the like. The heating operation is continued until a suflicient block of heat is built up within the formation to insure re-igni-tion of residual combustible material or an air-fuel gas mixture without resorting to ignition aids. In order to maintain the thermal drive phase of the recovery operation eficiently, the tempera-ture level in the hot zone 12 should be at least about 1,000 F. or higher in its peak region. The amount of heat required to heat up a designated portion of the formation from the input well to a given temperature is susceptible of calculation by taking into account the dimensions of the formation, the thermal properties of the oil shale and the flow rate of the combustion mixture. Usually the direct firing phase of the thermal operation requires a substantial period of time, e, g., about a month. The gas flow rate should be as high as is practicable at a pressure sufficient to maintain passage through the formation from the input well to the output wells or output zone. For example, a flow rate of about 50,000 cubic feet per hour may be employed. Assuming an oil content of about 1200 barrels per acre-foot, about 10,000 cubic feet of air per barrel of oil produced may be taken as a basis for planning the operation.

When the heat zone 12 has been established in the region of the input well 3, the operation is conducted by discontinuing burning at the bottom of the input well 3 and moving the heat zone 12 as a thermal front 14 or wave radially outward into the formation 15 in the direction of the output wells. Thus, introduction of an unheated substantially non-ccmbustible oxygen-containing gas stream is substituted so that the region of peak temperature is moved gradually outward into the formation 15 as the cold input gas flow continues at high rate from conduit 9. ln this manner, the injected gas stream acts as an effective heat transfer medium, absorbing heat as it approaches the peak temperature region and transferring heat absorbed in the process to the cooler regions of the formation 15 beyond the hot zone. Thus the hot zone is moved as a front or thermal wave 14 from the input well region through the formation toward the output Wells or outcrops. During the operation or as part of a coordinated cycle, the temperature level is maintained in the frontal zone by controlling the oxygen content of the input gas with Water, recycle field gas or other substantially inert diluents.

In order to accomplish continuous forward movement of the heat zone 14 as a wave of relatively narrow profile and high peait temperature, it is important to move the hot zone 14 out into the formation by use of a relatively cool gas drive and to avoid burn-bacl in the incoming gas drive stream. Accordingly, the operation may be conducted by cutting back the hydrocarbon content of the drive gas stream to a proportion below the explosive limit so that the mixture cannot ignite until it is well out into the formation where unburned carbonaceous matter is available to enrich the fuel-oxygen ratio to within combustible limits and where a high enough temperature for spontaneous combustion exists. For example, a gas drive at 50,000 cubic feet per hou may be employed providing a hydrocarbon content equivalent to 40 B. t. it. per cubic foot; e. g. about 4 percent methane in air, without danger of burn-back. Alternatively, alternate cycles in which an inert gas mixture; e, g. recycled field gas substantially free of oxygen, is introduced through conduit 9 as the cold gas drive until the temperature level in the hot zone begins to drop to a point endangering spontaneous reignition whereupon air or an oxygen-containing gas mixture which may be supplemented with fuel gas is substituted as the injection medium until the desired temperature level is restored in the hot zone. In this way, the hot zone 14 is moved out into the formation as a wave leaving bands of carbonaceous residue during the periods of inert gas drive. The duration of the inert gas drive cycle may approximate, for example, from several days to several weeks operation while the combustion drive cycle is usually substantially shorter in duration.

The residual carbon content of the shale after thermal displacement of the bulk of the oil content is available as fuel and advantageously is utilized as such at least in part in the combustion cycle by introduction of sufficient oxygen in the cycle gas. If the residual carbon content is low and extraneous fuel gas forms the chief combustible component, it is desirable to restrict the oxygen con tent of the oxygen-containing gas drive to less than about 6 percent in order to insure that burn-back from the hot front to the input well will not result with corresponding immobilization of the heat wave and excessive consumption of fuel.

The progress of the thermal operations within the formation can be followed by a number of means. Most directly, temperature recording wells can be drilled into the formation at appropriate intervals, or temperature rccording means can be injected laterally into the formation from the input well by horizontal drilling techniques. Indirect means, however, rovide a relatively sensitive means of following the operations involved even though allowance must be made for an inevitable time lag caused by the time required by the gas stream to traverse the formation. During combustion periods when oxygen is injected as a part of the gas drive, the proportions of oxygen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the edit:- ent gases are indicative of the relative completeness of combustion reactions and the correctness of the ratios of oxygen to the fuel in the injection gas stream.

A particular advantage of our combined method of imparting permeability to the subsurface shale oil formation by preliminary pressure parting followed by in situ decomposition of the shale to release oil by thermal means is that the essential initial permeability is established without necessity of supplying large amounts of heat or of employing costly mechanical methods. A further advange is that the thermal gas drive system, once initiated, tends to increase greatly the porosity of the shale by cracking and disintegrating the rock making it more and more permeable to subsurface gas llow, so that the efficiency of the overall gas drive operation increases as the operation proceeds. Since the region to be heated is confined by control of the gas drive operation to a peak frontal area or wave out in the region of decomposition, vaporization and oil flow, there is no need to attempt to heat the entire underground formation and the fuel costs per barrel of oil produced are small.

We claim:

1. A process for the recovery of shale oil from a subsurface oil shale formation by in situ decomposition which comprises drilling an input well to provide access to the oil shale formation, introducing a fluid pressuring medium into the formation at an elevated pressure suflicient to cause parting and cracking of the formation, establishing a hot zone within the formation by burning fuel gas at the bottom of the input well for a period of time suflicient to heat the surrounding formation to an elevated temperature promoting spontaneous combustion Within the formation; discontinuing burning at the bottom of the well, introducing an unheated substantially non-combustible oxygen-containing gas into said input well and passing said gas through said hot zone to absorb heat and to transfer absorbed heat to cooler regions of the shale formation beyond said hot zone, thereby mov ing said hot zone gradually outward into the formation; introducing into said hot zone a cool oxygen-containing combustion-supporting gas to promote forward movement of said hot zone as a thermal wave of relatively narrow profile and high peak temperature promoting combustion in a limited region of the formation, whereby oil is distilled in the formation in front of the advancing hot zone, and recovering oil from an output zone.

2. A process for the recovery of shale oil from a subsurface oil shale formation by in-situ decomposition which comprises drilling a plurality of input wells to provide access to the oil shale formation, introducing a fluid pressuring medium into the formation by means of said wells at an elevated pressure sufiicient to cause parting and cracking of the formation and until permeability permitting gas flow between said wells has been established, establishing a hot zone within the formation by burning fuel gas at the bottom of the input well for a period of time sufi'icient to heat the surrounding formation to an elevated temperature promoting spontaneous combustion Within the formation; discontinuing burning at the bottom of the well, introducing an unheated substantially non-combustible oxygen-containing gas into the input welt and passing said gas through said hot zone to absorb heat and to transfer absorbed heat to cooler regions of the shale formation beyond said hot zone, thereby moving said hot zone gradua'ily outward into the formation; introducing intosaid hot zone a cool oxygencontaining combustion-supporting gas to promote forward movement of said hot zone as a thermal wave of relatively narrow profile and high peak temperature promoting combustion in a limited region of the formation, whereby oil is distilled in the formation in front of the advancing hot zone, and recovering oil from an output zone.

3. The process of claim 1 wherein said combustionsupporting gas contains hydrocarbon gas in a proportion below the explosive limit whereby said gas ignites only in the presence of unburned carbonaceous matter hav- References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS l,422,204 Hoover et al. July 11, 1922 2,497,868 Dalin Feb. 21, 1950 2,584,605 Merriam et al. Feb. 5, 1952 2,584,606 Merriam et al. Feb. 5, 1952 2,596,843 Farris May 13, 1952 2,630,307 Martin Mar. 3, 1953 2,642,943 Smith et al. June 23, 1953 2,695,163 Pearce et al Nov. 23, 1954

Claims (1)

1. A PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF SHALE OIL FROM A SUBOSURFACE OIL SHALE FORMATION BY IN-SITU DECOMPOSITION WHICH COMPRISES DRILLING AN INPUT WELL TO PROVIDE ACCESS TO THE OIL SHALE FORMATION, INTRODUCING A FLUID PRESSURING MEDIUM INTO THE FORMATION AT AN ELEVATED PRESSURE SUFFICIENT TO CAUSE PARTING AND CRACKING OF THE FORMATION, ESTABLISHING A HOT ZONE WITHIN THE FORMATION BY BURNING FUEL GAS AT THE BOTTOM OF THE INPUT WELL FOR A PERIOD OF TIME SUFFICIENT TO HEAT THE SURROUNDING FORMATION TO AN ELEVATED TEMPERATURE PROMOTING SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION WITHIN THE FORMATION; DISCONTINUING BURNING AT THE BOTTOM OF THE WELL, INTRODUCING AN UNHEATED SUBSTANTIALLY NON-COMBUSTIBLE OXYGEN-CONTAINING GAS INTO SAID INPUT WELL AND PASSING SAID GAS THROUGH SAID HOT ZONE TO ABSORB HEAT AND TO TRANSFER ABSORBED HEAT TO COOLER REGIONS OF THE SHALE FORMATION BEYOND SAID HOT ZONE, THEREBY MOVIGN SAID HOT ZONE GRADUALLY OUTWARD INTO THE FORMATION; INTRODUCING INTO SAID HOT ZONE A COOL OXYGEN-CONTAINING COMBUSTION-SUPPORTING GAS TO PROMOTE FORWARD MOVEMENT OF SAID HOT ZONE AS A THERMAL WAVE OF RELATIVELY NARROW PROFILE AND HIGH PEAK TEMPRATURE PROMOTING COMBUSTION IN A LIMITED REGION OF THE FORMATION, WHEREBY OIL IS DISTILLED IN THE FORMATION IN FROM OF THE ADVANCING HOT ZONE, AND RECOVERING OIL FROM AN OUTPUT ZONE.
US2780449A 1952-12-26 1952-12-26 Thermal process for in-situ decomposition of oil shale Expired - Lifetime US2780449A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2780449A US2780449A (en) 1952-12-26 1952-12-26 Thermal process for in-situ decomposition of oil shale

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2780449A US2780449A (en) 1952-12-26 1952-12-26 Thermal process for in-situ decomposition of oil shale

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2780449A true US2780449A (en) 1957-02-05

Family

ID=23279710

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US2780449A Expired - Lifetime US2780449A (en) 1952-12-26 1952-12-26 Thermal process for in-situ decomposition of oil shale

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2780449A (en)

Cited By (86)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2880802A (en) * 1955-03-28 1959-04-07 Phillips Petroleum Co Recovery of hydrocarbons from oil-bearing strata
US2901043A (en) * 1955-07-29 1959-08-25 Pan American Petroleum Corp Heavy oil recovery
US2911206A (en) * 1957-03-08 1959-11-03 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ retorting of oil shale
US2914309A (en) * 1953-05-25 1959-11-24 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Oil and gas recovery from tar sands
US2917296A (en) * 1957-03-08 1959-12-15 Phillips Petroleum Co Recovery of hydrocarbon from oil shale adjoining a permeable oilbearing stratum
US2930598A (en) * 1957-08-26 1960-03-29 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ combustion of carbonaceous deposits
US2939688A (en) * 1955-10-05 1960-06-07 Sinclair Oil & Gas Company Opening fissures in low-permeability strata
US2946382A (en) * 1956-09-19 1960-07-26 Phillips Petroleum Co Process for recovering hydrocarbons from underground formations
US2952449A (en) * 1957-02-01 1960-09-13 Fmc Corp Method of forming underground communication between boreholes
US2954218A (en) * 1956-12-17 1960-09-27 Continental Oil Co In situ roasting and leaching of uranium ores
US2962095A (en) * 1957-03-06 1960-11-29 Pan American Petroleum Corp Underground combustion process for oil recovery
US2967052A (en) * 1958-03-31 1961-01-03 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ combustion process
US2970826A (en) * 1958-11-21 1961-02-07 Texaco Inc Recovery of oil from oil shale
US3001776A (en) * 1959-04-10 1961-09-26 Ohio Oil Company Method of preparation for and performance of in situ retorting
US3004594A (en) * 1956-11-19 1961-10-17 Phillips Petroleum Co Process for producing oil
US3017168A (en) * 1959-01-26 1962-01-16 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ retorting of oil shale
US3024841A (en) * 1958-07-30 1962-03-13 Jersey Prod Res Co Method of oil recovery by in situ combustion
US3034580A (en) * 1959-08-31 1962-05-15 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ combustion of lignite
US3079995A (en) * 1958-04-16 1963-03-05 Richfield Oil Corp Petroleum recovery from subsurface oil-bearing formation
US3085957A (en) * 1957-12-26 1963-04-16 Richfield Oil Corp Nuclear reactor for heating a subsurface stratum
US3091292A (en) * 1959-02-12 1963-05-28 Texaco Inc Recovering hydrocarbons from subsurface formations
US3113620A (en) * 1959-07-06 1963-12-10 Exxon Research Engineering Co Process for producing viscous oil
US3126955A (en) * 1964-03-31 Oil recovery process
US3136361A (en) * 1959-05-11 1964-06-09 Phillips Petroleum Co Fracturing formations in wells
US3149670A (en) * 1962-03-27 1964-09-22 Smclair Res Inc In-situ heating process
US3163216A (en) * 1961-12-15 1964-12-29 Pan American Petroleum Corp Use of water injection for promoting uniform initiation of underground combustion
US3170515A (en) * 1961-06-12 1965-02-23 Jersey Prod Res Co In-situ combustion process
US3196945A (en) * 1962-10-08 1965-07-27 Pan American Petroleum Company Method of forward in situ combustion with water injection
US3208519A (en) * 1961-07-17 1965-09-28 Exxon Production Research Co Combined in situ combustion-water injection oil recovery process
US3223158A (en) * 1962-12-10 1965-12-14 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc In situ retorting of oil shale
US3228468A (en) * 1961-12-08 1966-01-11 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc In-situ recovery of hydrocarbons from underground formations of oil shale
US3239405A (en) * 1963-11-04 1966-03-08 Pan American Petroleum Corp Underground combustion process
US3379254A (en) * 1966-08-25 1968-04-23 Mobil Oil Corp Method for initiating in situ combustion within a subterranean formation
US3400762A (en) * 1966-07-08 1968-09-10 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ thermal recovery of oil from an oil shale
US3454958A (en) * 1966-11-04 1969-07-08 Phillips Petroleum Co Producing oil from nuclear-produced chimneys in oil shale
US3502372A (en) * 1968-10-23 1970-03-24 Shell Oil Co Process of recovering oil and dawsonite from oil shale
US3593789A (en) * 1968-10-18 1971-07-20 Shell Oil Co Method for producing shale oil from an oil shale formation
US3596993A (en) * 1969-02-14 1971-08-03 Mc Donnell Douglas Corp Method of extracting oil and by-products from oil shale
US3599714A (en) * 1969-09-08 1971-08-17 Roger L Messman Method of recovering hydrocarbons by in situ combustion
US3630278A (en) * 1968-11-07 1971-12-28 Phillips Petroleum Co Method for strengthening reservoir fractures
US3994343A (en) * 1974-03-04 1976-11-30 Occidental Petroleum Corporation Process for in situ oil shale retorting with off gas recycling
US4045085A (en) * 1975-04-14 1977-08-30 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Fracturing of pillars for enhancing recovery of oil from in situ oil shale retort
US4202168A (en) * 1977-04-28 1980-05-13 Gulf Research & Development Company Method for the recovery of power from LHV gas
US4263970A (en) * 1977-01-27 1981-04-28 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Method for assuring uniform combustion in an in situ oil shale retort
US4369841A (en) * 1980-12-29 1983-01-25 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Method for igniting an in situ oil shale retort
US4573530A (en) * 1983-11-07 1986-03-04 Mobil Oil Corporation In-situ gasification of tar sands utilizing a combustible gas
US20020027001A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-03-07 Wellington Scott L. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce a selected gas mixture
US20030080604A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US20030079877A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation in a reducing environment
US20030100451A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Messier Margaret Ann In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with backproduction through a heater wellbore
US6588504B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US20030155111A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-21 Shell Oil Co In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US20030173081A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US20030173085A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Upgrading and mining of coal
US20030173072A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Forming openings in a hydrocarbon containing formation using magnetic tracking
US20030173082A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US20030178191A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2003-09-25 Maher Kevin Albert In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030192693A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-16 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US6684948B1 (en) 2002-01-15 2004-02-03 Marshall T. Savage Apparatus and method for heating subterranean formations using fuel cells
US6698515B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6715546B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US6715548B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US20040140095A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2004-07-22 Vinegar Harold J. Staged and/or patterned heating during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20050016729A1 (en) * 2002-01-15 2005-01-27 Savage Marshall T. Linearly scalable geothermic fuel cells
US20050269077A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Start-up of temperature limited heaters using direct current (DC)
US7051808B1 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7096953B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
US7121342B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7165615B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-23 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US20070045265A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Mckinzie Billy J Ii Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes
US20070095537A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-05-03 Vinegar Harold J Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent
US20070108201A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-17 Vinegar Harold J Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase wye configuration
US20080017380A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-01-24 Vinegar Harold J Non-ferromagnetic overburden casing
US20080128134A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-05 Ramesh Raju Mudunuri Producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US20090071652A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-03-19 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US20090189617A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-07-30 David Burns Continuous subsurface heater temperature measurement
US20090260823A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 Robert George Prince-Wright Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100089586A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-15 John Andrew Stanecki Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100258291A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Everett De St Remey Edward Heated liners for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8631866B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-01-21 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8701768B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations
US8820406B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-02 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore
US9016370B2 (en) 2011-04-08 2015-04-28 Shell Oil Company Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US9033042B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-19 Shell Oil Company Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US20150136390A1 (en) * 2012-06-28 2015-05-21 Jasim Saleh Al-Azzawi Extracting oil from underground reservoirs
US9309755B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2016-04-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1422204A (en) * 1919-12-19 1922-07-11 Wilson W Hoover Method for working oil shales
US2497868A (en) * 1946-10-10 1950-02-21 Dalin David Underground exploitation of fuel deposits
US2584606A (en) * 1948-07-02 1952-02-05 Edmund S Merriam Thermal drive method for recovery of oil
US2584605A (en) * 1948-04-14 1952-02-05 Edmund S Merriam Thermal drive method for recovery of oil
US2596843A (en) * 1949-12-31 1952-05-13 Stanolind Oil & Gas Co Fracturing formations in wells
US2630307A (en) * 1948-12-09 1953-03-03 Carbonic Products Inc Method of recovering oil from oil shale
US2642943A (en) * 1949-05-20 1953-06-23 Sinclair Oil & Gas Co Oil recovery process
US2695163A (en) * 1950-12-09 1954-11-23 Stanolind Oil & Gas Co Method for gasification of subterranean carbonaceous deposits

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1422204A (en) * 1919-12-19 1922-07-11 Wilson W Hoover Method for working oil shales
US2497868A (en) * 1946-10-10 1950-02-21 Dalin David Underground exploitation of fuel deposits
US2584605A (en) * 1948-04-14 1952-02-05 Edmund S Merriam Thermal drive method for recovery of oil
US2584606A (en) * 1948-07-02 1952-02-05 Edmund S Merriam Thermal drive method for recovery of oil
US2630307A (en) * 1948-12-09 1953-03-03 Carbonic Products Inc Method of recovering oil from oil shale
US2642943A (en) * 1949-05-20 1953-06-23 Sinclair Oil & Gas Co Oil recovery process
US2596843A (en) * 1949-12-31 1952-05-13 Stanolind Oil & Gas Co Fracturing formations in wells
US2695163A (en) * 1950-12-09 1954-11-23 Stanolind Oil & Gas Co Method for gasification of subterranean carbonaceous deposits

Cited By (496)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3126955A (en) * 1964-03-31 Oil recovery process
US2914309A (en) * 1953-05-25 1959-11-24 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Oil and gas recovery from tar sands
US2880802A (en) * 1955-03-28 1959-04-07 Phillips Petroleum Co Recovery of hydrocarbons from oil-bearing strata
US2901043A (en) * 1955-07-29 1959-08-25 Pan American Petroleum Corp Heavy oil recovery
US2939688A (en) * 1955-10-05 1960-06-07 Sinclair Oil & Gas Company Opening fissures in low-permeability strata
US2946382A (en) * 1956-09-19 1960-07-26 Phillips Petroleum Co Process for recovering hydrocarbons from underground formations
US3004594A (en) * 1956-11-19 1961-10-17 Phillips Petroleum Co Process for producing oil
US2954218A (en) * 1956-12-17 1960-09-27 Continental Oil Co In situ roasting and leaching of uranium ores
US2952449A (en) * 1957-02-01 1960-09-13 Fmc Corp Method of forming underground communication between boreholes
US2962095A (en) * 1957-03-06 1960-11-29 Pan American Petroleum Corp Underground combustion process for oil recovery
US2911206A (en) * 1957-03-08 1959-11-03 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ retorting of oil shale
US2917296A (en) * 1957-03-08 1959-12-15 Phillips Petroleum Co Recovery of hydrocarbon from oil shale adjoining a permeable oilbearing stratum
US2930598A (en) * 1957-08-26 1960-03-29 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ combustion of carbonaceous deposits
US3085957A (en) * 1957-12-26 1963-04-16 Richfield Oil Corp Nuclear reactor for heating a subsurface stratum
US2967052A (en) * 1958-03-31 1961-01-03 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ combustion process
US3079995A (en) * 1958-04-16 1963-03-05 Richfield Oil Corp Petroleum recovery from subsurface oil-bearing formation
US3024841A (en) * 1958-07-30 1962-03-13 Jersey Prod Res Co Method of oil recovery by in situ combustion
US2970826A (en) * 1958-11-21 1961-02-07 Texaco Inc Recovery of oil from oil shale
US3017168A (en) * 1959-01-26 1962-01-16 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ retorting of oil shale
US3091292A (en) * 1959-02-12 1963-05-28 Texaco Inc Recovering hydrocarbons from subsurface formations
US3001776A (en) * 1959-04-10 1961-09-26 Ohio Oil Company Method of preparation for and performance of in situ retorting
US3136361A (en) * 1959-05-11 1964-06-09 Phillips Petroleum Co Fracturing formations in wells
US3113620A (en) * 1959-07-06 1963-12-10 Exxon Research Engineering Co Process for producing viscous oil
US3034580A (en) * 1959-08-31 1962-05-15 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ combustion of lignite
US3170515A (en) * 1961-06-12 1965-02-23 Jersey Prod Res Co In-situ combustion process
US3208519A (en) * 1961-07-17 1965-09-28 Exxon Production Research Co Combined in situ combustion-water injection oil recovery process
US3228468A (en) * 1961-12-08 1966-01-11 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc In-situ recovery of hydrocarbons from underground formations of oil shale
US3163216A (en) * 1961-12-15 1964-12-29 Pan American Petroleum Corp Use of water injection for promoting uniform initiation of underground combustion
US3149670A (en) * 1962-03-27 1964-09-22 Smclair Res Inc In-situ heating process
US3196945A (en) * 1962-10-08 1965-07-27 Pan American Petroleum Company Method of forward in situ combustion with water injection
US3223158A (en) * 1962-12-10 1965-12-14 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc In situ retorting of oil shale
US3239405A (en) * 1963-11-04 1966-03-08 Pan American Petroleum Corp Underground combustion process
US3400762A (en) * 1966-07-08 1968-09-10 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ thermal recovery of oil from an oil shale
US3379254A (en) * 1966-08-25 1968-04-23 Mobil Oil Corp Method for initiating in situ combustion within a subterranean formation
US3454958A (en) * 1966-11-04 1969-07-08 Phillips Petroleum Co Producing oil from nuclear-produced chimneys in oil shale
US3593789A (en) * 1968-10-18 1971-07-20 Shell Oil Co Method for producing shale oil from an oil shale formation
US3502372A (en) * 1968-10-23 1970-03-24 Shell Oil Co Process of recovering oil and dawsonite from oil shale
US3630278A (en) * 1968-11-07 1971-12-28 Phillips Petroleum Co Method for strengthening reservoir fractures
US3596993A (en) * 1969-02-14 1971-08-03 Mc Donnell Douglas Corp Method of extracting oil and by-products from oil shale
US3599714A (en) * 1969-09-08 1971-08-17 Roger L Messman Method of recovering hydrocarbons by in situ combustion
US3994343A (en) * 1974-03-04 1976-11-30 Occidental Petroleum Corporation Process for in situ oil shale retorting with off gas recycling
US4045085A (en) * 1975-04-14 1977-08-30 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Fracturing of pillars for enhancing recovery of oil from in situ oil shale retort
US4263970A (en) * 1977-01-27 1981-04-28 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Method for assuring uniform combustion in an in situ oil shale retort
US4202168A (en) * 1977-04-28 1980-05-13 Gulf Research & Development Company Method for the recovery of power from LHV gas
US4369841A (en) * 1980-12-29 1983-01-25 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Method for igniting an in situ oil shale retort
US4573530A (en) * 1983-11-07 1986-03-04 Mobil Oil Corporation In-situ gasification of tar sands utilizing a combustible gas
US6913078B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-07-05 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively impermeable formation
US20020040778A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-04-11 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen content
US20020049360A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-04-25 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture including ammonia
US20020046883A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-04-25 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US20020076212A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-06-20 Etuan Zhang In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation producing a mixture with oxygenated hydrocarbons
US20020132862A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-09-19 Vinegar Harold J. Production of synthesis gas from a coal formation
US6973967B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-12-13 Shell Oil Company Situ thermal processing of a coal formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US6994168B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Scott Lee Wellington In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen to carbon ratio
US6994160B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6994161B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-07 Kevin Albert Maher In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected moisture content
US6997255B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-02-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a reducing environment
US7011154B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US7017661B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-28 Shell Oil Company Production of synthesis gas from a coal formation
US6966372B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-11-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce oxygen containing formation fluids
US6959761B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-11-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US6953087B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-10-11 Shell Oil Company Thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a permeability of the formation
US20020027001A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2002-03-07 Wellington Scott L. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce a selected gas mixture
US6948563B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-09-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen content
US6588504B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US6591906B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected oxygen content
US6591907B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6923258B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-08-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processsing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US6758268B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6910536B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US6902003B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation having a selected total organic carbon content
US6902004B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-06-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a movable heating element
US6896053B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-05-24 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US6889769B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-05-10 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected moisture content
US6688387B1 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-02-10 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a hydrocarbon condensate
US7036583B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-05-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a porosity of the formation
US6880635B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-04-19 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio
US6877554B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-04-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US6871707B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-03-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US6607033B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-08-19 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce a condensate
US20090101346A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2009-04-23 Shell Oil Company, Inc. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6609570B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-08-26 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation and ammonia production
US6866097B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2005-03-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to increase a permeability/porosity of the formation
US6820688B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-11-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of coal formation with a selected hydrogen content and/or selected H/C ratio
US6805195B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-10-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US7798221B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2010-09-21 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6789625B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-09-14 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using exposed metal heat sources
US6769485B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-08-03 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation through a heat source wellbore
US20110088904A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2011-04-21 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030178191A1 (en) * 2000-04-24 2003-09-25 Maher Kevin Albert In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US8225866B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2012-07-24 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8485252B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2013-07-16 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8789586B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2014-07-29 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6769483B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-08-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor in conduit heat sources
US6581684B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-06-24 Shell Oil Company In Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce sulfur containing formation fluids
US7086468B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US7096953B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
US6763886B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US6732795B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6698515B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US7096941B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with heat sources located at an edge of a coal layer
US6702016B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with heat sources located at an edge of a formation layer
US6708758B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US6712136B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a selected production well spacing
US6712137B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6712135B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation in reducing environment
US6715549B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected atomic oxygen to carbon ratio
US6715546B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US6715547B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to form a substantially uniform, high permeability formation
US6715548B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US6719047B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-13 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a hydrogen-rich environment
US6722430B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected oxygen content and/or selected O/C ratio
US6722431B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively permeable formation
US6722429B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-20 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US6725921B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6725928B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a distributed combustor
US6725920B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to convert a selected amount of total organic carbon into hydrocarbon products
US6729401B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation and ammonia production
US6729397B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6729395B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US6729396B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6732796B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio
US6761216B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-07-13 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US6732794B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-11 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US6736215B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-18 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation, in situ production of synthesis gas, and carbon dioxide sequestration
US6739394B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-25 Shell Oil Company Production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6739393B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-05-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation and tuning production
US6742588B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce formation fluids having a relatively low olefin content
US6742587B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to form a substantially uniform, relatively high permeable formation
US6742593B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat transfer from a heat transfer fluid to heat the formation
US6742589B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-01 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US6745831B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6745832B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to control product composition
US6745837B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a controlled heating rate
US6749021B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a controlled heating rate
US6752210B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-06-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US6991031B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to convert a selected total organic carbon content into hydrocarbon products
US20030141066A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Karanikas John Michael In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking
US7096942B1 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation while controlling pressure
US20060213657A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2006-09-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US7066254B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-27 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US7055600B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate
US7051811B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing through an open wellbore in an oil shale formation
US7051807B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control
US7225866B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2007-06-05 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US20100270015A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2010-10-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20030173080A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-09-18 Berchenko Ilya Emil In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US7735935B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2010-06-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation containing carbonate minerals
US7040400B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation using an open wellbore
US20040211557A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2004-10-28 Cole Anthony Thomas Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20040211554A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2004-10-28 Vinegar Harold J. Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US20030173078A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-09-18 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a condensate
US7040399B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate
US7040398B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-05-09 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation in a reducing environment
US20030164239A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-09-04 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment
US20030148894A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-07 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20030146002A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-07 Vinegar Harold J. Removable heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US6877555B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-04-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking
US20030142964A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate
US6880633B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-04-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product
US20030141068A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Pierre De Rouffignac Eric In situ thermal processing through an open wellbore in an oil shale formation
US20030141067A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-31 Rouffignac Eric Pierre De In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to increase permeability of the formation
US20030136558A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product
US20030136559A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation
US20030137181A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-24 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US20030131996A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections
US20030131995A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation to increase permeability of the formation
US6915850B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections
US6918443B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6918442B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment
US20030131993A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-07-17 Etuan Zhang In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property
US6923257B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-08-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a condensate
US6929067B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-08-16 Shell Oil Company Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7032660B2 (en) * 2001-04-24 2006-04-25 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US6948562B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-09-27 Shell Oil Company Production of a blending agent using an in situ thermal process in a relatively permeable formation
US20030116315A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-26 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation
US6951247B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-10-04 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources
US20030111223A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-19 Rouffignac Eric Pierre De In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources
US20030102124A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a blending agent from a relatively permeable formation
US6964300B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-11-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with backproduction through a heater wellbore
US20030102130A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control
US6966374B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-11-22 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US20030102126A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Sumnu-Dindoruk Meliha Deniz In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate
US7013972B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-03-21 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a natural distributed combustor
US20030102125A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-06-05 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation in a reducing environment
US7004247B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-28 Shell Oil Company Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7004251B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-28 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing and remediation of an oil shale formation
US20030098149A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US6994169B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-02-07 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property
US20030098605A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US20030100451A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-29 Messier Margaret Ann In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with backproduction through a heater wellbore
US20030079877A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation in a reducing environment
US6991033B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation
US20030080604A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-05-01 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US6981548B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation
US6991032B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US6991036B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company Thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation
US20030155111A1 (en) * 2001-04-24 2003-08-21 Shell Oil Co In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US20030205378A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-11-06 Wellington Scott Lee In situ recovery from lean and rich zones in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6991045B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-01-31 Shell Oil Company Forming openings in a hydrocarbon containing formation using magnetic tracking
US20030192691A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-16 Vinegar Harold J. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers
US20030173085A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Upgrading and mining of coal
US8627887B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2014-01-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030196789A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation and upgrading of produced fluids prior to further treatment
US6969123B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-11-29 Shell Oil Company Upgrading and mining of coal
US20070209799A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2007-09-13 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030196801A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well
US7461691B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2008-12-09 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030196810A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-23 Vinegar Harold J. Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US20030192693A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-16 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US20030173081A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US6932155B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-08-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well
US20050092483A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2005-05-05 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US7090013B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US20030173072A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. Forming openings in a hydrocarbon containing formation using magnetic tracking
US20040211569A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2004-10-28 Vinegar Harold J. Installation and use of removable heaters in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030173082A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-09-18 Vinegar Harold J. In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US7165615B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-23 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US7051808B1 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7156176B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-02 Shell Oil Company Installation and use of removable heaters in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7063145B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-06-20 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation in situ with an opening contacting the earth's surface at two locations
US7066257B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-06-27 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from lean and rich zones in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20030201098A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-10-30 Karanikas John Michael In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using one or more simulations
US7104319B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US7077199B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-07-18 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US7077198B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-07-18 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers
US7114566B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-10-03 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US7086465B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-08 Shell Oil Company In situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7100994B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-05 Shell Oil Company Producing hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon containing materials when treating a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20040040715A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2004-03-04 Wellington Scott Lee In situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7128153B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-10-31 Shell Oil Company Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US20050016729A1 (en) * 2002-01-15 2005-01-27 Savage Marshall T. Linearly scalable geothermic fuel cells
US7182132B2 (en) 2002-01-15 2007-02-27 Independant Energy Partners, Inc. Linearly scalable geothermic fuel cells
US6684948B1 (en) 2002-01-15 2004-02-03 Marshall T. Savage Apparatus and method for heating subterranean formations using fuel cells
US20050006097A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2005-01-13 Sandberg Chester Ledlie Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US20040140095A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2004-07-22 Vinegar Harold J. Staged and/or patterned heating during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8238730B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-08-07 Shell Oil Company High voltage temperature limited heaters
US7121341B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Conductor-in-conduit temperature limited heaters
US20040146288A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2004-07-29 Vinegar Harold J. Temperature limited heaters for heating subsurface formations or wellbores
US20040145969A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2004-07-29 Taixu Bai Inhibiting wellbore deformation during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20040144541A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2004-07-29 Picha Mark Gregory Forming wellbores using acoustic methods
US7073578B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2006-07-11 Shell Oil Company Staged and/or patterned heating during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8224164B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Insulated conductor temperature limited heaters
US8224163B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US20040144540A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2004-07-29 Sandberg Chester Ledlie High voltage temperature limited heaters
US7219734B2 (en) 2002-10-24 2007-05-22 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting wellbore deformation during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7360588B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2008-04-22 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7942203B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2011-05-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7640980B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2010-01-05 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US7121342B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2006-10-17 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US8579031B2 (en) 2003-04-24 2013-11-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US20050269094A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Harris Christopher K Triaxial temperature limited heater
US7481274B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-01-27 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with relatively constant current
US7490665B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-02-17 Shell Oil Company Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US7431076B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-10-07 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters using modulated DC power
US7424915B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-09-16 Shell Oil Company Vacuum pumping of conductor-in-conduit heaters
US20060289536A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2006-12-28 Vinegar Harold J Subsurface electrical heaters using nitride insulation
US20060005968A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2006-01-12 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heaters with relatively constant current
US7353872B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-04-08 Shell Oil Company Start-up of temperature limited heaters using direct current (DC)
US20050269077A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Start-up of temperature limited heaters using direct current (DC)
US7383877B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-06-10 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with thermally conductive fluid used to heat subsurface formations
US20050269092A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Vacuum pumping of conductor-in-conduit heaters
US20050269089A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Temperature limited heaters using modulated DC power
US7370704B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-05-13 Shell Oil Company Triaxial temperature limited heater
US20050269090A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heaters with thermally conductive fluid used to heat subsurface formations
US20050269093A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Sandberg Chester L Variable frequency temperature limited heaters
US7320364B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-01-22 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting reflux in a heated well of an in situ conversion system
US20050269088A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Inhibiting effects of sloughing in wellbores
US20050269313A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heaters with high power factors
US7357180B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2008-04-15 Shell Oil Company Inhibiting effects of sloughing in wellbores
US20050269095A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Fairbanks Michael D Inhibiting reflux in a heated well of an in situ conversion system
US20050269091A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-12-08 Guillermo Pastor-Sanz Reducing viscosity of oil for production from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8355623B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2013-01-15 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters with high power factors
US7510000B2 (en) 2004-04-23 2009-03-31 Shell Oil Company Reducing viscosity of oil for production from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20070108201A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-17 Vinegar Harold J Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase wye configuration
US7546873B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-06-16 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barriers for use with in situ processes
US7527094B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-05-05 Shell Oil Company Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process
US20070144732A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-28 Kim Dong S Low temperature barriers for use with in situ processes
US20070137856A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-21 Mckinzie Billy J Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process
US7575052B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-08-18 Shell Oil Company In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US8233782B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-31 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
US8230927B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-31 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US7575053B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-08-18 Shell Oil Company Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers
US8224165B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor
US20070133960A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-14 Vinegar Harold J In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
US20070133961A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-14 Fairbanks Michael D Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US20070045265A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Mckinzie Billy J Ii Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes
US8070840B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-12-06 Shell Oil Company Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process
US8027571B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-09-27 Shell Oil Company In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
US7986869B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-07-26 Shell Oil Company Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US20070045268A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Vinegar Harold J Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US20080217321A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2008-09-11 Vinegar Harold J Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor
US7942197B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2011-05-17 Shell Oil Company Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US20070133959A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-06-14 Vinegar Harold J Grouped exposed metal heaters
US20070045267A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Vinegar Harold J Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US7860377B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-12-28 Shell Oil Company Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US7500528B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-03-10 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing
US20070045266A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-03-01 Sandberg Chester L In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US7435037B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2008-10-14 Shell Oil Company Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes
US7831134B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-11-09 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
US7831133B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-11-09 Shell Oil Company Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration
US20070119098A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-31 Zaida Diaz Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process
US20070108200A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2007-05-17 Mckinzie Billy J Ii Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing
US8606091B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2013-12-10 Shell Oil Company Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates
US20070095537A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-05-03 Vinegar Harold J Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent
US20070127897A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-07 John Randy C Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates
US20070125533A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-07 Minderhoud Johannes K Methods of hydrotreating a liquid stream to remove clogging compounds
US20110168394A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2011-07-14 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US7549470B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-06-23 Shell Oil Company Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US8151880B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2012-04-10 Shell Oil Company Methods of making transportation fuel
US7635025B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-12-22 Shell Oil Company Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090301724A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2009-12-10 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US7591310B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-09-22 Shell Oil Company Methods of hydrotreating a liquid stream to remove clogging compounds
US7584789B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-09-08 Shell Oil Company Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products
US7581589B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-09-01 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US20070131419A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-14 Maria Roes Augustinus W Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US20070131427A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-14 Ruijian Li Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations
US7556096B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-07 Shell Oil Company Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations
US20080107577A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2008-05-08 Vinegar Harold J Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations
US7562706B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-21 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations
US7559367B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-14 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation
US7559368B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-14 Shell Oil Company Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US7556095B2 (en) 2005-10-24 2009-07-07 Shell Oil Company Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent
US20070221377A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-09-27 Vinegar Harold J Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20070131420A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-06-14 Weijian Mo Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products
US20070095536A1 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-05-03 Vinegar Harold J Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US8083813B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-12-27 Shell Oil Company Methods of producing transportation fuel
US20080035705A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Menotti James L Welding shield for coupling heaters
US7533719B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-05-19 Shell Oil Company Wellhead with non-ferromagnetic materials
US20080035347A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Brady Michael P Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters
US7866385B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
US7793722B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-09-14 Shell Oil Company Non-ferromagnetic overburden casing
US20080035346A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Vijay Nair Methods of producing transportation fuel
US7785427B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-08-31 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US20080174115A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Gene Richard Lambirth Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
US20080017380A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-01-24 Vinegar Harold J Non-ferromagnetic overburden casing
US7912358B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2011-03-22 Shell Oil Company Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US20080173444A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Francis Marion Stone Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US20080035348A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Vitek John M Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
US8192682B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2012-06-05 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US7604052B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-10-20 Shell Oil Company Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process
US7635023B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-12-22 Shell Oil Company Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20100272595A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2010-10-28 Shell Oil Company High strength alloys
US7683296B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-03-23 Shell Oil Company Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters
US7673786B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-03-09 Shell Oil Company Welding shield for coupling heaters
US7597147B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-10-06 Shell Oil Company Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
US20080173442A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Vinegar Harold J Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US20080173449A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Thomas David Fowler Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment
US20080038144A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-02-14 Maziasz Phillip J High strength alloys
US7610962B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-11-03 Shell Oil Company Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment
US7631689B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2009-12-15 Shell Oil Company Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US20080173450A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2008-07-24 Bernard Goldberg Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8857506B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2014-10-14 Shell Oil Company Alternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes
US20080277113A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-11-13 George Leo Stegemeier Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US7631690B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-12-15 Shell Oil Company Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence
US20080217003A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 Myron Ira Kuhlman Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process
US7540324B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-06-02 Shell Oil Company Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a checkerboard pattern staged process
US7635024B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-12-22 Shell Oil Company Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures
US20080283246A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-11-20 John Michael Karanikas Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures
US20080142216A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-19 Vinegar Harold J Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US20100276141A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2010-11-04 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US7644765B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-01-12 Shell Oil Company Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US20080217016A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 George Leo Stegemeier Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US7673681B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-09 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones
US7677314B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-16 Shell Oil Company Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations
US7677310B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-16 Shell Oil Company Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations
US7841401B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process
US7681647B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-03-23 Shell Oil Company Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US7845411B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-12-07 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US20080217004A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 De Rouffignac Eric Pierre Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a checkerboard pattern staged process
US20090014180A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2009-01-15 George Leo Stegemeier Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
US7717171B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-05-18 Shell Oil Company Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
US8191630B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2012-06-05 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US7703513B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-04-27 Shell Oil Company Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US20080142217A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-19 Roelof Pieterson Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process
US20080185147A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-08-07 Vinegar Harold J Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US20090014181A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2009-01-15 Vinegar Harold J Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations
US20080135254A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-12 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US20080135244A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-12 David Scott Miller Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process
US20080128134A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-05 Ramesh Raju Mudunuri Producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US7730946B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US7730947B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US8555971B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2013-10-15 Shell Oil Company Treating tar sands formations with dolomite
US7562707B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2009-07-21 Shell Oil Company Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process
US20080217015A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-09-11 Vinegar Harold J Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence
US20080135253A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-06-12 Vinegar Harold J Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones
US7730945B2 (en) 2006-10-20 2010-06-08 Shell Oil Company Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process
US7832484B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-16 Shell Oil Company Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US20090071652A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-03-19 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US20090321075A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-12-31 Christopher Kelvin Harris Parallel heater system for subsurface formations
US8662175B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-03-04 Shell Oil Company Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities
US7798220B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-09-21 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US8327681B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2012-12-11 Shell Oil Company Wellbore manufacturing processes for in situ heat treatment processes
US8791396B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-07-29 Shell Oil Company Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations
US8459359B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-06-11 Shell Oil Company Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones
US8381815B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2013-02-26 Shell Oil Company Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation
US9181780B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2015-11-10 Shell Oil Company Controlling and assessing pressure conditions during treatment of tar sands formations
US8042610B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-10-25 Shell Oil Company Parallel heater system for subsurface formations
US20090078461A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-03-26 Arthur James Mansure Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures
US20090084547A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-02 Walter Farman Farmayan Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations
US20090090509A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-09 Vinegar Harold J In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20090095476A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 Scott Vinh Nguyen Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US7841425B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures
US7841408B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US20090095478A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 John Michael Karanikas Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities
US20090095480A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 Vinegar Harold J In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US7849922B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2010-12-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20090095479A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 John Michael Karanikas Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation
US20090120646A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-05-14 Dong Sub Kim Electrically isolating insulated conductor heater
US20090126929A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-05-21 Vinegar Harold J Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones
US7931086B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-04-26 Shell Oil Company Heating systems for heating subsurface formations
US7950453B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2011-05-31 Shell Oil Company Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations
US20090095477A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2009-04-16 Scott Vinh Nguyen Heating systems for heating subsurface formations
US20090200025A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-13 Jose Luis Bravo High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel
US7866386B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company In situ oxidation of subsurface formations
US7866388B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-01-11 Shell Oil Company High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel
US8276661B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-10-02 Shell Oil Company Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier
US8240774B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-08-14 Shell Oil Company Solution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds
US8536497B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2013-09-17 Shell Oil Company Methods for forming long subsurface heaters
US20090189617A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-07-30 David Burns Continuous subsurface heater temperature measurement
US8011451B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2011-09-06 Shell Oil Company Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US20090194282A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Gary Lee Beer In situ oxidation of subsurface formations
US20090194329A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Rosalvina Ramona Guimerans Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations
US8272455B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-09-25 Shell Oil Company Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations
US20090194524A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Dong Sub Kim Methods for forming long subsurface heaters
US8113272B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-02-14 Shell Oil Company Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations
US8146661B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-03 Shell Oil Company Cryogenic treatment of gas
US8146669B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-03 Shell Oil Company Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation
US20090194269A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Vinegar Harold J Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations
US20090194333A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-06 Macdonald Duncan Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US8162059B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-04-24 Shell Oil Company Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations
US20090200031A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-13 David Scott Miller Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US8196658B2 (en) 2007-10-19 2012-06-12 Shell Oil Company Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090200854A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-08-13 Vinegar Harold J Solution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds
US8162405B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-04-24 Shell Oil Company Using tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8177305B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-05-15 Shell Oil Company Heater connections in mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090260824A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 David Booth Burns Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US9528322B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2016-12-27 Shell Oil Company Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US20090272533A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-11-05 David Booth Burns Heated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090272535A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-11-05 David Booth Burns Using tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8151907B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-04-10 Shell Oil Company Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US20090272578A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-11-05 Macdonald Duncan Charles Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US20100071903A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2010-03-25 Shell Oil Company Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100071904A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2010-03-25 Shell Oil Company Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8636323B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2014-01-28 Shell Oil Company Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8562078B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2013-10-22 Shell Oil Company Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8172335B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-05-08 Shell Oil Company Electrical current flow between tunnels for use in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090260823A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 Robert George Prince-Wright Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8752904B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2014-06-17 Shell Oil Company Heated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100101783A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-29 Vinegar Harold J Using self-regulating nuclear reactors in treating a subsurface formation
US8261832B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-11 Shell Oil Company Heating subsurface formations with fluids
US8256512B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-04 Shell Oil Company Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8281861B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-10-09 Shell Oil Company Circulated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8220539B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US8267170B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-18 Shell Oil Company Offset barrier wells in subsurface formations
US8353347B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2013-01-15 Shell Oil Company Deployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations
US8881806B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2014-11-11 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors
US9022118B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-05-05 Shell Oil Company Double insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations
US20100096137A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-22 Scott Vinh Nguyen Circulated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8267185B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-09-18 Shell Oil Company Circulated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation
US20100101784A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-29 Vinegar Harold J Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US9051829B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-06-09 Shell Oil Company Perforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
US9129728B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods of forming subsurface wellbores
US20100224368A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-09-09 Stanley Leroy Mason Deployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations
US20100206570A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-08-19 Ernesto Rafael Fonseca Ocampos Circulated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation
US20100155070A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-06-24 Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria Roes Organonitrogen compounds used in treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100147522A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-06-17 Xueying Xie Systems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors
US20100147521A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-06-17 Xueying Xie Perforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
US20100089586A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-15 John Andrew Stanecki Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100108379A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-05-06 David Alston Edbury Systems and methods of forming subsurface wellbores
US20100108310A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-05-06 Thomas David Fowler Offset barrier wells in subsurface formations
US20100089584A1 (en) * 2008-10-13 2010-04-15 David Booth Burns Double insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations
US20100258291A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Everett De St Remey Edward Heated liners for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20100258265A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 John Michael Karanikas Recovering energy from a subsurface formation
US20100258309A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Oluropo Rufus Ayodele Heater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US8448707B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2013-05-28 Shell Oil Company Non-conducting heater casings
US8434555B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2013-05-07 Shell Oil Company Irregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation
US20100258290A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Ronald Marshall Bass Non-conducting heater casings
US20110042084A1 (en) * 2009-04-10 2011-02-24 Robert Bos Irregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation
US8851170B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2014-10-07 Shell Oil Company Heater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US8327932B2 (en) 2009-04-10 2012-12-11 Shell Oil Company Recovering energy from a subsurface formation
US8875788B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-11-04 Shell Oil Company Low temperature inductive heating of subsurface formations
US8833453B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-16 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with tapered copper thickness
US9399905B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2016-07-26 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8820406B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-02 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore
US9022109B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-05 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US9033042B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-19 Shell Oil Company Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8631866B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-01-21 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8739874B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-06-03 Shell Oil Company Methods for heating with slots in hydrocarbon formations
US8701768B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations
US9127538B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Methodologies for treatment of hydrocarbon formations using staged pyrolyzation
US9127523B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-09-08 Shell Oil Company Barrier methods for use in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8701769B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology
US9016370B2 (en) 2011-04-08 2015-04-28 Shell Oil Company Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US9309755B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2016-04-12 Shell Oil Company Thermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations
US20150136390A1 (en) * 2012-06-28 2015-05-21 Jasim Saleh Al-Azzawi Extracting oil from underground reservoirs

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3565171A (en) Method for producing shale oil from a subterranean oil shale formation
US3285335A (en) In situ pyrolysis of oil shale formations
US3586377A (en) Method of retorting oil shale in situ
US3400762A (en) In situ thermal recovery of oil from an oil shale
US3191679A (en) Melting process for recovering bitumens from the earth
US3351132A (en) Post-primary thermal method of recovering oil from oil wells and the like
US3542131A (en) Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale
US3554285A (en) Production and upgrading of heavy viscous oils
US3480082A (en) In situ retorting of oil shale using co2 as heat carrier
USRE27252E (en) Thermal method for producing heavy oil
US3358756A (en) Method for in situ recovery of solid or semi-solid petroleum deposits
US3521709A (en) Producing oil from oil shale by heating with hot gases
US3181613A (en) Method and apparatus for subterranean heating
US3294167A (en) Thermal oil recovery
US3349845A (en) Method of establishing communication between wells
US3513914A (en) Method for producing shale oil from an oil shale formation
US3379248A (en) In situ combustion process utilizing waste heat
US3618663A (en) Shale oil production
US3165154A (en) Oil recovery by in situ combustion
US3342257A (en) In situ retorting of oil shale using nuclear energy
US3241611A (en) Recovery of petroleum products from oil shale
US3127935A (en) In situ combustion for oil recovery in tar sands, oil shales and conventional petroleum reservoirs
US3593789A (en) Method for producing shale oil from an oil shale formation
US3205942A (en) Method for recovery of hydrocarbons by in situ heating of oil shale
US3465819A (en) Use of nuclear detonations in producing hydrocarbons from an underground formation