US2717335A - Ignition system - Google Patents

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US2717335A
US2717335A US29941652A US2717335A US 2717335 A US2717335 A US 2717335A US 29941652 A US29941652 A US 29941652A US 2717335 A US2717335 A US 2717335A
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capacitor
discharge
voltage
circuit
transformer
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Marion W Sims
Aaron M Krakower
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General Electric Co
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General Electric Co
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B41/00Circuit arrangements or apparatus for igniting or operating discharge lamps
    • H05B41/14Circuit arrangements
    • H05B41/30Circuit arrangements in which the lamp is fed by pulses, e.g. flash lamp
    • H05B41/32Circuit arrangements in which the lamp is fed by pulses, e.g. flash lamp for single flash operation

Description

Sept. 6, 1955 M. w. SIMS ET AL 2,717,335

IGNITION SYSTEM Filed July 17, 1952 Inventor-s: Marion W- Sims, Ezra G. Hill,

Aaron M. Krakower,

b WW

Then- Attorne g.

United States Patent IGNITION SYSTEM Marion W. Sims, Ezra C. Hill, and Aaron M. Krakower, Fort Wayne, Ind., assignors to Genera! Electric Com pany, a corporation of New York Application July 17, 1952, Serial No. 299,416

26 Claims. (Cl. 315-183) This invention relates to electrical spark ignition systems, and more particularly to a capacitor discharge ignition system having a low resistance transformer.

The system, originally employed and adapted for use in connection with aircraft gas turbines or jet engines where difficulty has heretofore been experienced in igniting the fuel mixture at high altitude and high air speed, is also applicable to domestic oil burners, stationary gas turbines and the like. Although it has been found that high energy capacitor discharge spark ignition is better suited to effecting fuel ignition than are conventional inductive spark systems, prior capacitor discharge systems known to applicants have been found inadequate in one or more respects. For example, the ignition ability or the ability of the prior systems to ignite reliably a fuel mixture under adverse conditions of temperature, pressure, velocity of fuel mixture, and various other properties of the fuel mixture has not been sufliciently high to meet the present day trend toward ever increasing air speeds and flying altitudes. Furthermore, there is a need for greater flexibility in the range of igniter electrode gap spacings which may be employed in connection with a given system. To be more specific, some presently known capacitor discharge systems, if designed for an igniter plug of a given spacing, do not operate properly with an igniter plug of lesser gap spacing because the unit does not reach full storage capacitor charge before discharging through the lesser gap spacing as it did in the case of the greater gap spacing for which it was designed. In addition, in some presently known capacitor discharge systems the main discharge current producing the arc at the igniter electrodes is first required to pass across a series discharge gap, resulting in a division of the energy stored in the capacitor between the series gap, where energy there released is not elfective in producing ignition, and the main ignition electrodes. Another disadvantage of existing systems is the high voltampere input required. A further disadvantage is the low percentage of the stored capacitor energy delivered to the igniter electrodes in producing the spark.

It is therefore an object of this invention to provide a new and improved electric spark ignition system or apparatus of the capacitor discharge type.

It is also an object of this invention to provide an ignition system in connection with which the capacitor discharge circuit thereof has especially low electrical losses compared to prior art circuits of this type.

It is a further object of this invention to provide a combination pulse transformer and low loss energy storage reactor suitable for employment in the capacitor discharge circuit.

Another object is to provide a capacitor discharge ignition system requiring low volt-ampere input.

Still another object is to provide a capacitor discharge ignition system in which a high percentage of the energy stored in the capacitor is released in the are at the igniter electrodes.

price The invention will be better understood from the following description when taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, and the scope of the invention will be pointed out in the appended claims. In the drawing, Fig. 1 is a circuit diagram of an electric spark ignition apparatus for system embodying one form of the invention; Figs. 2, 3 and 4 show circuit diagrams illustrating other forms of the invention; Fig. 5 illustrates typical voltage and current curves of the main discharge capacitor employed in the system during a single oscillatory discharge burst at the igniter plug; and Fig. 6 shows an elevation cross section through the pulse or ionizing transformer of the invention.

Referring now to the drawing, and more particularly to Fig. 1, we have shown a high reactance, voltage stepup input transformer 10, having a saturable magnetic core 11 which may be provided with a gapped magnetic shunt 12 between primary and secondary winding receiving sections. A primary winding 13 is connected through a series capacitor 14 to conductors 15 and 16, which are in turn connected, for example, to a 115 volt- 400 cycle source of power, while the terminals of a main discharge and energy storage capacitor 17 are connected to a secondary winding 18 through a suitable rectifier 19 which may be of the selenium type. The capacitor 14, series connected in one of the power conductors to the primary winding of the transformer, serves to limit circuit currents to safe values for the circuit elements, in addition to other purposes to be discussed hereinafter. The transformer it and rectifier 19 constitute a direct current supply to charge the main discharge capacitor 17 and a triggering or auxiliary capacitor 20, the latter through a resistor 21, the combination being in shunt circuit relationship to the main discharge capacitor 17. in accordance with the invention, the triggering capacitor 20 is provided with a triggering discharge circuit which includes in series circuit relation the primary winding 22 of our new and improved volt age step-up pulse or ionizing and storage inductor transformer 23, to be discussed in detail hereinafter, and a discharge gap 24 or other suitable circuit completing triggering device. The main discharge circuit of capacitor 1'7 is shown in heavy lines and includes in series circuit relation the secondary winding 25 of the ionizing transformer and a main ignition gap defined by ignition electrodes 26 and 27 of igniter plug 28. It should be noted that device 24 is not included in the main discharge circuit of the main discharge capacitor 17,

The transformer 10 steps the power voltage up to approximately 1500 volts, for example, and this transformer in conjunction with series capacitor 14 forms a partial voltage stabilizer, with the added feature that on secondary short circuit the capacitor limits the short circuit current to a safe value for the rectifier 19 and other circuit elements. Thus, capacitor 14 limits the current drawn from the 400 cycle source, particularly during discharge and recharge of capacitor 1'7, without introducing losses, and in addition helps control the charging rate of capacitors 17 and 20 and produces in combination with the non-linear magnetizing reactance of transformer 10 a stabilizing effect tending to minimize fluctuations in output voltage of transformer 10 during fluctuations in source voltage. This latter effect is produced by having the capacitive reactance of capacitor 14 greater than the unsaturated magnetizing reactance of transformer 10. Furthermore, the capacitor 14 helps to correct the lagging power factor resulting from the transformer reactance, thus minimizing required input voltamperes. Transformer 10 is preferably a high leakage reactance transformer operated at a flux density such that the core is somewhat saturated.

The capacitor 2t and resistor 21 constitute a timing circuit which together With transformer i capacitor 14, and capacitor 17 fix the firing rate of the unit while the capacitor 17 and the secondary 25 of ionizing transformer 23 comprise a damped series resonant circuit when the gap defined by electrodes 26 and 27 is SlliTlCiCl'lilj ionized to be electrically conducting.

Upon application of voltage to the circuit, charges build up on capacitors l7 and 29, with the charging of capacitor being slowed to the desired extent by making the charging current flow through resistor 21. When the voltage across capacitor 29 reaches the break-down value of gap 24, at which time the voltage of capacitor 17 is still substantially lower than that required to ionize the gap between electrodes 26 and 27, gap 24 arcs over and in efect becomes a short circuit. Since the internal resistance of the gap immediately becomes quite low once it breaks down, this instantaneously applies the full voltage of capacitor 26 to the primary 22- of the ionizing transformer 23, with the result that a high voltage is induced in the secondary 25. This high voltage produces ionization of the gas between the electrodes 26 and 27 of plug 28, causing arc over and thus completing the circuit comprising the main storage capacitor 17, the secondary 25 of the ionizing transformer, and the gap of the igniter plug 23. At this point in the operation the main capacitor 17 takes over and delivers its charge to the secondary 25 of transformer a3 and the gap defined by electrodes 26 and 27 of plug 28. That portion of the energy delivered to the gap is effective in producing ignition of a fuel-air mixture at the gap, and since the ionizing transformer serves also as a storage inductor, the remaining energy is stored in the ionizing transformer. The inductor, or ionizing transformer, then discharges, continuing the delivery of energy to the gap and recharging the capacitor 17 in the opposite polarity with the energy not already consumed, thus completing the first half cycle of an oscillatory discharge of capacitor 1?. Oscillation in this inductance-capacitance-spark gap circuit continues, damped only by the spark gap and unavoidable circuit losses, until the original stored energy is dissipated, a large portion of it having been delivered to the arc itself where it is effective in producing ignition. Dun ing the oscillatory discharge, the voltage induced in the primary 22 of the ionizing transformer is too low to restrike the arc in gap 2 so there is no dissipation of energy in the trigger gap.

From the instant the main ignition gap at the plug 28 breaks down, the performance of the discharge circuit similar to that of a series rcsistance-inductance-capacitance circuit with an initial charge on the capacitor. Such a circuit will oscillate until substantially all the original stored energy is dissipated in the circuits dissipative elements. Thus, duration of the oscillatory burs f depends on the total effective resistance in the discharge circuit, a typical duration being five or six pulses, as illustrated by Fig. 5 where the main discharge capacitor current and voltage are plotted against time to define current curve 29 and voltage curve 30 during one oscillatory discharge burst. After the burst, the capacitors re-charge and the above described phenomenon repeats at a repetition rate determined by the elements which influence capacitor charging time, and by the operating voltage of the triggering device.

Since the effective resistance of a short are suitable for ignition purposes is low, it is imperative that other resistances in the circuit be extremely low. Otherwise such resistances would consume the energy without contributing to ignition. Thus, an important feature of the ignition system of the invention is low resistance of that portion of the circuit shown in bold or heavy lines in Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4, and our new and improved low resistance ionizing and storage inductor transformer 23 makes a low overall circuit resistance possible. Specifically, the circuit resistance of the main discharge circuit, including the resistance of the conductors and connections, of the ionizing transformer secondary measured at a frequency and voltage equal to that occurring during the oscillation of a discharge burst, and that of capacitor 17 measured under the same conditions, but not including resistance of the are between igniter electrodes 26 and 27, should be less than 1 ELK/E E C the efinitions of which symbols will be described hereinafter.

The ionizing transformer-storage inductor may be either of the autotransforrner type or of the insulating type. It is proportioned to have the properties of a good pulse transformer, while at the same time having the properties of a good low loss, low reactance storage inductor. Since these requirements conflict to some degree, it is an object of this invention to provide an optimum compromise. One method which we have found satisfactory for constructing the ionizing transformerstorage inductor is illustrated in Fig. 6 where the numeral 31 identifies a high permeability inner core, which may be made of ferrite material, surrounded by a coil 32 which may be either layer wound with magnet wire or spirally wound with strip copper. The coil 32 is pro vided with a high voltage secondary lead 33 for connection to electrode 27 of plug 28, low voltage primary leads 34 and 35 and lead 36 from the low voltage end of secondary winding 25. The core 31 and coil 32 are embedded or molded within suitable insulating material 37 such as solventless varnish or a combination of methyl methacrylate and solventless varnish as illustrated. in addition, an outer magnetic core yoke 38 encircling the core, winding and insulating material may also be provided. For maximum effectiveness as a pulse transformer to produce the initial ionizing spark, the primary and secondary are closely coupled and a high permeability core is used to assure sufiiciently low magnetizing current during induction of the pulse ionizing voltage.

However, in the interest of good ignition ability, the inductance of the transformer secondary 25, which must have enough turns to produce the high ionizing voltage, for example 15,000 volts, must be low enough to permit high values of current to flow during the main discharge. This low inductance requirement may also be expressed as a requirement for a high natural frequency of oscillation for the main discharge capacitor 17 and the transformer secondary 25. This requirement conflicts directly with that of a high inductance primary with close coupling. In our invention this problem is solved by using a core having a high initial permeability, but one which becomes saturated by the discharge current of ionizing capacitor 20 after the ionizing voltage has reached a high value, thus leaving the inductance low for the immediately following main discharge. Operation of the system may be achieved with an ionizing capacitor 20 of value low enough not to be capable of saturating primary 22, by permitting the core saturation to be delayed until the main discharge current has reached saturation value, but our results show superior performance and better reliability when the capacitor 20 is large enough to produce core saturation immediately following the ionizing pulse.

Making the final inductance or saturated condition of secondary 25 too low will result in main discharge currents so high that the IR drops in the circuit conductors are appreciable in comparison with the arc voltage between electrodes 26 and 27, and consequently in the consumption of an appreciable portion of the energy initially stored in capacitor 17 as 1 R losses not contributing to ignition. On the other hand, making this inductance too high reduces the peak rate of energy release in the spark burst and lengthens the duration of the burst to such an extent that energy is not delivered to the spark at a high enough rate to produce ignition, even though a high percentage of the initial stored energy may be eventually released in the are. We find that where L is the inductance in henries of secondary 25 with the core removed, which is approximately its inductance with its core in the saturated condition; R is the total series resistance in ohms in the loop comprising 17, secondary 25, and the igniter plug, including resistance of the conductors and connections but not including that of the gap; E is the initial voltage in volts on 17 at the start of the discharge; C is the capacitance of 17 in farads, and Earc is the voltage in volts between 26 and 27 when the arc current is equal to henries 6,000,000C

henries Furthermore, we find that the inductance of L5 of the secondary winding as measured with the core in place and with very low current flowing should be at least two times as high as the value measured with a direct current of This ratio is determined primarily by the properties and proportions of the core.

Mutual inductance between primary winding 22, whose self inductance is L with core unsaturated, and the secondary winding 25, whose inductance is L5 with core unsaturated, should be greater than .1'\/LpLs and nearly as practical to /L Ls. In other words, the primary and secondary windings should be relatively closely coupled.

The distributed capacitance between turns and layers of secondary 25 should ideally be zero, but in no case should it constitute the equivalent of a lumped capacitance across the winding of more than when Np and NS are respectively the number of turns in primary and secondary windings, and C20 is the capacitance of the ionizing capacitor 20. This distributed capacitance is controlled by the spacings, and by dielectric constants of the insulation, between turns and layers of winding 25.

The modification shown in Fig. 2 differs from Fig. 1 in that the main capacitor discharge current goes through the entire transformer winding Whereas in Fig. 1 it does not go through the primary winding 22. In both figures, the transformer 23 is shown autotransformer connected. In Fig. l voltage applied to electrodes 26-27 is the sum of the voltage induced in Winding 25 and the voltage on capacitor 17. In Fig. 2 this applied voltage is the sum of the voltages induced in windings 22 and 25 plus the voltage on capacitor 17, and is therefore higher than in Fig. 1. However, the higher inductance in the main discharge circuit of Fig. 2 reduces the peak value of the discharge current and prolongs the burst.

In Figs. 3 and 4 the transformer 23 is shown connected as a conventional transformer and the ionizing voltage applied to electrodes 26 and 27 is only that of secondary winding 25 plus that of capacitor 17.

Fig. 4 differs from Fig. 3 in that the relative positions of the primary winding 22 and the triggering capacitor 20 are reversed in the local loop circuit including them and the triggering device 24. Fig. 3 is preferable from the standpoint of minimizing insulation requirements in transformer 23, whereas Fig. 4- has the desirable feature that capacitors 17 and 2d may have one common plate. Fig. 1 has both these advantages.

While we have in accordance with the patent statutes shown and described a particular embodiment of our invention and modifications thereof, it will be obvious that changes and other modifications can be made without departing from the invention in its broader aspects, and we, therefore, aim in the appended claims to cover all such changes and modifications as fall Within the true spirit and scope of the invention.

What we claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

1. A capacitor discharge ignition system comprising, in combination, a source of unidirectional voltage capacitor-charging current, a main energy storage capacitor connected across said source, a triggering capacitor connected to be charged through a resistor by said source, a voltage step-up transformer having a low voltage primary winding and a high voltage secondary winding, a circuit completing triggering device connected to discharge said triggering capacitor through said low voltage primary winding when the voltage charge on said triggering capacitor attains a predetermined value, said transformer having at least said secondary winding connected directly in series with said main capacitor forming a discharge circuit, said discharge circuit being adapted to be connected directly to an ignition gap.

2. A capacitor discharge ignition system comprising, in combination, a source of unidirectional voltage capacitor-charging current, a main energy storage capacitor connected across said source, a triggering capacitor connected to be charged through a resistor by said source, a voltage step-up transformer having a low voltage primary winding and a high voltage secondary Winding, a trigger gap connected to discharge said triggering capacitor through said low voltage primary winding when the Volt age charge on said triggering capacitor attains a predetermined value, said transformer having at least said secondary Winding connected directly in series with said main capacitor forming a discharge circuit, said discharge circuit being adapted to be connected directly to an ignition gap.

3. A capacitor discharge ignition system comprising, in combination, a source of unidirectional voltage capacitor-charging current, a main energy storage capacitor connected across said source, a triggering capacitor connected to be charged through a resistor by said source, a voltage step-up autotransformer having a saturable magnetic core provided with a low voltage primary Winding and a high voltage secondary winding, a sealed trigger gap connected to discharge said triggering capacitor through said low voltage primary Winding when the voltage charge on said triggering capacitor attains a predetermined value, said autotransformer having at least said secondary winding connected directly in series with said main capacitor forming a discharge circuit, said discharge circuit being adapted to be connected directly to an ignition gap.

4. A capacitor discharge ignition system comprising, in combination, a low voltage input terminal for connection to a source of direct current, a high voltage output terminal for connection to an ignition gap, and a common terminal for connection to both said source and gap,

' a transformer having a high voltage secondary winding and a low voltage primary winding, said transformer having at least said high voltage secondary winding connected directly between said input and output terminal, a main capacitor connected across said input and common terminals, an auxiliary capacitor and a circuit completing triggering device, means for serially connecting said primary winding, said auxiliary capacitor and said circuit completing triggering device in a closed local circuit, a charging resistor for connecting a junction between two elements in said local circuit to said common terminal, and means for connecting another junction in said local circuit to said input terminal.

5. A capacitor discharge ignition system comprising, in combination, a low voltage input terminal for connection to a source of direct current, a high voltage output terminal for connection to an ignition gap, and a common terminal for connection to both said source and gap, a transformer having a saturable magnetic core provided with a high voltage secondary winding and a low voltage primary winding, said transformer having at least said high voltage secondary winding connected directly between said input and output terminals, a main capacitor connected across said input and common terminals. an auxiliary capacitor and a sealed trigger gap, means for serially connecting said primary winding, said auxiliary capacitor and said tr' gap a local circuit, a charging resistor for connecting the junction between said trigger gap and said auxiliary capacitor in local circuit to said common terminal, and means for connecting another junction of said local circuit to said input terminal.

6. A capacitor discharge ignition system comprising, in combination, a low volta e input terminal for connection to a source of di ect current, a high voltage output terminal for connection to an ignition gap, and a common terminal for connection to both said source and gap, an autotransformer having a saturable magnetic core provided with a high voltage secondary winding and a low voltage primary winding, said autotransformer having at least said high voltage secondary Winding connected directly between said input and output terminals, a main capacitor connected across said input and common terminals, an auxiliary capacitor and a sealed trigger gap, means for serially connecting said primary winding, said auxiliary capacitor and trigger gap in a closed local circuit, a charging resistor for connecting the junction between said trigger gap and said auxiliary capacitor in said local circuit to said common terminal, and means for connecting the junction between said auxiliary capacitor and primary winding in said local circuit to said input terminal.

7. In an electric spark ignition apparatus for supplying a recurrent arc discharge between a pair of ignition electrodes, a pair of effectively unidirectional current supply conductors, a main capacitor connected across said conductors, an auxiliary capacitor and a current limiting resistor serially connected across said conductors, a spark discharge device including a pair of sparking electrodes disposed in spaced apart relation in a sealed envelope, one said sparking electrode being connected to the common terminal of said ca acitors, a step-up transformer having a low voltage primary winding and a high voltage secondary winding, a main series discharge circuit consisting of said main capacitor and said transformer secondary winding directly connected in series, said discharge circuit being adapted to be directly connected to said ignition electrodes, and means connecting said primary winding and said spark discharge device across the other of said capacitor in an auxiliary series discharge circuit, whereby discharge of said other capacitor through said auxilitary series discharge circuit triggers said main series discharge circuit through said transformer.

8. In combination, a voltage stabilizing network having input terminals for receiving a variable alternating supply voltage and output terminals for delivering a stabilized alternating voltage, and an ignition system having supply terminals connected to said output terminals and high voltage disch rge current terminals for connection to an ignition gap device.

9. ln combi said LiOEl, a vintage stabilizing networi; having input terminals for receiving a variable alternating supply voltage and output terminals for delivering a stabilizing alternating voltage, and a capacitor discharge ignition system having supply conductors including a rectifier connected to said output terminals and high voltage capacitor discharge current conductors for connection to an ignition gap device.

10. In combination, a high leakage reactance transformer having a saturable magnetic core provided with a primary winding and a secondary winding, a capacitor having a higher reactance than the unsaturated magnetizing reactance of said transformer connected in series with said primary winding, a storage capacitor, and half wave rectifier connected across said secondary winding, an inductor winding a discharge circuit consisting of said capacitor and said inductor winding directly connected in series, and means for periodically inducing a high voltage pulse in said inductor winding for initiating an oscillatory discharge of said capacitor through said inductor winding.

11. In a capacitor discharge ignition system, a combined ionizing transformer and series inductor having a saturable magnetic core provided with a low resistance winding having a low voltage primary terminal, a common terminal and a high voltage secondary terminal for direct connection to one electrode of an ignition gap device, a main discharge capacitor and a triggering capacitor having an effectively common terminal directly connected to said common terminal of said transformer, said main discharge capacitor having a terminal for direct connection to another electrode of said ignition gap device, said triggering capacitor having another terminal, a current limiting resistor directly connected between the other terminals of said capacitors, a normally-open circuit-completing triggering device connected between the low voltage primary terminal of said transformer and said other terminal of said triggering capacitor, and means connected to the terminals of said main discharge capacitor for charging both of said capacitors.

12. In a capacitor discharge ignition system, a combined ionizing autotransformer and series inductor having a saturable magnetic core provided with a low resistance winding having a low voltage primary terminal, a common terminal, and a high voltage secondary terminal for direct connection to one electrode of an ignition gap device, a main discharge capacitor and a triggering capacitor each having a pair of terminals, one terminal of said main discharge capacitor being directly connected to the low voltage primary terminal of said autotransformer winding, one terminal of said triggering capacitor being directly connected to the common terminal of said autotransformer winding, means for directly connecting the other terminal of said main discharge capacitor to another electrode of said ignition gap device, a resistor directly connected between the other terminal of the triggering capacitor with the other terminal of the main discharge capacitor, a normally-open circuit-completing triggering device having two terminals, one of which is directly connected to the junction between said main capacitor and said low voltage primary winding and the other terminal of which is directly connected to the junction between said resistor and the other terminal of said triggering capacitor, and means connected to the terminals of said main discharge capacitor for charging both of said capacitors.

13. In a capacitor discharge ignition system, a combined ionizing transformer and series inductor having a saturable magnetic core provided with a primary winding and a secondary winding each having a pair of terminals, a main discharge capacitor having a pair of terminals one of which is directly connected to one terminal of each of said windings, the other terminal of said secondary winding being for direct connection to an ignition gap device, a triggering capacitor having a pair of terminals, one of which is directly connected to the other terminal of said primary winding, a resistor directly connected between the other terminals of said capacitors, a normallyopen circuit-completing triggering device connected in shunt circuit relation with said primary winding and said triggering capacitor, and means connected to the terminals of said main discharge capacitor for charging both of said capacitors.

14. In a capacitor discharge ignition system, a combined ionizing transformer and series inductor having a saturable magnetic core provided with a primary winding and a secondary winding, a main discharge capacitor having a pair of terminals one of which is directly connected to a terminal of said secondary winding, a triggering capacitor directly connecting one terminal of said primary winding to the directly interconnected terminals of said main discharge capacitor and said secondary winding, a normally-open circuit-completing triggering device connected between the directly interconnected terminals of said main discharge capacitor and said secondary winding and the remaining terminal of said primary winding, a current limiting resistor directly connected between the remaining terminal of said main discharge capacitor and said remaining terminal of said primary winding, and means connected to the terminals of said main discharge capacitor for charging both of said capacitors.

15. In a capacitor discharge ignition system, a low resistance oscillatory main discharge circuit for connection to an ignition gap device consisting of a capacitor, an inductor, and conductor leads for directly connecting said capacitor and inductor in series to such a gap, the resistance R of said circuit measured at a frequency and voltage equal to that occurring during an oscillatory discharge burst of said circuit being less than where L and C are respectively the inductance in henries of the inductor and the capacitance in farads of the capacitor when measured under the same conditions as said resistance, E is the initial voltage in volts on the capacitor at the start of the discharge, and Ears is the voltage in volts of the gap arc discharge when the arc current is equal to C NEW 16. In a capacitor discharge ignition system, a low resistance oscillatory main discharge circuit for connection to an ignition gap device consisting of a capacitor, an inductor, and conductor leads for directly connecting said capacitor and inductor in series to such a gap, the inductance L of said inductor measured at a frequency and voltage corresponding to that occurring during an oscillatory discharge burst of said circuit being greater than W henries and less than where R and C are respectively the resistance in ohms of said circuit and the capacitance in farads of said capacitor when measured under the same conditions that the inductance of said inductor is measured under, E is the initial voltage in volts on said capacitor at the start of a discharge burst, and Ears is the voltage in volts of the gap arc discharge when the arc current is equal to ohms henries 10 the inductance L of said inductor measured at a frequency and voltage corresponding to that occurring during an oscillatory discharge burst of said capacitor being greater than R E C' m henries and less than arc current is equal to 18. In a capacitor discharge ignition system, a low resistance oscillatory main discharge circuit consisting of a capacitor and a saturable core inductor directly connected in series, said discharge circuit being adapted to be directly connected to an ignition gap device, said inductor being proportioned to saturate its core at a value of discharge current equal to so as to reduce its inductance at said value of current to less than half its unsaturated core inductance where C is the capacitance of the capacitor in farads, L is the air core inductance of said inductor, and E is the initial voltage in volts on said capacitor at the start of the discharge.

19. In a capacitor discharge ignition system, a combined ionizing transformer and series inductor having a secondary winding for connection in series circuit including a main discharge capacitor and an ignition a'rc gap device, said transformer-inductor having a saturable magnetic core, said secondary winding having a value of saturated core inductance L which is greater than W henries and less than 6,000,0000 hennes the arc current is as L the unsaturated core inductance LS of the secondary Winding being at least twice the saturated core inductance L.

20. In a capacitor discharge ignition system, a combined ionizing transformer and series inductor having a secondary winding for connection in series circuit including a main discharge capacitor and an ignition arc gap device, said transformer-inductor having a saturable magnetic core and a primary winding, the mutual inductance between the primary winding whose self inductance is Lp with the core unsaturated and the secondary winding whose self inductance is Ls With the core unsaturated being between \/Lp Ls and .1 /L L3.

21. In a capacitor discharge ignition system, a combined ionizing transformer and series inductor having a secondary winding for connection in a series circuit including a main discharge capacitor and an ignition arc gap device and having a primary Winding for connection to a triggering capacitor, the distributed ca- 11 pacitance between turns and layers of said secondary winding being less than where Np and NS are respectively the turns of said prirnary and secondary windings and C20 is the capacitance of said triggering capacitor in farads.

22. In a capacitor discharge ignition system, a combined ionizing transformer and series inductor having a secondary Winding for connection in a series circuit including a main discharge capacitor and an ignition arc gap device, said transformer-inductor also having a saturable magnetic core and a primary winding, said secondary winding having a value of saturated core inductance L which is greater than WW henries and less than 6,000,0000 where R is the resistance of the circuit exclusive of the gap in ohms, E is the initial voltage in volts on the capacitor at the start of the discharge, C is the capacity of the capacitor in farads, Earc is the arc volttage when the arc current is the unsaturated core inductance Ls of the secondary winding being at least twice the saturated core inductance L, the mutual inductance between the primary winding whose self inductance is Lp with the core unsaturated and the secondary winding whose self inductance is Ls with the core unsaturated being between \/Lp Ls and 23. In a capacitor discharge ignition system, a combined ionizing transformer and series inductor having a secondary winding for connection in a series circuit including a main discharge capacitor and an ignition arc gap device, said transformer-inductor having a saturable magnetic core and a primary winding for connection to a triggering capacitor, said secondary winding having a value of saturated core inductance L which is greater than henries 100 E my and less than where R is the resistance in ohms of the circuit exclusive of the gap, E is the initial voltage in volts on the main discharge capacitor at the start of the discharge, C is the capacity of the main discharge capacitor in farads, Earc is the arc voltage when the are current is the unsaturated core inductance L5 being at least twice the saturated core inductance L. the distributed capacitance between turns and layers of said secondary w1ndhenries including a main discharge capacitor and an ignition arc gap device, said transformer-inductor also having a saturable magnetic core and a primary winding for connection to a triggering capacitor, mutual inductance between the primary winding whose self inductance is Lp with the core unsaturated and the secondary winding self-inductance is Ls with the core unsaturated being between the '\/Lp Ls and .l'\/Lp Ls, the distributed capacitance being less than where Np and NS are respectively the turns of said primary and secondary windings and C20 is the capacitance of said triggering capacitor in farads.

25. In a capacitor discharge ignition system, a combined ionizing transformer and series inductor having a secondary winding for connection in a series circuit including a main discharge capacitor and an ignition arc gap device, said transformer-inductor also having a saturable magnetic core and a primary winding for connection to a triggering capacitor, said secondary winding having value of saturated core inductance L which is greater than RZEZC 0 0) henries and less than where R is the resistance in ohms of the circuit exclusive of the gap, E is the initial voltage in volts on the main discharge capacitor at the start of the discharge, C is the capacity of the main discharge capacitor in farads, Earc is the arc voltage when the arc current is C Ml the unsaturated core inductance Ls of the secondary winding being at least twice the saturated core inductance L, the mutual inductance between the primary winding whose inductance is Lp with the core unsaturated and the secondary winding being between \/Lp Ls and .l\/Lp Ls, the distributed capacitance between turns and layers of said secondary Winding being less than henries References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,312,497 Cavanagh Aug. 5, 1919 1,729,492 Sauer Sept. 24, 1929 1,799,011 Fitzsimmons et a1. Mar. 31, 1931 2,239,002 Hall Apr. 22, 1941 2,395,629 Kongsted Feb. 26, 1946 2,497,307 Lang Feb. 14, 1950 2,551,101 Debenham et al. May 1, 1951

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Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2901673A (en) * 1954-12-14 1959-08-25 Thomas H Wiancko Relay circuit
DE1115986B (en) * 1957-01-25 1961-10-26 Csf Ignition device for internal combustion engines
US3019371A (en) * 1958-06-16 1962-01-30 Bardocz Arpad Spectroscopic light source
US3037147A (en) * 1959-11-13 1962-05-29 Gen Electric Starting and operating circuit for a discharge device
DE1186272B (en) * 1957-08-01 1965-01-28 Economy Engine Co Distribution and breaker-less ignition circuit for multi-cylinder internal combustion engines
US3267329A (en) * 1963-04-03 1966-08-16 Bendix Corp Electrical ignition apparatus using a high voltage breakdown and a condenser followup through the ignition gap
US3334270A (en) * 1964-09-04 1967-08-01 Gen Electric Discharge lamp circuit
US3407334A (en) * 1966-06-01 1968-10-22 Mc Graw Edison Co Starting and operating circuit for arc discharge lamps requiring a high starting voltage
US3476977A (en) * 1967-05-31 1969-11-04 Gen Electric Impulse starting and operating circuit for gas discharge lamps
US5561350A (en) * 1988-11-15 1996-10-01 Unison Industries Ignition System for a turbine engine
US5754011A (en) * 1995-07-14 1998-05-19 Unison Industries Limited Partnership Method and apparatus for controllably generating sparks in an ignition system or the like
US6670777B1 (en) 2002-06-28 2003-12-30 Woodward Governor Company Ignition system and method
US20050276000A1 (en) * 2004-06-15 2005-12-15 Wilmot Theodore S Solid state turbine engine ignition exciter having elevated temperature operational capabiltiy

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1312497A (en) * 1919-08-05 Transpormer-coil por ignition
US1729492A (en) * 1928-01-30 1929-09-24 Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Coil
US1799011A (en) * 1928-10-04 1931-03-31 Delco Remy Corp Ignition coil
US2239002A (en) * 1939-02-13 1941-04-22 Lloyd Osborn James Transformer connection for gaseous discharge tubes
US2395629A (en) * 1944-04-21 1946-02-26 American Bosch Corp Magneto ignition system
US2497307A (en) * 1950-02-14 Ignition system
US2551101A (en) * 1948-03-10 1951-05-01 Debenham William Richard Electrical ignition system

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1312497A (en) * 1919-08-05 Transpormer-coil por ignition
US2497307A (en) * 1950-02-14 Ignition system
US1729492A (en) * 1928-01-30 1929-09-24 Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Coil
US1799011A (en) * 1928-10-04 1931-03-31 Delco Remy Corp Ignition coil
US2239002A (en) * 1939-02-13 1941-04-22 Lloyd Osborn James Transformer connection for gaseous discharge tubes
US2395629A (en) * 1944-04-21 1946-02-26 American Bosch Corp Magneto ignition system
US2551101A (en) * 1948-03-10 1951-05-01 Debenham William Richard Electrical ignition system

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2901673A (en) * 1954-12-14 1959-08-25 Thomas H Wiancko Relay circuit
DE1115986B (en) * 1957-01-25 1961-10-26 Csf Ignition device for internal combustion engines
DE1186272B (en) * 1957-08-01 1965-01-28 Economy Engine Co Distribution and breaker-less ignition circuit for multi-cylinder internal combustion engines
US3019371A (en) * 1958-06-16 1962-01-30 Bardocz Arpad Spectroscopic light source
US3037147A (en) * 1959-11-13 1962-05-29 Gen Electric Starting and operating circuit for a discharge device
US3267329A (en) * 1963-04-03 1966-08-16 Bendix Corp Electrical ignition apparatus using a high voltage breakdown and a condenser followup through the ignition gap
US3334270A (en) * 1964-09-04 1967-08-01 Gen Electric Discharge lamp circuit
US3407334A (en) * 1966-06-01 1968-10-22 Mc Graw Edison Co Starting and operating circuit for arc discharge lamps requiring a high starting voltage
US3476977A (en) * 1967-05-31 1969-11-04 Gen Electric Impulse starting and operating circuit for gas discharge lamps
US5561350A (en) * 1988-11-15 1996-10-01 Unison Industries Ignition System for a turbine engine
US5754011A (en) * 1995-07-14 1998-05-19 Unison Industries Limited Partnership Method and apparatus for controllably generating sparks in an ignition system or the like
US6034483A (en) * 1995-07-14 2000-03-07 Unison Industries, Inc. Method for generating and controlling spark plume characteristics
US6353293B1 (en) 1995-07-14 2002-03-05 Unison Industries Method and apparatus for controllably generating sparks in an ignition system or the like
US20020101188A1 (en) * 1995-07-14 2002-08-01 Unison Industries, Inc. Method and apparatus for controllably generating sparks in an ingnition system or the like
US7095181B2 (en) 1995-07-14 2006-08-22 Unsion Industries Method and apparatus for controllably generating sparks in an ignition system or the like
US6670777B1 (en) 2002-06-28 2003-12-30 Woodward Governor Company Ignition system and method
US20050276000A1 (en) * 2004-06-15 2005-12-15 Wilmot Theodore S Solid state turbine engine ignition exciter having elevated temperature operational capabiltiy
US7355300B2 (en) 2004-06-15 2008-04-08 Woodward Governor Company Solid state turbine engine ignition exciter having elevated temperature operational capability

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