US2736548A - Apparatus for accelerating convective heat transfer between a solid and a gas - Google Patents

Apparatus for accelerating convective heat transfer between a solid and a gas Download PDF

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US2736548A
US2736548A US320571A US32057152A US2736548A US 2736548 A US2736548 A US 2736548A US 320571 A US320571 A US 320571A US 32057152 A US32057152 A US 32057152A US 2736548 A US2736548 A US 2736548A
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strip
gas
heat transfer
accelerating
solid
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US320571A
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Howard S Orr
Teplitz Alfred
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United States Steel Corp
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United States Steel Corp
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE BY DECARBURISATION, TEMPERING OR OTHER TREATMENTS
    • C21D9/00Heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering, adapted for particular articles; Furnaces therefor
    • C21D9/52Heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering, adapted for particular articles; Furnaces therefor for wires; for strips ; for rods of unlimited length
    • C21D9/54Furnaces for treating strips or wire
    • C21D9/56Continuous furnaces for strip or wire
    • C21D9/573Continuous furnaces for strip or wire with cooling

Description

Feb. 28, 1956 H s ORR ET AL 2,736,548

APPARATUS FOR ACCELERATING CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN A SOLID AND A GAS Filed Nov. 14. 1952 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG. 2..

FIELL- lnvenioxs: Han 4w 5 0/5? and flLFFEfi 72/ 4/77,

Feb. 28, 1956- s, ORR ET AL 2,736,548

APPARATUS FOR ACCELERATING CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN A SOLID AND A GAS Filed Nov. 14. 1952 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 s '44 4 4 #0144420 5 flee 0/70 141/7950 75 1/72,

Feb. 28, 1956 H, s; ORR ET AL 2,736,548

APPARATUS FOR ACCELERATING CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN A SOLID AND A GAS Filed Nov. 14. 1952 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 r Inventors:

Han 4&5 0/92 0/70 415950 7274/72,

Feb. 28, 1956 5; ORR ET AL 2,736,548

APPARATUS FOR ACCELERATING CONVE VE} HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN A SOLID AN A GAS Filed Nov. 14. 1952 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 FIElCJ- A 2,736,548 Ice Patented Feb. 28, 1956 APPARATUS FOR ACCELERATING CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN A SOLID AND A GAS Howard S. Orr and Alfred Teplitz, Pittsburgh, Pa., assignors to United States Steel Corporation, a corporation This invention relates to apparatus for accelerating convective heat transfer between a solid and a gas adjacent thereto and is particularly adapted for accelerating heat transfer between a gas and a strip passing therethrough.

In a continuous annealing of strip steel it is necessary to cool the strip within a relatively short time. In so doing the smooth strip passes between smooth parallel water jackets. We have found that the strip carries with it a large volume of the furnace atmosphere gas, but because of the smoothness of both the strip and the water cooled walls the gas moves in a streamline manner. Thus, there is no mixing between the various layers of the gas and the rate of heat transfer from the strip to the gas and from the gas to the cold Walls is small.

We have found that to obtain an increased rate of heat transfer it is necessary to break up the streamline gas flow and create a turbulent flow condition. Insofar as the stationary surfaces of the water jackets are concerned this may be easily done by providing projections such as fins upon the walls of the water jackets. Breaking up the boundary surfaces adjacent the strip presents a more difficult problem since nothing can be done that might permanently deform the strip.

We have found that by vibrating the strip as it passes between the water jackets and/or by vibrating the atmospheric gas, not only will turbulence be created in the gas, but the boundary layers of the gas will be broken up and the heat transfer rate greatly improved.

It is therefore an object of our invention to provide apparatus for accelerating convective heat transfer between a solid, particularly a flat object of considerable area, and a gas adjacent thereto.

This and other objects will be more apparent after referring to the following specification and attached drawings, in which:

Figure 1 is a schematic vertical view, partly in section, of one embodiment of our invention;

Figure 2 is a schematic view, similar to that of Figure 1, showing a second embodiment of our invention;

Figure 3 is a schematic isometric view of a third embodiment of our invention showing the vibrating means but omitting the cooling chamber;

Figure 4 is a view, similar to Figure 3, showing another embodiment of our invention;

Figure 5 is a schematic view, partly in cross section, showing means for vibrating the gas in the cooling chamber;

Figure 6 is an enlarged sectional view showing fins located in the cooling chamber;

Figure 7 is an isometric view showing means for vibrating the gas within the cooling chamber;

7 Figure 8 is a view, partly in section, showing the vibrating means of Figure 7;

Figure 9 is a vertical sectional view of our invention as applied to the annealing of coils of steel strip located within an inner cover;

Figure 10 is an enlarged fragmentary view of the supporting means for the vibrator;

Figure 11 is a side view of Figure 10;

Figure 12 is an enlarged side view of the supporting plate for the vibrator; and

Figure 13 is an end view of Figure 12.

Referring more particularly to Figure 1 of the drawings, the reference numeral 2 indicates the cold walls of a water jacket through which passes a moving steel strip S which is supported by spaced apart rolls 4. Suitable means such as bridle rolls (not shown) may be used to pull the strip over the rolls 4. A magnetic vibrator 6 is mounted adjacent the strip at the exit end of the water jacket. The magnetic vibrator consists of a 60 cycle A. C. electromagnet which becomes magnetized and demagnetized, thus attracting the strip S 60 times per second to cause it to vibrate rapidly. The vibrator is spaced from the strip a distance sufficient to prevent the strip from actually contacting the vibrator.

Figure 2 shows a second means for vibrating the strip which may be used with non-magnetic material as well as with steel strip. In this embodiment a fluted roll 8 is substituted for each of the rolls 4. The rate at which the strip vibrates depends upon the number of flutes in the roll, the diameter thereof and the speed at which the strip travels. The amplitude of the vibrations depends upon the depth of the flutes. I

Figure 3 shows another means for vibrating the strip S. In this embodiment a pair of rolls 10 and 12 are mounted one on each side of the strip S and are adapted to be rotatedby contacting the strip lightly. The rolls are connected by means of a link 14 at each end thereof. A link 16 is attached to each endof the roll 10 and extends away from the strip S with its free end thereof being attached to the arm of a crank 18. The shaft 20 of the crank is mounted in suitable stationary bearings 21 and is rotated by means of a motor, not shown. The rolls 10 and 12 are suspended by means of links 22 and 24, respectively, from shafts 26 and 28 which are mounted in suitable stationary bearings 29. Rotation of the crank produces an oscillation of the rolls 10 and 12 causing the strip to vibrate rapidly.

Figure 4 shows still another embodiment of our invention. In this embodiment the lower roll 4 is mounted in bearings 30 which in turn are mounted on a U-shape frame 32. A suitable electro magnet vibrator 34 is mounted on the frame 32 adjacent each of the bearings 30. The U-shape frame 32 is pivotally mounted on pins 36. Adjustable stops 38 are mounted adjacent the vertical legs of the U-shape frame to limit the amount of movement of the frame 32 about its pivots. When the vibrators 34 are operated the U-shape frame 32 carrying the roll 4 will vibrate rapidly about the pins 36 thus causing the strip S to vibrate.

In all instances fins 40 (see Fig. 6) are preferably mounted in the cooling chamber to increase the rate of heat transfer.

In addition to or in place of vibrating the traveling strip the atmosphere in the furnace may be vibrated, thus further increasing the rate of heat transfer. As shown in Figure 5 this may be done by providing a steel core 42 within which is mounted a coil 44 having an opening 46 therein for receiving armature 48. A rubber bumper 50 is provided on the core 42 in order to prevent the armature 48 from contacting the core. A light weight plate 52 is attached to the armature 48 and is positioned in the cooling chamber 53 adjacent the strip S. By connecting the coil 44 to an A. C. current of volts the plate 52 is caused to reciprocate rapidly, thus vibrating the gas surrounding the strip S.

Figures 7 and 8 show another manner in which the atmosphere in the cooling chamber may be vibrated. In this embodiment an opening is made in the Walls of the water jacket 54 and a transition piece 56 is mounted on a flange 58 surrounding the opening. A circular diaphragm 60 is mounted on the outer end of the transition piece. A vibrator 62 is mounted on the diaphragm 60 and is provided with a backing piece 64. It will be seen that the transition piece 56 has a substantially constant cross sectional area throughout its length and changes from a rectangular shape at the flange 58 to a circular shape at its outer end. Energization of the vibrator 62 causes the atmosphere surrounding the strip S to vibrate rapidly.

Figures 9 to 13 show the application of our invention to the annealing of coils C of steel strip located within an inner cover 66. A protective atmosphere is located within the cover 66 and is circulated through and around coil C by means of a fan 68 in the usual manner. A pair of straight pins 70 are welded to the outside of the inner cover 66 beneath a pair of L-shaped pins 72. A vibrator 74 is mounted on a plate 76 having two elongated openings 78 therein which fit over the pins 72. If desired a washer 80 may be welded to the pins 72 to hold the plate 76 in a vertical position. A hook 82 is attached to the upper end of plate '76 so that the plate can be placed in position and removed by means of a crane. After the strip has been heated to the desired temperature and when the outer cover has been removed the vibrator 74 mounted on the plate 76 is placed over the hooks 72 as shown in Figures 9 and and the vibrator is caused to operate thus vibrating the inner cover 66. This increases the rate of heat transfer from the strip S to the protective atmosphere into the cover 66 and from the cover 66 to the surrounding atmosphere.

While several embodiments of our invention have been shown and described it will be apparent that other adaptations and modifications may be made without departing from the scope of the following claims.

We claim:

1. Apparatus for cooling heated strip which comprises vertically spaced rotatable rolls for supporting said strip, a cooling chamber between said rolls throughout the majority of the distance between the rolls, means for supplying a cooling medium to the cooling chamber, and means for moving the peripheral surface of the strip in a non-circular path While in contact with at least one of the rolls to rapidly vibrate the strip in its passage between the rolls whereby heat transfer from the strip is accelerated.

2. Apparatus for cooling heated strip according to claim 1 in which the means for moving the strip in a noncircular path includes flutes in the peripheral surface of at least one of said rolls.

3. Apparatus for cooling heated strip according to claim 1 in which the means for moving the strip in a non-circular path includes a frame for supporting at least one of said rolls, a pivot support for said frame, and means for rapidly vibrating said support about its pivot.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 485,694 Haskell Nov. 8, 1892 1,765,955 von Maltitz et al June 24, 1930 2,326,163 Patterson Aug. 10, 1943 2,351,163 Thomas June 13, 1944 2,351,549 Schwartz June 13, 1944 2,393,243 Fanz Jan. 22, 1946 2,514,797 Robinson July 11, 1950 2,572,484 Howle et a1. Oct. 23, 1951 2,613,070 Verwohlt Oct. 7, 1952 2,645,031 Edwards July 14, 1953 FOREIGN PATENTS 532,144 Great Britain Jan. 17, 1941

US320571A 1952-11-14 1952-11-14 Apparatus for accelerating convective heat transfer between a solid and a gas Expired - Lifetime US2736548A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3175813A (en) * 1962-12-31 1965-03-30 Nat Steel Corp Edge position control of strip material in furnaces
US20050103263A1 (en) * 2001-12-27 2005-05-19 Tomio Kitsuwa Wire material plating equipment

Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US485694A (en) * 1892-11-08 Machine for drying warps
US1765955A (en) * 1927-01-05 1930-06-24 Brassert & Co Apparatus for annealing rolled-metal products
GB532144A (en) * 1938-08-27 1941-01-17 Oerlikon Maschf Improvements in or relating to heat exchangers
US2326163A (en) * 1941-11-03 1943-08-10 Powder Metals And Alloys Inc Heat-treatment apparatus
US2351163A (en) * 1943-01-21 1944-06-13 Diamond Power Speciality Boiler cleaner
US2351549A (en) * 1941-10-16 1944-06-13 Proctor & Schwartz Inc Method for treating filaments and threads
US2393243A (en) * 1943-10-06 1946-01-22 Western Electric Co Strand handling apparatus and a method of handling strands
US2514797A (en) * 1946-01-24 1950-07-11 Raytheon Mfg Co Heat exchanger
US2572484A (en) * 1947-09-17 1951-10-23 Howle Apparatus for expanding perlite and the like
US2613070A (en) * 1949-06-28 1952-10-07 Clarence H Verwohlt Heat-treating strip
US2645031A (en) * 1950-02-07 1953-07-14 Hispeed Equipment Inc Apparatus for drying filmlike materials

Patent Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US485694A (en) * 1892-11-08 Machine for drying warps
US1765955A (en) * 1927-01-05 1930-06-24 Brassert & Co Apparatus for annealing rolled-metal products
GB532144A (en) * 1938-08-27 1941-01-17 Oerlikon Maschf Improvements in or relating to heat exchangers
US2351549A (en) * 1941-10-16 1944-06-13 Proctor & Schwartz Inc Method for treating filaments and threads
US2326163A (en) * 1941-11-03 1943-08-10 Powder Metals And Alloys Inc Heat-treatment apparatus
US2351163A (en) * 1943-01-21 1944-06-13 Diamond Power Speciality Boiler cleaner
US2393243A (en) * 1943-10-06 1946-01-22 Western Electric Co Strand handling apparatus and a method of handling strands
US2514797A (en) * 1946-01-24 1950-07-11 Raytheon Mfg Co Heat exchanger
US2572484A (en) * 1947-09-17 1951-10-23 Howle Apparatus for expanding perlite and the like
US2613070A (en) * 1949-06-28 1952-10-07 Clarence H Verwohlt Heat-treating strip
US2645031A (en) * 1950-02-07 1953-07-14 Hispeed Equipment Inc Apparatus for drying filmlike materials

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3175813A (en) * 1962-12-31 1965-03-30 Nat Steel Corp Edge position control of strip material in furnaces
US20050103263A1 (en) * 2001-12-27 2005-05-19 Tomio Kitsuwa Wire material plating equipment
US7220316B2 (en) * 2001-12-27 2007-05-22 Sakuratech Co. Ltd. Wire material plating equipment

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