US2722100A - Apparatus for feeding a liquid fuel, a liquid oxidizer and water to a combustion chamber associated with rocket apparatus - Google Patents

Apparatus for feeding a liquid fuel, a liquid oxidizer and water to a combustion chamber associated with rocket apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
US2722100A
US2722100A US707351A US70735146A US2722100A US 2722100 A US2722100 A US 2722100A US 707351 A US707351 A US 707351A US 70735146 A US70735146 A US 70735146A US 2722100 A US2722100 A US 2722100A
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water
liquid
apparatus
combustion chamber
liquid fuel
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US707351A
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Esther C Goddard
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Daniel And Florence Guggenheim
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K9/00Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof
    • F02K9/42Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof using liquid or gaseous propellants
    • F02K9/60Constructional parts; Details
    • F02K9/62Combustion or thrust chambers
    • F02K9/64Combustion or thrust chambers having cooling arrangements
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K9/00Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof
    • F02K9/42Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof using liquid or gaseous propellants
    • F02K9/44Feeding propellants
    • F02K9/52Injectors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S60/00Power plants
    • Y10S60/915Collection of goddard patents

Description

Nov. 1, 1955 H GODDARD 2,722,100

APPARATUS FOR FEEDING A LIQUID FUEL, A LIQUID OXIDIZER AND WATER TO A COMBUSTION CHAMBER ASSOCIATED WITH ROCKET APPARATUS Filed NOV. 2, 1946 United States Patent C) P APPARATUS FOR FEEDINGA. LIQUID FUEL, A

LIQUID OXIDIZER AND WATER To COMBUS- TION CHAMBER Asso olArum WITH ROCKET APPARATUS Robert'H; Goddard,- deceased; late of A'nnapolis', Md., by

Esther C. Goddard, executrix,- Worcester, Mash, assignor oftone-half to The .Daniel and Florence- Guggenheim Foundation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application' Novmher 2; 1946, Serial N o. 707,351 4 Claims. (Cl. 60-39316) This invention relates to combustion chambers as used in rockets and rocket craft, and relates more particularly to devices for feeding liquid fuel to such a combustion chamber.

It is at times desirable to add a small proportion of water to the gasoline or other liquid fuel before it is fed to the combustion chamber but the presence of this water tends to retard ignition.

Accordingly, it is the object of the present invention to provide means to separate the fuel and water as the intermingled liquids fed to the ignition point and in such manner that the oxidizing agent will engage and combine with the separated fuel before said oxidizing agent can be engaged and diluted by the separated water.

A further object of the invention is to provide a deflecting device in a combustion chamber by which intermingled liquid fuel and water will be separated in accordance with their different specific gravities.

A preferred form of the invention is shown in the drawing, in which Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a combustion chamber embodying the invention;

Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional elevation of certain parts shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a detail view, looking in the direction of the arrow 3 in Fig. 1;

Fig. 4 is a detail sectional view, taken along the line 4-4 in Fig. 1; and

Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 4 but showing a slight modification.

Referring to Fig. 1, a combustion chamber C is shown, having a nozzle portion N and enclosed within a jacket casing 10. Liquid fuel, as gasoline, is supplied under pressure to the casing through a pipe 11. The liquid fuel receives a certain proportion of water as it passes through an annular casing 12 having feed openings 14 and supplied with water under pressure through a pipe At the front or closed end of the combustion chamber the jacket casing It) is contracted as shown in Fig. 2 and a plurality of feed openings are provided, through which jets of intermingled fuel and water are projected against the sharply concave side surface of an annular deflecting ring 22, mounted on spaced ribs or supports 23 within the combustion chamber.

Liquid oxygen or other suitable oxidizing liquid is fed under pressure through a pipe 30 to the outer end of the jacket space between a chamber extension C and its jacket casing 32. The inner or rear end of the casing 32 is Welded or otherwise permanently secured to the adjacent end of the jacket casing 10, and a plurality of feed openings 33 are provided for the liquid oxygen, said feed openings being inclined forwardly and toward the chamber extension C.

When the intermingled gasoline and water are injected under pressure against the concave annular side surface 21 of the deflector ring 22, there is a very abrupt change ice easily deflected and is projected along; the lines of the arrows b. At the same time the 'liquid'oxygen is projectedinto the chamber extension C along the liues'of thearrows d.

Satisfactory operation requires-that the liquid pressure be high enough to eject the intermingled liquids at the velocity necessary to produce the described and definite deflecting and separating action, and of-course the pressure-must substantially exceed the-vapor pressure in the:

combustion chamber.

It will be evident from Fig. 2 that the liquid oxygen, proceeding along the lines of the arrows a, will intercept the gasoline or other liquid fuel entering along the lines of the arrows b before the oxygen can be engaged by the water entering along the lines of the arrows a. The liquid oxygen and liquid fuel are thus intermingled in such manner that they may be easily vaporized and ignited, while the water is thereafter absorbed by the combustion gases and by any partially consumed liquids or vapors as they are ejected from the chamber extension C and are projected into the combustion chamber C Where further and more complete combustion takes place.

For most effective operation, the liquids are supplied to the deflector 22 only in such quantities as will form a relatively thin film on the annular concave side surface of the deflector ring. Under some operating conditions, however, this film may be more effectively formed if the small circular feed openings 20 for the intermingled fuel and water are replaced by elongated openings or slots as shown at 40 in Fig. 5.

By this simple addition of a concavely recessed annular deflecting ring, prompt ignition and complete combustion of the liquid fuel is greatly facilitated.

Having been thus described, the invention is not to be limited to the details herein disclosed, otherwise than as set forth in the claims, but what is claimed is:

1. In a combustion chamber of rocket type, means to inject intermingled liquid fuel and water under pressure in excess of the combustion chamber pressure, a deflector ring mounted Within said chamber and in the path of the injected liquids and having a sharply concave annular surface engaged by said liquids and effective to deflect the fuel and water by relative deflection along diverging conical paths, and additional means to inject a liquid oxidizer along a path which intercepts the cone of liquid fuel before it intercepts the cone of separated water.

2. In a combustion chamber of rocket type, a jacket enclosing said chamber and having forwardly and inwardly directed feed openings adjacent its closed end portion, means to feed intermingled liquid fuel and Water to said jacket and to inject said liquids into said chamber through said openings under pressure in excess of the com bustion chamber pressure, a deflecting device mounted within said chamber and in the path of the intermingled injected liquids and engaged by said liquids and effective to separate the fuel and water by relative deflection into concentric forwardly directed cones, with the fuel cone outside of the water cone, and means to inject jets of a liquid oxidizer to said chamber, which jets are intercepted by said fuel cone before being intercepted by said Water cone.

3. In a combustion chamber of rocket type, a jacket surrounding said chamber and enclosing a jacket space, means to inject intermingled liquid fuel and water from said jacket space to said chamber under pressure in excess of the combustion chamber pressure, deflecting means mounted within said chamber and in the path of the injected liquids and engaged by said liquids and effective to Patented N 0v- 1,. 1955.

separate the liquid fuel from the water by relative deflection and to direct said separated liquids forward along separate paths into an extension of said chamber, and means to inject a liquid oxidizer along a path in which it engages and intercepts said liquid fuel in said extension to form a relatively pure combustible mixture before said liquid oxidizer engages and intercepts the separated water.

4. In a combustion chamber of rocket type provided with two sets of feed openings adjacent its closed end portion, means to inject intermingled liquid fuel and Water through one set of feed openings under pressure in excess of the combustion chamber pressure, means to inject a liquid oxidizer through the other set of feed openings, and deflecting means in said chamber effective to separate the liquid fuel from the water and to project said liquid fuel into the path of the liquid oxidizer as said oxidizer enters said chamber and before said oxidizer engages the separated water, and said deflecting means comprising an annular ring mounted within said chamber in the path of the intermingled fuel and water and having a sharply concave annular side surface engaged by said intermingled 5 liquids.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,144,021 Bennett et a1. June 22, 1915 1,531,475 Brandt Mar. 31, 1925 2,430,396 Gollin Nov. 4, 1947 2,470,564 Lawrence et al May 17, 1949 OTHER REFERENCES Astronautics, Journal of the American Rocket Society, article by Truax, pages 9-11, April 1938, No. 40.

US707351A 1946-11-02 1946-11-02 Apparatus for feeding a liquid fuel, a liquid oxidizer and water to a combustion chamber associated with rocket apparatus Expired - Lifetime US2722100A (en)

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Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2859588A (en) * 1953-12-16 1958-11-11 Texas Co Flame holder structure for ram jet combustor
US2974475A (en) * 1955-04-06 1961-03-14 Exxon Research Engineering Co Method for operating a rocket motor or the like
US3085393A (en) * 1958-06-03 1963-04-16 North American Aviation Inc Rocket engine starting method
US3134228A (en) * 1961-07-27 1964-05-26 Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Inc Propulsion system
US3168808A (en) * 1961-03-08 1965-02-09 Thiokol Chemical Corp Combustion improvement device
US3724048A (en) * 1971-11-16 1973-04-03 Us Air Force Method of preventing the plugging of liquid coolant passages of a regeneratively cooled rocket engine thrust chamber
US3921389A (en) * 1972-10-09 1975-11-25 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Method and apparatus for combustion with the addition of water
US6389814B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2002-05-21 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Hydrocarbon combustion power generation system with CO2 sequestration
US6523349B2 (en) 2000-03-22 2003-02-25 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Clean air engines for transportation and other power applications
US6622470B2 (en) 2000-05-12 2003-09-23 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Semi-closed brayton cycle gas turbine power systems
US6868677B2 (en) 2001-05-24 2005-03-22 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Combined fuel cell and fuel combustion power generation systems
US6945029B2 (en) 2002-11-15 2005-09-20 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Low pollution power generation system with ion transfer membrane air separation
US7021063B2 (en) 2003-03-10 2006-04-04 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Reheat heat exchanger power generation systems
US20090266049A1 (en) * 2008-04-29 2009-10-29 Honeywell International Inc. Methods and systems for propelling a vehicle
US7882692B2 (en) 2004-04-16 2011-02-08 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Zero emissions closed rankine cycle power system

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1144021A (en) * 1913-10-11 1915-06-22 Smokeless Economisers Ltd Oil-fuel burner.
US1531475A (en) * 1921-03-26 1925-03-31 Edmund S R Brandt Combustion flask
US2430396A (en) * 1942-12-07 1947-11-04 Asiatic Petroleum Co Ltd Cooling jacket for combustion chambers
US2470564A (en) * 1944-11-15 1949-05-17 Reaction Motors Inc Reaction motor control system

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1144021A (en) * 1913-10-11 1915-06-22 Smokeless Economisers Ltd Oil-fuel burner.
US1531475A (en) * 1921-03-26 1925-03-31 Edmund S R Brandt Combustion flask
US2430396A (en) * 1942-12-07 1947-11-04 Asiatic Petroleum Co Ltd Cooling jacket for combustion chambers
US2470564A (en) * 1944-11-15 1949-05-17 Reaction Motors Inc Reaction motor control system

Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2859588A (en) * 1953-12-16 1958-11-11 Texas Co Flame holder structure for ram jet combustor
US2974475A (en) * 1955-04-06 1961-03-14 Exxon Research Engineering Co Method for operating a rocket motor or the like
US3085393A (en) * 1958-06-03 1963-04-16 North American Aviation Inc Rocket engine starting method
US3168808A (en) * 1961-03-08 1965-02-09 Thiokol Chemical Corp Combustion improvement device
US3134228A (en) * 1961-07-27 1964-05-26 Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Inc Propulsion system
US3724048A (en) * 1971-11-16 1973-04-03 Us Air Force Method of preventing the plugging of liquid coolant passages of a regeneratively cooled rocket engine thrust chamber
US3921389A (en) * 1972-10-09 1975-11-25 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Method and apparatus for combustion with the addition of water
US7043920B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2006-05-16 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Hydrocarbon combustion power generation system with CO2 sequestration
US6389814B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2002-05-21 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Hydrocarbon combustion power generation system with CO2 sequestration
US6598398B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2003-07-29 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Hydrocarbon combustion power generation system with CO2 sequestration
US6523349B2 (en) 2000-03-22 2003-02-25 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Clean air engines for transportation and other power applications
US6637183B2 (en) 2000-05-12 2003-10-28 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Semi-closed brayton cycle gas turbine power systems
US6824710B2 (en) 2000-05-12 2004-11-30 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Working fluid compositions for use in semi-closed brayton cycle gas turbine power systems
US6910335B2 (en) 2000-05-12 2005-06-28 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Semi-closed Brayton cycle gas turbine power systems
US6622470B2 (en) 2000-05-12 2003-09-23 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Semi-closed brayton cycle gas turbine power systems
US6868677B2 (en) 2001-05-24 2005-03-22 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Combined fuel cell and fuel combustion power generation systems
US6945029B2 (en) 2002-11-15 2005-09-20 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Low pollution power generation system with ion transfer membrane air separation
US7021063B2 (en) 2003-03-10 2006-04-04 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Reheat heat exchanger power generation systems
US7882692B2 (en) 2004-04-16 2011-02-08 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. Zero emissions closed rankine cycle power system
US20090266049A1 (en) * 2008-04-29 2009-10-29 Honeywell International Inc. Methods and systems for propelling a vehicle
US8024918B2 (en) 2008-04-29 2011-09-27 Honeywell International Inc. Rocket motor having a catalytic hydroxylammonium (HAN) decomposer and method for combusting the decomposed HAN-based propellant

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