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US2760483A - Retinal stimulator - Google Patents

Retinal stimulator Download PDF

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Publication number
US2760483A
US2760483A US46350754A US2760483A US 2760483 A US2760483 A US 2760483A US 46350754 A US46350754 A US 46350754A US 2760483 A US2760483 A US 2760483A
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stimulator
retinal
eye
retina
photo
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Tassicker Graham Edward
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Tassicker Graham Edward
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F9/00Methods or devices for treatment of the eyes; Devices for putting-in contact lenses; Devices to correct squinting; Apparatus to guide the blind; Protective devices for the eyes, carried on the body or in the hand
    • A61F9/007Methods or devices for eye surgery
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F9/00Methods or devices for treatment of the eyes; Devices for putting-in contact lenses; Devices to correct squinting; Apparatus to guide the blind; Protective devices for the eyes, carried on the body or in the hand
    • A61F9/08Devices or methods enabling eye-patients to replace direct visual perception by another kind of perception
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/36Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for stimulation
    • A61N1/36046Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for stimulation of the eye

Description

g- 28, 1956 G. E. TASSICKER 2,760,483 RETINAL STIMULATOR Filed Oct. 20, 1954 INVENTOR BY GRAHAM EDWARD TASSICKER Aitgs.

RETINAL STllVlULATOR Graham Edward Tassicker, Surrey Hills, Victoria, Australia Applicafion October 20, 1954, Serial No. 463,507

Claims priority, application Australia October 29, 1953 8 Claims. (Cl. 1281) This invention relates to the provision of a retinal stimulator for use in certain conditions of blindness or partial blindness where the retina is partly or wholly inoperative.

Blindness often results from the failure of the retina to function in the normal way, one cause of such failure being a condition known as choroidal and retinal degeneration. in such a case, the back of the retina fails to receive its blood supply from the choroid, with the result that the rods and cones of the retina fail to excite the various cells and fibres by means of which impressions are transmitted to the brain in accordance with the light pattern falling on the eye.

The object of my invention is to provide an artificial retinal stimulator which will serve under certain conditions to overcome or partly overcome defects in or lack of operation of the retina.

According to my invention, I provide a retinal stimulator which is suitably shaped and adapted to be inserted surgically into the eye and is constructed of, or covered at least in part with, material or materials adapted to stimulate artificially the cells and fibres of the retina when light falls on the eye. The retinal stimulator in accordance with my invention is preferably inserted at the back of the retina between the retina and the choroid, or it may possibly be inserted between the choroid and sclera if the choroid and retina are surgically inseparable due to disease.

The effectiveness of my invention has been demonstrated in practice. In the only case which has been so far tried, the insertion of the retinal stimulator between the choroid and the sclera was successful in giving the patient appreciation of light and large objects where there was no previous sensation of vision. Although the patient did not obtain any appreciable definition, it is thought that the insertion of the stimulator in front of the choroid instead of at the back of the choroid will be instrumental in greatly increasing the definition obtainable.

To facilitate the further and more detailed description of a preferred form of my invention, reference will now be made to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure l is a sectional plan view through equator of a left eye showing the stimulator in the preferred position, and

Figure 2 is a perspective view of the stimulator taken from the direction of the arrow 2 in Figure 1.

As shown in the drawings, the retinal stimulator consists of a disc it of between 5 and mms. diameter or greater and /2 to 1 mm. thick, dished to conform to the curvature of the retina 11, i. e. 10.5 mm. radius, and with a stepped projecting lug 12 to enable it to be held in position with sutures 13. The retinal stimulator may comprise a supporting base made of tantalum, platinum, gold, or any other metal which is compatible with biological tissue. The Whole surface is coated with a thin layer of photo-sensitive material such as selenium which has been brought to its photo-active form. The selenium crystal size must be as small as possible, so that the individual crystal potentials developed under the action of the light image will have as high a degree of resolution as possible.

It is possible for the retinal stimulator to be constructed in various other ways; for example, it might be possible to use a photo-sensitive material which itself has suflicient mechanical strength to obviate the necessity for providing a separate base. However, it is thought that the provision of a separate base for the photo-sensitive coating would be more satisfactory in practice.

As shown in Figure 1, the disc 10 is preferably inserted in the eye between the retina 11 and the choroid 14 with the concave surface of the disc directed towards the lens 15 of the eye. The lug 12 passes through the choroid 1d and the sclera l6 and is attached to the outside of the latter by sutures 13. Alternatively, the disc 10 could be inserted into the eye between the choroid and sclera. Although this simplifies the surgical operation, the result is not as satisfactory in practice.

it is thought that the retinal stimulator in accordance with the invention operates as follows:

When light entering through the eye falls on the photosensitive layer of the retinal stimulator, change in potential is developed which causes change in ionization or ion migration in the various fluids in the adjacent cell structures and this results in stimulation of either the rods and cones, or if these are non-existent due to disease, the amacrine, bipolar, horizontal or ganglion cells.

All materials immersed in, or in contact with liquids assume a definite potential with respect to the liquid, this potential being related to the rate of ionic exchange. In the case of certain photo-active materials, the potential varies according to the brightness of the light illuminating the system, the change in potential being known as the Becquerel effect. Thus when the retinal stimulator is in position in the eye, and the eye is in darkness, the stimulator assumes a certain steady potential, hereinafter referred to as the resting potential, with respect to the surrounding tissue. On illumination, the front of the stimulator assumes a changed potential with respect to the back, and this change in potential results in the change in ionization or ion migration and consequent stimulation referred to above.

For best results, the resting potential in the dark may be critical, and this potential can be adjusted either by selecting a different photo-sensitive material for the coating, or by coating only the front surface of the stimulator with the photo-sensitive material and selecting an appropriate metal for the rear surface. It is possible also that the direction of potential change on illumination may be critical for best results, that is to say, a change in a positive direction between dark and light may be more effective than a change in a negative direction.

I claim:

1. A retinal stimulator comprising a plate dished to conform to the curvature of the retina and which is suitably shaped and adapted to be inserted surgically into the back of the eye with the concave face thereof directed towards the lens of the eye, the concave face of the plate being of such material that light falling on the said face will cause the stimulator to stimulate artificially the cells and fibres of the retina.

2. A retinal stimulator as claimed in claim 1 in which the material is photo-sensitive.

3. A retinal stimulator as claimed in claim 2 and an extension on said plate whereby the plate may be secured in position in the eye.

4. A retinal stimulator as claimed in claim 3, in which 0 both sides of the said plate are covered with photosensitive material.

5. A retinal stimulator as claimed in claim 3, in which the plate and the extension are entirely covered with photo-sensitive material.

6. A retinal stimulator comprising a disc which is dished to conform to the curvature of the retina and which is adapted to be inserted surgically into the eye with the concave face directed towards the lens of the eye, and a lug attached to the disc whereby the disc may be secured in position in the eye, the disc and the lug being coated on both sides with selenium which has been brought to its photo-active form.

7. A retinal stimulator comprising a disc which is dished to conform to the curvature of the retina and which is adapted to be inserted surgically into the eye with the concave face directed towards the lens of the eye, and an oif-set lug attached to the disc whereby the disc may be secured in position in the eye, the disc and the lug being coated on both sides with selenium which has been brought to its photo-active form.

8. A retinal stimulator comprising a plate made of metal selected from the group consisting of platinum and gold, the plate being dished to conform to the curvature of the retina and adapted to be inserted surgically into the eye with the concave face directed towards the lens of the eye, and an off-set lug attached to the plate whereby the plate may be secured in position in the eye, the plate and the lug being coated on both sides with selenium which has been brought to its photo-sensitive form.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,837,364 Ives Dec. 22, 1931 2,128,103 Thomas Aug. 23, 1938 2,378,438 Saslaw June 19, 1945

US2760483A 1953-10-29 1954-10-20 Retinal stimulator Expired - Lifetime US2760483A (en)

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US4549529A (en) * 1985-10-11 1985-10-29 White Thomas C Myopia alleviation prosthesis
US4628933A (en) * 1985-07-23 1986-12-16 Michelson Robin P Method and apparatus for visual prosthesis
US5016633A (en) * 1989-08-08 1991-05-21 Chow Alan Y Artificial retina device
US5024223A (en) * 1989-08-08 1991-06-18 Chow Alan Y Artificial retina device
US5108427A (en) * 1991-01-07 1992-04-28 Majercik Stephen M Active pupillary prosthesis
US5109844A (en) * 1990-10-11 1992-05-05 Duke University Retinal microstimulation
US5397350A (en) * 1993-05-03 1995-03-14 Chow; Alan Y. Independent photoelectric artificial retina device and method of using same
US5556423A (en) * 1993-05-03 1996-09-17 Alan Y. Chow Independent photoelectric artificial retina device and method of using same
US5895415A (en) * 1995-06-06 1999-04-20 Optobionics Corporation Multi-phasic microphotodiode retinal implant and adaptive imaging retinal stimulation system
WO2000056393A1 (en) 1999-03-24 2000-09-28 Second Sight, Llc Retinal color prosthesis for color sight restoration
WO2000067676A1 (en) * 1999-05-07 2000-11-16 Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen Universitätsklinikum Retina implant and method for producing the same
US6230057B1 (en) 1995-06-06 2001-05-08 Optobionics Corporation Multi-phasic microphotodiode retinal implant and adaptive imaging retinal stimulation system
US6299603B1 (en) 1998-08-03 2001-10-09 Karl I. Hecker Injection apparatus and method of using same
US6378526B1 (en) 1998-08-03 2002-04-30 Insite Vision, Incorporated Methods of ophthalmic administration
US6389317B1 (en) 2000-03-31 2002-05-14 Optobionics Corporation Multi-phasic microphotodetector retinal implant with variable voltage and current capability
US6458157B1 (en) * 1997-08-04 2002-10-01 Suaning Gregg Joergen Retinal stimulator
US20020169486A1 (en) * 2000-05-04 2002-11-14 Optobionics Corporation Artificial retina device with stimulating and ground return electrodes disposed on opposite sides of the neuroretina and method of attachment
WO2003061537A1 (en) 2002-01-17 2003-07-31 Masachusetts Eye And Ear Infirmary Minimally invasive retinal prosthesis
US20040039401A1 (en) * 2000-03-31 2004-02-26 Chow Alan Y. Implant instrument
EP1386636A3 (en) * 2002-07-31 2004-03-31 Nidek Co., Ltd Visual restoration aiding device
US20050004625A1 (en) * 2001-06-29 2005-01-06 Chow Alan Y. Treatment of degenerative retinal disease via electrical stimulation of surface structures
US20050010266A1 (en) * 2003-03-24 2005-01-13 Les Bogdanowicz Device and methodology for ocular stimulation
US20050033202A1 (en) * 2001-06-29 2005-02-10 Chow Alan Y. Mechanically activated objects for treatment of degenerative retinal disease
US7031776B2 (en) 2001-06-29 2006-04-18 Optobionics Methods for improving damaged retinal cell function
US7037943B2 (en) 2001-04-10 2006-05-02 Optobionics Corporation Retinal treatment method
EP1762269A2 (en) 1999-03-24 2007-03-14 Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. Visual prothesis
US20100152646A1 (en) * 2008-02-29 2010-06-17 Reshma Girijavallabhan Intravitreal injection device and method
US20100204754A1 (en) * 2009-02-09 2010-08-12 Rainbow Medical Ltd. Retinal prosthesis
EP2298411A1 (en) * 1998-03-13 2011-03-23 John Hopkins University Visual prosthesis
US8180453B2 (en) 1999-03-24 2012-05-15 Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. Electrode array for neural stimulation
US8428740B2 (en) 2010-08-06 2013-04-23 Nano-Retina, Inc. Retinal prosthesis techniques
US8442641B2 (en) 2010-08-06 2013-05-14 Nano-Retina, Inc. Retinal prosthesis techniques
US8571669B2 (en) 2011-02-24 2013-10-29 Nano-Retina, Inc. Retinal prosthesis with efficient processing circuits
US8706243B2 (en) 2009-02-09 2014-04-22 Rainbow Medical Ltd. Retinal prosthesis techniques
US8718784B2 (en) 2010-01-14 2014-05-06 Nano-Retina, Inc. Penetrating electrodes for retinal stimulation
US9331791B2 (en) 2014-01-21 2016-05-03 Nano Retina Ltd. Transfer of power and data
US9370417B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2016-06-21 Nano-Retina, Inc. Foveated retinal prosthesis
US9474902B2 (en) 2013-12-31 2016-10-25 Nano Retina Ltd. Wearable apparatus for delivery of power to a retinal prosthesis

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1837364A (en) * 1925-08-20 1931-12-22 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Signaling apparatus
US2128103A (en) * 1936-05-13 1938-08-23 Albert G Thomas Self generating phototube
US2378438A (en) * 1943-05-01 1945-06-19 Fed Telephone & Radio Corp Method of making selenium elements

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1837364A (en) * 1925-08-20 1931-12-22 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Signaling apparatus
US2128103A (en) * 1936-05-13 1938-08-23 Albert G Thomas Self generating phototube
US2378438A (en) * 1943-05-01 1945-06-19 Fed Telephone & Radio Corp Method of making selenium elements

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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US4628933A (en) * 1985-07-23 1986-12-16 Michelson Robin P Method and apparatus for visual prosthesis
US4549529A (en) * 1985-10-11 1985-10-29 White Thomas C Myopia alleviation prosthesis
US5016633A (en) * 1989-08-08 1991-05-21 Chow Alan Y Artificial retina device
US5024223A (en) * 1989-08-08 1991-06-18 Chow Alan Y Artificial retina device
EP0460320A2 (en) * 1989-08-08 1991-12-11 Alan Y. Chow Artificial retina device
EP0460320A3 (en) * 1989-08-08 1993-02-24 Alan Y. Chow Artificial retina device
US5109844A (en) * 1990-10-11 1992-05-05 Duke University Retinal microstimulation
US5108427A (en) * 1991-01-07 1992-04-28 Majercik Stephen M Active pupillary prosthesis
US5397350A (en) * 1993-05-03 1995-03-14 Chow; Alan Y. Independent photoelectric artificial retina device and method of using same
US5556423A (en) * 1993-05-03 1996-09-17 Alan Y. Chow Independent photoelectric artificial retina device and method of using same
US6230057B1 (en) 1995-06-06 2001-05-08 Optobionics Corporation Multi-phasic microphotodiode retinal implant and adaptive imaging retinal stimulation system
US7139612B2 (en) 1995-06-06 2006-11-21 Optobionics Corporation Multi-phasic microphotodiode retinal implant and adaptive imaging retinal stimulation system
US20040088026A1 (en) * 1995-06-06 2004-05-06 Optobionics Corporation Multi-phasic microphotodiode retinal implant and adaptive imaging retinal stimulation system
US5895415A (en) * 1995-06-06 1999-04-20 Optobionics Corporation Multi-phasic microphotodiode retinal implant and adaptive imaging retinal stimulation system
US6611716B2 (en) 1995-06-06 2003-08-26 Optobionics Corporation Multi-phasic microphotodiode retinal implant and adaptive imaging retinal stimulation system
US6458157B1 (en) * 1997-08-04 2002-10-01 Suaning Gregg Joergen Retinal stimulator
EP2298411A1 (en) * 1998-03-13 2011-03-23 John Hopkins University Visual prosthesis
US6309374B1 (en) 1998-08-03 2001-10-30 Insite Vision Incorporated Injection apparatus and method of using same
US6378526B1 (en) 1998-08-03 2002-04-30 Insite Vision, Incorporated Methods of ophthalmic administration
US6397849B1 (en) 1998-08-03 2002-06-04 Insite Vision Incorporated Methods of ophthalmic administration
US6299603B1 (en) 1998-08-03 2001-10-09 Karl I. Hecker Injection apparatus and method of using same
US8131378B2 (en) 1999-03-24 2012-03-06 Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. Inductive repeater coil for an implantable device
US8090448B2 (en) 1999-03-24 2012-01-03 Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. Low profile package for an implantable device
US8170676B2 (en) 1999-03-24 2012-05-01 Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. Electrode array
US7957810B2 (en) 1999-03-24 2011-06-07 Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. Motion compensation for a visual prosthesis
US8180453B2 (en) 1999-03-24 2012-05-15 Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. Electrode array for neural stimulation
US7894911B2 (en) 1999-03-24 2011-02-22 Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. Electrode array for neural stimulation
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US8355800B2 (en) 1999-03-24 2013-01-15 Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. Coating package for an implantable device
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US7840274B2 (en) 1999-03-24 2010-11-23 Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. Visual color prosthesis
US7835798B2 (en) 1999-03-24 2010-11-16 Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. Electrode array for visual stimulation
US20090005835A1 (en) * 1999-03-24 2009-01-01 Greenberg Robert J Low Profile Package for an Implantable Device
US7257446B2 (en) 1999-03-24 2007-08-14 Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. Package for an implantable medical device
US20080275528A1 (en) * 1999-03-24 2008-11-06 Greenberg Robert J Electrode Array for Visual Stimulation
US20060036296A1 (en) * 1999-03-24 2006-02-16 Greenberg Robert J Electrode array for neural stimulation
WO2000056393A1 (en) 1999-03-24 2000-09-28 Second Sight, Llc Retinal color prosthesis for color sight restoration
US20080097555A1 (en) * 1999-03-24 2008-04-24 Greenberg Robert J Inductive Repeater Coil for an Implantable Device
US20080077196A1 (en) * 1999-03-24 2008-03-27 Greenberg Robert J Motion Compensation for a Visual Prosthesis
US20080077195A1 (en) * 1999-03-24 2008-03-27 Greenberg Robert J Package for an Implantable Device
EP1762269A2 (en) 1999-03-24 2007-03-14 Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. Visual prothesis
US20080249588A1 (en) * 1999-03-24 2008-10-09 Greenberg Robert J Electrode Array
US7725191B2 (en) 1999-03-24 2010-05-25 Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. Package for an implantable device
WO2000067676A1 (en) * 1999-05-07 2000-11-16 Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen Universitätsklinikum Retina implant and method for producing the same
US6847847B2 (en) 1999-05-07 2005-01-25 Eberhard-Karls Universitat Tubingen, Universitatsklinikum Retina implant assembly and methods for manufacturing the same
US6389317B1 (en) 2000-03-31 2002-05-14 Optobionics Corporation Multi-phasic microphotodetector retinal implant with variable voltage and current capability
US20040082981A1 (en) * 2000-03-31 2004-04-29 Optobionics Corporation Multi-phasic microphotodetector retinal implant with variable voltage and current capability and apparatus for insertion
US7006873B2 (en) 2000-03-31 2006-02-28 Optobionics Corporation Adjustment of electrical stimulus in a retinal implant
US20040039401A1 (en) * 2000-03-31 2004-02-26 Chow Alan Y. Implant instrument
US7979134B2 (en) 2000-05-04 2011-07-12 Imi Intelligent Medical Implants Ag Artificial retina device with stimulating and ground return electrodes disposed on opposite sides of the neuroretina and method of attachment
US20020169486A1 (en) * 2000-05-04 2002-11-14 Optobionics Corporation Artificial retina device with stimulating and ground return electrodes disposed on opposite sides of the neuroretina and method of attachment
US20110238134A1 (en) * 2000-05-04 2011-09-29 Imi Intelligent Medical Implants Ag Artificial retina device with stimulating and ground return electrodes disposed on opposite sides of the neuroretina and method of attachment
US20060142857A1 (en) * 2000-05-04 2006-06-29 Optobionics Corporation Artificial retina device with stimulating and ground return electrodes disposed on opposite sides of the neuroretina and method of attachment
US8306626B2 (en) 2000-05-04 2012-11-06 Imi Intelligent Medical Implants Ag Artificial retina device with stimulating and ground return electrodes disposed on opposite sides of the neuroretina and method of attachment
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US7037943B2 (en) 2001-04-10 2006-05-02 Optobionics Corporation Retinal treatment method
US7981062B2 (en) 2001-06-29 2011-07-19 Imi Intelligent Medical Implants Ag Mechanically activated objects for treatment of degenerative retinal disease
US20060142818A1 (en) * 2001-06-29 2006-06-29 Optobionics Methods for improving damaged retinal cell function
US20050004625A1 (en) * 2001-06-29 2005-01-06 Chow Alan Y. Treatment of degenerative retinal disease via electrical stimulation of surface structures
US7031776B2 (en) 2001-06-29 2006-04-18 Optobionics Methods for improving damaged retinal cell function
US20100121231A1 (en) * 2001-06-29 2010-05-13 Chow Alan Y Mechanically activated objects for treatment of degenerative retinal disease
US20050033202A1 (en) * 2001-06-29 2005-02-10 Chow Alan Y. Mechanically activated objects for treatment of degenerative retinal disease
US6976998B2 (en) 2002-01-17 2005-12-20 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Minimally invasive retinal prosthesis
US20030158588A1 (en) * 2002-01-17 2003-08-21 Rizzo Joseph F. Minimally invasive retinal prosthesis
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US7398124B2 (en) 2002-07-31 2008-07-08 Nidek Co., Ltd. Visual restoration aiding device
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US20050010266A1 (en) * 2003-03-24 2005-01-13 Les Bogdanowicz Device and methodology for ocular stimulation
US7321795B2 (en) 2003-03-24 2008-01-22 Les Bogdanowicz Compositions for electric stimulation of the eye
US20100152646A1 (en) * 2008-02-29 2010-06-17 Reshma Girijavallabhan Intravitreal injection device and method
US9198753B2 (en) 2009-02-09 2015-12-01 Nano-Retina Inc. Techniques for powering a retinal prosthesis
US20100204754A1 (en) * 2009-02-09 2010-08-12 Rainbow Medical Ltd. Retinal prosthesis
US8150526B2 (en) 2009-02-09 2012-04-03 Nano-Retina, Inc. Retinal prosthesis
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US9907969B2 (en) 2009-02-09 2018-03-06 Nano-Retina, Inc. Retinal prosthesis with an external power source
US8706243B2 (en) 2009-02-09 2014-04-22 Rainbow Medical Ltd. Retinal prosthesis techniques
US9265945B2 (en) 2009-02-09 2016-02-23 Nano-Retina, Inc. Retinal prosthesis
US8718784B2 (en) 2010-01-14 2014-05-06 Nano-Retina, Inc. Penetrating electrodes for retinal stimulation
US8428740B2 (en) 2010-08-06 2013-04-23 Nano-Retina, Inc. Retinal prosthesis techniques
US8442641B2 (en) 2010-08-06 2013-05-14 Nano-Retina, Inc. Retinal prosthesis techniques
US9192464B2 (en) 2011-02-24 2015-11-24 Nano-Retina, Inc. Retinal prosthesis with efficient processing circuits
US8571669B2 (en) 2011-02-24 2013-10-29 Nano-Retina, Inc. Retinal prosthesis with efficient processing circuits
US9370417B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2016-06-21 Nano-Retina, Inc. Foveated retinal prosthesis
US9474902B2 (en) 2013-12-31 2016-10-25 Nano Retina Ltd. Wearable apparatus for delivery of power to a retinal prosthesis
US9331791B2 (en) 2014-01-21 2016-05-03 Nano Retina Ltd. Transfer of power and data

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