US2745701A - Spray nozzle orifice approach - Google Patents

Spray nozzle orifice approach Download PDF

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US2745701A
US2745701A US302681A US30268152A US2745701A US 2745701 A US2745701 A US 2745701A US 302681 A US302681 A US 302681A US 30268152 A US30268152 A US 30268152A US 2745701 A US2745701 A US 2745701A
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spray
end
bore
nozzle
entrance
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US302681A
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Fred W Wahlin
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Spraying Systems Co
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Spraying Systems Co
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B1/00Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means
    • B05B1/02Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means designed to produce a jet, spray, or other discharge of particular shape or nature, e.g. in single drops, or having an outlet of particular shape
    • B05B1/04Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means designed to produce a jet, spray, or other discharge of particular shape or nature, e.g. in single drops, or having an outlet of particular shape in flat form, e.g. fan-like, sheet-like
    • B05B1/042Outlets having two planes of symmetry perpendicular to each other, one of them defining the plane of the jet

Description

May 15, 1956 F. w. WAHLIN 2,745,701

SPRAY NOZZLE ORIFICE APPROACH Filed Aug. 5, 1952 i 27 2'" Z .Z 1574/ 2 4? 30 15a 15 -l 15 14/ 1 f6 29 2a IN VEN TOR.

gag; w Wdhzz United States Patent Q SPRAY NOZZLE OR-IFI'CE- APPnoAcrr Fred W. Wahlin, Oak Park, 11]., assignor to Spraying Systems Co.,. Bellwood, III., a corporation oli'lliinois Application AugustS, 1952, Serial No. 3 02,681

4 Claims. (CL 299-153) My invention has reference. to spray nozzles, especially of the flat fan shape spray type, and has reference more particularly to facilities for controlling the final flow of the liquid to the nozzle orifice.

Such nozzles have a liquid supply passageway therein which leads to the orifice, and it is customary to reduce the orifice end portion of this passageway to a relatively small size to provide an orifice approach of appreciable length through which the liquid flows directly to the orifice at an accelerated rate.

This approach portion of reduced size usually terminates in a somewhat rounded or dome'shaped' outer end, and the orifice, which is of narrow, elongated slit like shape, extends across this rounded or dome shaped end and by reason thereof has an arcuate contour corresponding thereto which contributes fanwise spread to the spray.

In some spraying operations, especially with small capacity spray nozzles, it has been found that the lateral edge portions of the fan shape spray are thinned out so that they do not have adequate volume at those places for uniform spray coverage. pecially in spraying liquids, such as paint, which are of higher viscosity than water, such small capacity spray nozzles do not give as complete break up of the spray as desired.

The principal objects of my invention are to improve the break up of the spray produced by such nozzles; to give greater uniformity of spray distribution fanwise of the spray stream; to provide simple facilities which are readily applicable to spray nozzles to improve the operation thereof; and to provide a convenient method of incorporating such facilities in the nozzle; these and other objects being accomplished as pointed out hereinafter and as shown in the accompanying drawing, in which:

Fig. 1 is a view looking directly at the discharge end of a spray nozzle made in accordance with the present invention;

Fig. 2 is a sectional view of the nozzle of Fig. 1 taken on the line 22 thereof;

Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary view of a portion of the nozzle tip shown in Fig. 2;

Fig. 4 is an enlarged sectional view of a fragmentary portion of the nozzle tip taken on the line 44 of Fig. 1, but omitting the restriction, which is shown in Fig. 3, of the entrance to the terminal or discharge end portion of the nozzle passageway;

Fig. 5 is a cross sectional view of the nozzle tip taken on the line 5-5 of Fig. 3;

Fig. 6 is a fragmentary cross sectional view of the nozzle tip taken on the line 66 of Fig. 3; and

Fig. 7 is a sectional view, greatly enlarged, of a fragmentary portion of the nozzle tip in the course of construction thereof, and showing facilities for producing the restriction, shown in Figs. 3 and 6, of the entrance to the terminal or discharge end portion of the nozzle passageway.

Figure 8 is a plan view of the spray pattern of a spray nozzle made in accordance with the present invention in Also in some cases, es-

solid lines and the spray pattern of a conventional fan shaped spray nozzle in dotted lines.

Referring to the drawing, I have for the purpose of illustration, shown a nozzle like that of my application Serial No. 81,288, filed March 14, 1949, now Patent No. 2,621,078 and composed of a body 10 having a large cylindrical opening 11 therethrough, a fiat sided nozzle tip 12 which is made as a separate part and secured to the outer end of the body 10, a strainer 13 in the cylindrical opening 11' of the body and having an annular flange 14 at the outer end thereof interposed between the nozzle tip 12 and the outer end of the body it), and a clamping member 15 by which the nozzle tip 12' is secured to the body 119.

The body 10 is internally threaded at 16 at its end remote from the tip 12 for connection to a pipe or other means through which liquid is supplied to the nozzle and the other end of the body is externally threaded at 17' for threaded connection therewith of theclamping member 1'5 which is of collar nut type with the outer end of the collar turned in as at 15a to engage over an annular flange 18 at the base of the nozzle tip for clamping the latter against the outer end of the strainer 13' and the strainer flange 14 against the outer end of the nozzle body. The clamping member 15 and body 10 each have a portion of the length thereof of external hexagonal form as indicated at 19 and 20 respectively, or of other suitable form for wrench engagement for conveniently securing the parts together.

The, illustrated strainer 13 has a hollow cylindrical body 21 surrounded by a cylindrical screen 22 which is secured thereon by a screw 23 which is threaded into the lower end of the strainer body 21 and has a large head against which the lower end of the screen 22 abuts. The strainer body 21 has a series of transverse slots 24 through its Wall, preferably at several places therearound, for exmple at diametrically opposed sides thereof, so that the liquid introduced through the lower end of the nozzle passes through the screen into the interior of the strainer body 21. The body 21 is preferably turned down, at the slots and a short distance at each side of each slot, to a size smaller than the interior of the screen 22 and preferably with annular screen contacting ribs 25 left at suitable intervals, so as to allow free flow of liquid through a considerable area of the screen to the slots 24.

The nozzle tip 12 has a large bored out cavity or counterbore 26 communicating with the interior of the strainer body 21 and leading to a relatively small diameter bore or cylindrical passage 27 with convex or dome shaped outer end 23 through which the spray orifice 29 is formed.

The orifice 29 is preferably recessed in the end of the nozzle at the bottom of a channel or groove 30 which extends in a direction across the nozzle end, and at its bottom, this groove 30 is provided with a small groove 31 usually of V-shape as shown, which cuts through and intersects the dome shaped outer end 28 of the bore or passage 27 to form the orifice opening 29 which is of long narrow shape and of an arcuate contour from end to end corresponding to the rounded end 28 of the bore 27 at the place where the orifice extends thereacross.

Thus the nozzle body opening 11, the relatively large nozzle tip cavity 26, and the small diameter bore 27, conjointly provide a passageway through which liquid is supplied to the orifice 29, and because of the small diameter of the bore 27, the liquid flows therethroug'h to the orifice 29 at a highly accelerated rate.

Generally the bore 27 is made with an abrupt shoulder around the entrance, substantially as shown at 32 in Figs. 4 and 7, and is of considerable length relative to the diameter thereof to insure a long straight path of accelerated how of liquid before it reaches the orifice 29'.

of the bore 27 so that the orifice is substantially closer to the bore entrance 32 than heretofore, better break up of the spray liquid occurs and also greater uniformity of spray distribution, especially at the lateral edge portions of the fan shaped spray stream.

I have found further that the spray distribution and break up of the spray liquid is further improved by locally restricting the entrance to the bore, as for example by providing the bore entrance with an internal annular rib or bead 33 therearound which is preferably of V-shape as shown.

Tests have shown that with an abrupt shoulder, such as indicated at 32, a sharp reduction of peripheral pressure around the stream of liquid occurs in the bore 27 immediately beyond the entrance thereto, and that beyond this place of sharp reduction in pressure there is a progressive increase in the peripheral pressure and the general shape of the stream flow in the bore 27 is approximately as indicated by dotted lines at 34.

Thus there is an initial contraction of the size of the stream immediately beyond the entrance to the bore 27 and then a progressive expansion or spreading of the stream to the bore size which appears to contribute better break up to the spray and greater uniformity of spray distribution, especially at the lateral edge portions of the fan shaped spray, if the orifice 29 is located sufficiently close to the bore entrance 32 to be approximately at the place of full expansion of the stream to the bore size.

Generally it has been found that a nozzle construction in which the length of the bore 27 is approximately one to one and one half times the diameter of the bore 27 the most satisfactory conditions of break up of spray and uniformity of spray distribution are obtained. Approximately this relation of bore length to bore diameter is shown in Fig. 4 of my copending application Serial No. 82,251, filed March 18, 1949, now Patent No. 2,618,- 511, and the present application is a continuation in part of said application Serial No. 82,251 in that respect.

With this relation of bore length to the diameter thereof, the orifice 29 is located at a place where the stream of liquid is under a cross sectional expanding influence which not only tends to facilitate separation into spray particles but also gives greater impetus to the flow of liquid laterally through the opposite end portions of the orifice 29.

Local restriction of the entrance to the bore 27 by the provision of an internal annular rib or head 33 therearound provides greater reduction of pressure around the stream of liquid immediately beyond the bore entrance and more pronounced cross sectional expansion of the stream therebeyond, as indicated by the dotted lines at 35 in Fig. 3, and with the bore length approximately one to one and one half times the diameter of the bore, and corresponding proximity of the orifice 29 to the locally restricted entrance 33 to the bore 27, a better break up of spray occurs and greater uniformity of spray distribution occurs, especially along the edge portions of the fan shaped spray, than with the bore entrance 32 of Fig. 4.

Generally in fan shaped spray nozzles the lateral edge portions of the fan shaped spray have a diminished or disproportionate volume, somewhat as indicated by the dotted lines at 36 in Fig. 8, whereas the shortening of the bore 27 as above explained gives greater fullness of spray at the edge portions of the fan shaped spray as indicated by the full lines in Fig. 8.

Any convenient means may be employed for locally restricting the entrance to the bore 27, but I prefer to peen in the peripheral edge of the bore entrance to form the rib or bead 33 therearound. Y

This may be conveniently accomplished, as indicated in Fig. 7, by employing a ball 37 of a diameter somewhat greater than that of the bore 27 and pressing this ball, in the direction of the axis of the bore 27, against 4 the peripheral entrance shoulder 32 of the bore 27 with sufiicient force to deform the metal around the bore entrance and thereby form the rib or head 33. In this operation the metal around the end of the bore or passage 27' is locally swaged and compressed and deformed to produce the rib or bead 33.

For performing this rib or bead forming operation a conventional press may be employed having a bed plate or support 38 on which the nozzle tip is placed and a plunger 39 which is reciprocable toward the bed plate or support and holds the ball 37 in a manner'to be projected downwardly into the cavity 26 of the nozzle tip.

It is important that the rib or bead 33 be concentric with the bore 27 and uniform therearound, and to insure exact centering of the ball 37 with the entrance to the bore 27, the ball 37 is preferably'loosely supported on the plunger directly under the pressure face 40 thereof, by a series of claw like fingers 41 which are secured to the lower end of the plunger 39 at suitable intervals therearound and have inturned lower ends 42 which loosely embrace the ball at sutficient distance below the center thereof to retain the ball on the end of the plunger 39.

Thus the ball is free to rotate and has sufficient freedom of lateral movement so that when projected downwardly against the entrance to the bore it is accurately centered therewith and concentricity and uniformity of the rib or bead 33 produced thereby is assured.

While I have shown and described by invention in a preferred form, I am aware that various changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the principles of the invention, the scope of which is to be determined by the appended claims.

What I claim is:

l. A spray nozzle of the class described comprising a one-piece body having therein a,cylindrical passage which has an entrance end and an exit end and extends part way through the one-piece nozzle body to a passage end closing portion of the one-piece nozzle body, the

'said passage having at the exit end thereof a spray discharge orifice communicating through said passage endclosing portion to the exterior of the nozzle, and the said passage having at its entrance end a deformed portion of the one-piece body providing an internal annular bead surrounding and restricting the entrance of the passage.

2. A spray nozzle of the class described comprising a one-piece body having therein a cylindrical passage which has an entrance end and an exit end and extends part way through the one-piece nozzle body to a passage end closing portion of the one-piece nozzle body, the said passage having at the exit end thereof a spray discharge orifice communicating through said passage end closing portion to the exterior of the nozzle, and the said passage being surrounded at its entrance end by a locally swaged and compressed portion of the one-piece body which forms an internal annular head at said entrance end of the passage.

3. A spray nozzle of the class described comprising a one-piece body having therein a cylindrical passage which has an entrance end and an exit end and extends part way through the one-piece nozzle body to a passage end closing portion of the one-piece 'body, the said passage having at the exit end thereof an elongated spray discharge orifice extending crosswise of said passage and communicating through said passage end closing portion to the exterior of the nozzle, and the said passage having at its entrance end an annular deformed portion of the one-piece body protruding toward the axis of the passage and providing a V-shaped internal annular bead around the passage at the entrance end thereof.

4. A spray nozzle of the class described comprising a one-piece body having therein a cylindrical passage with a counterbore at one end, said passage having an entrance at the counterbore end and an exit at the other end and the said passage extending part way through the onepiece body to a passage end closing portion of the onepiece nozzle body, the said passage having at the exit end thereof a spray discharge orifice communicating through said passage end closing p0: lion to the exterior of the nozzle, and the said passage having at its entrance end a deformed portion of the one-piece body providing an internal annular bead surrounding and restricting the entrance of the passage.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 456,538 Potter July 21, 1891 6 Martin June 26, 1906 Olsen Nov. 7, 1922 Brewer Jan. 4, 1927 Murray Apr. 8, 1930 Freeman July 7, 1931 Anderson May 8, 1934 Faast June 26, 1934 Squires July 10, 1934 Holveck Aug. 2, 1938 Peeps Apr. 5, 1949 Fuller June 15, 1954

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Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3054563A (en) * 1959-07-29 1962-09-18 William F Steinen Flat spray atomizing nozzle
US3101906A (en) * 1962-01-11 1963-08-27 Carl R Webber Spray nozzle
DE1204096B (en) * 1962-02-22 1965-10-28 Enzinger Union Werke Ag Spray nozzle for pressurized liquids for the bottle handling
DE1218322B (en) * 1960-03-01 1966-06-02 Spee Flo Mfg Corp Spray head for a spray gun for spraying of liquid color without air
US3421701A (en) * 1967-04-25 1969-01-14 Clayton Specialties Inc Controlled pattern spraying nozzle
DE1700082B1 (en) * 1959-03-25 1970-05-27 Bird Machine Co Spray nozzle and connection means for one or more spray nozzles
US3521824A (en) * 1968-10-11 1970-07-28 Delavan Manufacturing Co Air-liquid flat spray nozzle
US3659787A (en) * 1969-04-16 1972-05-02 Ransburg Electro Coating Corp Nozzle
US3754710A (en) * 1971-08-07 1973-08-28 Inouye Shokai & Co Ltd K K Nozzle tip of a spray gun of the airless type
WO1979000690A1 (en) * 1978-03-02 1979-09-20 Spar Vatten Energi Liquid flow channel
US4905911A (en) * 1987-01-19 1990-03-06 Shimon Kabushiki Kaisha Fan-spray nozzle
US5597122A (en) * 1993-02-09 1997-01-28 Alfred Karcher Gmbh & Co. Flat jet nozzle for a high-pressure cleaning device
US20050189443A1 (en) * 2001-07-06 2005-09-01 Taylor Jeffery K. Nozzles, and components thereof and methods for making the same
US20100326064A1 (en) * 2009-06-29 2010-12-30 Lightsail Energy Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US20100329903A1 (en) * 2009-06-29 2010-12-30 Lightsail Energy Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US20110115223A1 (en) * 2009-06-29 2011-05-19 Lightsail Energy Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US20110233934A1 (en) * 2010-03-24 2011-09-29 Lightsail Energy Inc. Storage of compressed air in wind turbine support structure

Citations (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US456538A (en) * 1891-07-21 Valve and nozzle for street-sprinklers
US824128A (en) * 1904-11-03 1906-06-26 Herman W Martin Automatic fire-extinguisher.
US1434625A (en) * 1918-05-13 1922-11-07 F C Austin Machinery Company Combined flushing and sprinkling nozzle
US1612964A (en) * 1923-06-14 1927-01-04 Charles A Brewer Sprinkler
US1753443A (en) * 1927-05-31 1930-04-08 John D Murray Tip for spraying nozzles
US1813733A (en) * 1928-07-30 1931-07-07 James J Freeman Hose nozzle
US1958178A (en) * 1931-03-16 1934-05-08 Pettibone Mulliken Company Method of making channel forgings
US1964255A (en) * 1932-07-13 1934-06-26 Victor S Faast Spray gun
US1966053A (en) * 1931-03-11 1934-07-10 Squires John Method of flanging tubular members
US2125445A (en) * 1937-02-05 1938-08-02 Worthington Pump & Mach Corp Spray nozzle
US2466182A (en) * 1944-05-29 1949-04-05 Vilbiss Co Spray nozzle
US2681254A (en) * 1951-10-29 1954-06-15 George W Fuller Plural spray shower head

Patent Citations (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US456538A (en) * 1891-07-21 Valve and nozzle for street-sprinklers
US824128A (en) * 1904-11-03 1906-06-26 Herman W Martin Automatic fire-extinguisher.
US1434625A (en) * 1918-05-13 1922-11-07 F C Austin Machinery Company Combined flushing and sprinkling nozzle
US1612964A (en) * 1923-06-14 1927-01-04 Charles A Brewer Sprinkler
US1753443A (en) * 1927-05-31 1930-04-08 John D Murray Tip for spraying nozzles
US1813733A (en) * 1928-07-30 1931-07-07 James J Freeman Hose nozzle
US1966053A (en) * 1931-03-11 1934-07-10 Squires John Method of flanging tubular members
US1958178A (en) * 1931-03-16 1934-05-08 Pettibone Mulliken Company Method of making channel forgings
US1964255A (en) * 1932-07-13 1934-06-26 Victor S Faast Spray gun
US2125445A (en) * 1937-02-05 1938-08-02 Worthington Pump & Mach Corp Spray nozzle
US2466182A (en) * 1944-05-29 1949-04-05 Vilbiss Co Spray nozzle
US2681254A (en) * 1951-10-29 1954-06-15 George W Fuller Plural spray shower head

Cited By (39)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1700082B1 (en) * 1959-03-25 1970-05-27 Bird Machine Co Spray nozzle and connection means for one or more spray nozzles
US3054563A (en) * 1959-07-29 1962-09-18 William F Steinen Flat spray atomizing nozzle
DE1218322B (en) * 1960-03-01 1966-06-02 Spee Flo Mfg Corp Spray head for a spray gun for spraying of liquid color without air
US3101906A (en) * 1962-01-11 1963-08-27 Carl R Webber Spray nozzle
DE1204096B (en) * 1962-02-22 1965-10-28 Enzinger Union Werke Ag Spray nozzle for pressurized liquids for the bottle handling
US3421701A (en) * 1967-04-25 1969-01-14 Clayton Specialties Inc Controlled pattern spraying nozzle
US3521824A (en) * 1968-10-11 1970-07-28 Delavan Manufacturing Co Air-liquid flat spray nozzle
US3659787A (en) * 1969-04-16 1972-05-02 Ransburg Electro Coating Corp Nozzle
US3754710A (en) * 1971-08-07 1973-08-28 Inouye Shokai & Co Ltd K K Nozzle tip of a spray gun of the airless type
WO1979000690A1 (en) * 1978-03-02 1979-09-20 Spar Vatten Energi Liquid flow channel
US4905911A (en) * 1987-01-19 1990-03-06 Shimon Kabushiki Kaisha Fan-spray nozzle
US5597122A (en) * 1993-02-09 1997-01-28 Alfred Karcher Gmbh & Co. Flat jet nozzle for a high-pressure cleaning device
US20050189443A1 (en) * 2001-07-06 2005-09-01 Taylor Jeffery K. Nozzles, and components thereof and methods for making the same
US7172142B2 (en) * 2001-07-06 2007-02-06 Diamicron, Inc. Nozzles, and components thereof and methods for making the same
US20110023488A1 (en) * 2009-06-29 2011-02-03 Lightsail Energy Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US20100329903A1 (en) * 2009-06-29 2010-12-30 Lightsail Energy Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US20100326069A1 (en) * 2009-06-29 2010-12-30 Lightsail Energy Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US20100326066A1 (en) * 2009-06-29 2010-12-30 Lightsail Energy Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
WO2011008500A2 (en) 2009-06-29 2011-01-20 Lightsail Energy Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US20100326064A1 (en) * 2009-06-29 2010-12-30 Lightsail Energy Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US20110023977A1 (en) * 2009-06-29 2011-02-03 Lightsail Energy Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US20110030552A1 (en) * 2009-06-29 2011-02-10 Lightsail Energy Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US20110030359A1 (en) * 2009-06-29 2011-02-10 Lightsail Energy Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US20110115223A1 (en) * 2009-06-29 2011-05-19 Lightsail Energy Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US8353156B2 (en) 2009-06-29 2013-01-15 Lightsail Energy Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US8037677B2 (en) 2009-06-29 2011-10-18 Lightsail Energy, Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US8061132B2 (en) 2009-06-29 2011-11-22 Lightsail Energy, Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US8065874B2 (en) 2009-06-29 2011-11-29 Lightsale Energy, Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US8087241B2 (en) 2009-06-29 2012-01-03 Lightsail Energy, Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US8146354B2 (en) 2009-06-29 2012-04-03 Lightsail Energy, Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US8191361B2 (en) 2009-06-29 2012-06-05 Lightsail Energy, Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US8191360B2 (en) 2009-06-29 2012-06-05 Lightsail Energy, Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US8196395B2 (en) 2009-06-29 2012-06-12 Lightsail Energy, Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US8201402B2 (en) 2009-06-29 2012-06-19 Lightsail Energy, Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US8215105B2 (en) 2009-06-29 2012-07-10 Lightsail Energy Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US8240142B2 (en) 2009-06-29 2012-08-14 Lightsail Energy Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US8436489B2 (en) 2009-06-29 2013-05-07 Lightsail Energy, Inc. Compressed air energy storage system utilizing two-phase flow to facilitate heat exchange
US8247915B2 (en) 2010-03-24 2012-08-21 Lightsail Energy, Inc. Energy storage system utilizing compressed gas
US20110233934A1 (en) * 2010-03-24 2011-09-29 Lightsail Energy Inc. Storage of compressed air in wind turbine support structure

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