US2695269A - Apparatus for electroplating wire - Google Patents

Apparatus for electroplating wire Download PDF

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Publication number
US2695269A
US2695269A US213658A US21365851A US2695269A US 2695269 A US2695269 A US 2695269A US 213658 A US213658 A US 213658A US 21365851 A US21365851 A US 21365851A US 2695269 A US2695269 A US 2695269A
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United States
Prior art keywords
tank
anodes
anode
top
electrolyte
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Expired - Lifetime
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US213658A
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Witz Alfred E E De
Frank P Roy
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United States Steel Corp
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United States Steel Corp
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Priority to US213658A priority Critical patent/US2695269A/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25DPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PRODUCTION OF COATINGS; ELECTROFORMING; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25D7/00Electroplating characterised by the article coated
    • C25D7/06Wires; Strips; Foils
    • C25D7/0607Wires

Description

Nov. 23, 1 A. E. E. DE WITZ H L 5,2 APPARATUS FOR ELECTROPLATING WIRE 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 2, 1951 and lie/)- 472/7764 E. E. DE wrrz AL 5 5 APPARATUS FOR ELE CTROPLATING WIRE -4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Nov. 23, 1954 Filed March 2, 195.1

Nov. 23, 1954 5. DE WITZ ETAL APPARATUS FOR ELECTROPLATING WIRE Filed March 2, 1951 4 Shuts-Sheet 3 :1' ;g I /a 20 bwenlora: fiuefo fll4472md Fem/k 2 80K United States Patent {Ofiiice 2,695,269 Patented Nov. 23, 1954 2,695,269 APPARATUS FOR ELECTROPLATING WIRE Alfred E. E. De Witz, Bedford, and Frank P. Roy, Burton, Ohio, assignors to United States Steel Corporation, a corporation of New Jersey Application March 2, 1951, Serial No. 213,658 6 Claims. (Cl. 204-206) This invention relates to the coating of a base material such in the neighborhood of the base material which is connected as cathode in the electroplating circuit, as it travels through the bath.

The continuous electrolytic coating of metal strip and wire has been anodes.

acid electrolyte, the zinc-ion content of which is maintained from a source external to the plating tank. Insoluble anodes, furthermore, are well adapted to processes involving very high current densities such as 1000 amps. p. s. f. or above, whichare necessary for the rapid and thorough coating of material having a relativelylow surface area such as round wire.

removed by rapid circulation of electrolyte.

The coating by electrodeposition of products of indefinite length such as Wire or stri plates and staying studs to resist deformation as a result of sagging under their own'weight or outward bending under internal pressure.

inlet pipe extends downwardly from the bottom of each anode through the bottom of the tank to a manifold in contact with the bars.

complete understanding of the invention may be obtained from the following detailed description and explanation which refer to the accompanying drawings illustrating drawings,

Figure 1 is a of our invention;

Figure 2 is a cross-section taken on the plane of line II-II of Figure 1;

Figure 3 is a partial longitudinal section taken on the plane of line III-III of Figure 2, showing the anodes in elevation;

the present preferred embodiment. In the partial side elevation of the apparatus Figure 4 is a cross-section to enlarged scale taken along the plane of line IV-IV of Figure 3 Figure 5 is Figures 6 the planes of igure 5.

a plan view of an anode; and and 7 are sections therethrough taken on lines VIVI and VII-VII, respectively of e top of each electrode has a multiplicity of small nozzle ports disjets of fresh ths of the wires points therealong and returns it directly by a pipe 23 to header 21. Contact-bar assemblies 24 are spaced along the tank 10 between adjacent anodes. Current is supplied to the anodes by connections 25 extending from A at one side of the tank 0 The contact-bar extending to a negative Referring now more the tank 10 has shelves or led es 26 openings 28 spaced therealong, one for each openings being of a size to accommodate the inlet pipes A stufling box 29 for each anode outfl opening 28 and is proa gland 31. The gland f insulation and a collar anode, the

vided with includes an connection 25 engages pipe 20 below the gland 31 of the stuifing box. Figure 3 also shows how the pipe 20 is connected to header 21, i. e., by a T 34 and a sleeve coupling 35. Between adjacent anodes 18, the wires 17 lation surrounds .the'portionofeachbar 41'- whichextends downwardly into the tank: maliposition. In this position;

theuwires, the. bariand sleevebeingahotched to receive.

the wire. As shown, pairs: of supporting. rods 36*.which. holding the wires-against the: lower'endsoftthe bars.

Flexible: connectors '43- extend from .each bar to a transverse'bus bar 44mounted on'insulation blocks 45 adjacent each assembly 24. Connections 25a from thenegato'the-transverse bus bars has a handle 46:-extending normal thereto whereby the contactunit (bar"41 and sleeve 42) and the hub 40 on which itis mounted may berotated on bar 38 electrolyte. After rotation'of about 180, stop pin 47 on hub 40 engages a transverse rod 48 below bar 38.

Referring now more particularly to Figures through 7, in which the anode/18 1s illustrated, this element, as previously stated, has the form ofa shallow box comof= atop 49, bottom-50 and side and end walls 51. The inlet pipe extends through a central hole in the bottom and a reinforcing plate 52 surrounds-this hole. Stiifening plates 53 are securedto the upper face of the bottom of. the anode onopposite sidesthereof. Transverse reinforcing webs 54' are secured to the bottornof the anode at right angles thereto andadditional reinforcing plates 55 disposed radially of the pipe ittlare secured thereto and to the reinforcing plate 52' Staying studs 56 extend between-the top and'bottorn-of the anode and are suitably spaced over the area thereof. Plates 52, S3 and 55, webs 54 and studs 56 also. serve to distribute over the area of anode 18- the current entering through pipe 20.

Holes 57 are drilled through the top of the'anode at the intersections of spaced longitudinal and transverse center lines. The multiplicity of nozzle ports. thus formed are distributed along the paths ofxthe wires so, that the plied-through inletpipe Zilfrom the header 21, continuously agitate theelectrolyte adjacentth'e wires and introduce fresh electrolyte simultaneously in the neighborhood thereof. Transversestrips 58 of insulation are attached to-the'top of the anode in spacedrelation to prevent the Wires from coming in contact with the'anodes. The anode structure is-composed of a lead-silver alloy which is insoluble in the electrolyte, e. g., a solution of zinc sulphate and sulphuric acid.

It will be apparent fromthe foregoingthat our improved anode and method are characterized-by several important advantages. In the first place, the nozzle ports in the tops of the anodes effect a rapidandvigorous agitation of the electrolyte throughout the entire area in which electrolysis occurs, as .well as constantly delivering asupply, of fresh electrolyte in' the vicinity, ofthe anodes and cathodes. This, together with the removal of electrolyte from several points along the length of. the tank, insures elfective circulation .at all times. In addition, the continuous supply of. fresh electrolyte. serves to cool the anode surfaces; T he-flow of'electrolyte produced'by the jets from the nozzle ports, furthermore, carries the oxy gen liberated at the anodes toward the cathodes where it serves as a depolarizer.

e 36-each comprising a porce- Hub'blocksr 402spaced along therodl38 andarotatable thereomhave: contact'bars 41. securedthereto". Asleevew42 OfllllSu-v' to raise-it out-of the bath of the electrolyte discharged therefrom, when sup- The construction of the anodes is such that they may be-easilyfabricated atlow-cost and the completed -struc-- ture is strongly reinforced. The great rigidity resulting prevents deformation as a=result of sagging under its own weight. This insures that the relatively small spacing between the cathodes and the tops of the anodes will be maintained constant throughout the life of the latter which should be practically indefinite since the alloy of which the anodes are made is unaffected by the electrolyte.

Although we have disclosed herein the preferred embodiment of our invention, we intend to cover as well any change or modification therein which maybe made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

We claim:

1. Apparatus for electroplating stock of indefinite length, comprising an elongated tank having side and bottom walls adapted tocontaiu electrolyte; a plurality of: anodes in: the form of fiat shallow boxesof: metal insoluble in said electrolyte havingside; walls, said anodes being disposed horizontally end-to-end and in. spaced. relation along said tank; means supportingv said anodes with their top walls in a common plane below the topof said tank side having a multiplicity of 'n'ozzleports distributed thereover, an electrolyte-supply pipe connected toa wall each anode other than the top wall'and extending through a wall of said tank, said pipeand said anode being:elec trically insulated fromsaid tank, a current-supply connection secured to each cathode contacts spaced fromeach end of saidanodes adapted to engage said stock fromabove.

2. The apparatus defined by claim lwherein said'sup porting means comprises ledges extending along the tank walls above the tank bottom.

3. The apparatus defined by claim 1 wherein saidelectrolyte-supply pipe extends through the bottom ofsaid tank, and is connected to the bottom wall of the anode.

4; The apparatus defined by claim 1 wherein reinforcing web plates are secured to said pipe and the bottom-wallof the anode, said web plates being disposed radiallyof the pipe.

5. The apparatus defined by claim 1 wherein support rods are mounted between adjacent anodes, said rods extending transversely ofthe tank, and being positioned at an elevation such as to hold the stock at a level slightly above said plane.

6'. The apparatus defined by claim 5 wherein said means supporting said anodes comprises ledges extending along the side walls of said tank, and-blocks are- References Cited in'the file of thispatent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 686,395 Dessolle Nov. 12, 1901 1,502,708 Allan- July 29; 1924 1,790,249 Roth Jan. 27, 1931 2,271,736 Hall Feb. 3, 1942 2,326,624 Csanyi' Aug. 10, 1943 2,338,795 Berquist Jan. 11, 1944 2,382,018 Martin Aug; 14, 1945' 2,424,173 Hustonet al. .Iuly, 15, 1947 2,445,173 Trenbath July 20, 1948 2,447,531 Pierce Aug. 24, 1948 2,477,808 Jones Aug; 2, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 16,475 Great Britain July 15, 1912 top. and bottom.

walls, said anode-top walls.

pipe. externally of said tank, and.

Claims (1)

1. APPARATUS FOR ELECTROPLATING STOCK OF INDEFINITE LENGTH, COMPRISING AN ELONGATED TANK HAVING SIDE AND BOTTOM WALLS ADAPTED TO CONTAIN ELECTROLYTE, A PLURALITY OF ANODES IN THE FORM OF FLAT SHALLOW BOXES OF METAL INSOLUBLE IN SAID ELECTROLYTE HAVING SIDE, TOP AND BOTTOM WALLS, SAID ANODES BEING DISPOSED HORIZONTLLY END-TO-END AND IN SPACED RELATION ALONG SAID TANK, MEANS SUPPORTING SAID ANODES WITH THEIR TOP WALLS IN A COMMON PLANE BELOW THE TOP OF SAID TANK SIDE WALLS, SAID ANODE TOP WALLS HAVING A MULTIPLICITY OF NOZZLE PORTS DISTRIBUTED THEREOVER, AN ELECTROLYTE-SUPPLY PIPE CONNECTED TO A WALL OF EACH ANODE OTHER THAN THE TOP WALL AND EXTENDING THROUGH A WALL OF SAID TANK, SAID PIPE AND SAID ANODE BEING ELECTRICALLY INSULATED FROM SAID TANK, A CURRENT-SUPPLY CONNECTION SECURED TO EACH PIPE EXTERNALLY OF SAID TANK, AND CATHODE CONTACTS SPACED FROM EACH END OF SAID ANODES ADAPTED TO ENGAGE SAID STOCK FROM ABOVE.
US213658A 1951-03-02 1951-03-02 Apparatus for electroplating wire Expired - Lifetime US2695269A (en)

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Cited By (35)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2924563A (en) * 1954-08-19 1960-02-09 Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co Continuous electroplating apparatus
US2974097A (en) * 1957-11-12 1961-03-07 Reynolds Metals Co Electrolytic means for treating metal
US2989445A (en) * 1958-01-03 1961-06-20 Lloyd Metal Mfg Company Ltd Continuous electrolytic surfacing of metal membranes
US3038850A (en) * 1958-03-17 1962-06-12 Olin Mathieson Aluminum anodizing apparatus
US3304251A (en) * 1962-03-14 1967-02-14 Exxon Research Engineering Co Separation of wax from an oil dispersion using a non-uniform electric field
US3436322A (en) * 1965-08-19 1969-04-01 Louise L Good Plating apparatus and process
US3441494A (en) * 1963-05-25 1969-04-29 Kokusai Denshin Denwa Co Ltd Apparatus to deposit a ferromagnetic film on a conductive wire
US3549507A (en) * 1967-08-09 1970-12-22 Honeywell Inc Method of fabricating a plated wire ferromagnetic memory element
US3963588A (en) * 1975-04-21 1976-06-15 United States Steel Corporation Coalescent-jet apparatus and method for high current density preferential electroplating
US4183799A (en) * 1978-08-31 1980-01-15 Production Machinery Corporation Apparatus for plating a layer onto a metal strip
US4367125A (en) * 1979-03-21 1983-01-04 Republic Steel Corporation Apparatus and method for plating metallic strip
US4374718A (en) * 1981-05-08 1983-02-22 Wean United, Inc. Electrolytic cell
US4374719A (en) * 1982-03-19 1983-02-22 United States Steel Corporation System for electrolytic cleaning of metal wire in loop form
US4401523A (en) * 1980-12-18 1983-08-30 Republic Steel Corporation Apparatus and method for plating metallic strip
US6979248B2 (en) 2002-05-07 2005-12-27 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive polishing article for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US6988942B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2006-01-24 Applied Materials Inc. Conductive polishing article for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US6991528B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2006-01-31 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive polishing article for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US7014538B2 (en) 1999-05-03 2006-03-21 Applied Materials, Inc. Article for polishing semiconductor substrates
US7029365B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2006-04-18 Applied Materials Inc. Pad assembly for electrochemical mechanical processing
US7059948B2 (en) 2000-12-22 2006-06-13 Applied Materials Articles for polishing semiconductor substrates
US7077721B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2006-07-18 Applied Materials, Inc. Pad assembly for electrochemical mechanical processing
US7084064B2 (en) 2004-09-14 2006-08-01 Applied Materials, Inc. Full sequence metal and barrier layer electrochemical mechanical processing
US7125477B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2006-10-24 Applied Materials, Inc. Contacts for electrochemical processing
US7137879B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-11-21 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive polishing article for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US7278911B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2007-10-09 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive polishing article for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US7303462B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2007-12-04 Applied Materials, Inc. Edge bead removal by an electro polishing process
US7303662B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2007-12-04 Applied Materials, Inc. Contacts for electrochemical processing
US7344432B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2008-03-18 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive pad with ion exchange membrane for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US7374644B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2008-05-20 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive polishing article for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US7427340B2 (en) 2005-04-08 2008-09-23 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive pad
US7520968B2 (en) 2004-10-05 2009-04-21 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive pad design modification for better wafer-pad contact
US7670468B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2010-03-02 Applied Materials, Inc. Contact assembly and method for electrochemical mechanical processing
US7678245B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2010-03-16 Applied Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for electrochemical mechanical processing
US20100147679A1 (en) * 2008-12-17 2010-06-17 Novellus Systems, Inc. Electroplating Apparatus with Vented Electrolyte Manifold
WO2013004414A1 (en) * 2011-07-07 2013-01-10 Nv Bekaert Sa Distribution plate in electrolyte bath

Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US686395A (en) * 1900-03-06 1901-11-12 Emile Louis Dessolle Apparatus for electrocoppering metals.
GB191216475A (en) * 1912-07-15 1913-07-10 George Philip Malcolm Lee Improvements in Anodes for use in Electrolytic Apparatus.
US1502708A (en) * 1920-02-03 1924-07-29 Toronto Power Company Ltd Electrode
US1790249A (en) * 1926-01-21 1931-01-27 Ig Farbenindustrie Ag Electrode for electrolytic cells
US2271736A (en) * 1939-06-28 1942-02-03 Hanson Van Winkle Munning Co Strip treating apparatus
US2326624A (en) * 1940-01-16 1943-08-10 Harry F Wanvig Electroplating apparatus
US2338795A (en) * 1939-06-29 1944-01-11 Nat Standard Co Wire plating apparatus
US2382018A (en) * 1941-02-19 1945-08-14 Inland Steel Co Apparatus for electroplating
US2424173A (en) * 1942-04-29 1947-07-15 Western Electric Co Electrolytic production of alloy coatings
US2445531A (en) * 1945-04-16 1948-07-20 Gilbert & Barker Mfg Co Safety control system for burners
US2477808A (en) * 1946-05-08 1949-08-02 Carl G Jones Electrolytic apparatus for treatment of moving strip

Patent Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US686395A (en) * 1900-03-06 1901-11-12 Emile Louis Dessolle Apparatus for electrocoppering metals.
GB191216475A (en) * 1912-07-15 1913-07-10 George Philip Malcolm Lee Improvements in Anodes for use in Electrolytic Apparatus.
US1502708A (en) * 1920-02-03 1924-07-29 Toronto Power Company Ltd Electrode
US1790249A (en) * 1926-01-21 1931-01-27 Ig Farbenindustrie Ag Electrode for electrolytic cells
US2271736A (en) * 1939-06-28 1942-02-03 Hanson Van Winkle Munning Co Strip treating apparatus
US2338795A (en) * 1939-06-29 1944-01-11 Nat Standard Co Wire plating apparatus
US2326624A (en) * 1940-01-16 1943-08-10 Harry F Wanvig Electroplating apparatus
US2382018A (en) * 1941-02-19 1945-08-14 Inland Steel Co Apparatus for electroplating
US2424173A (en) * 1942-04-29 1947-07-15 Western Electric Co Electrolytic production of alloy coatings
US2445531A (en) * 1945-04-16 1948-07-20 Gilbert & Barker Mfg Co Safety control system for burners
US2477808A (en) * 1946-05-08 1949-08-02 Carl G Jones Electrolytic apparatus for treatment of moving strip

Cited By (44)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2924563A (en) * 1954-08-19 1960-02-09 Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co Continuous electroplating apparatus
US2974097A (en) * 1957-11-12 1961-03-07 Reynolds Metals Co Electrolytic means for treating metal
US2989445A (en) * 1958-01-03 1961-06-20 Lloyd Metal Mfg Company Ltd Continuous electrolytic surfacing of metal membranes
US3038850A (en) * 1958-03-17 1962-06-12 Olin Mathieson Aluminum anodizing apparatus
US3304251A (en) * 1962-03-14 1967-02-14 Exxon Research Engineering Co Separation of wax from an oil dispersion using a non-uniform electric field
US3441494A (en) * 1963-05-25 1969-04-29 Kokusai Denshin Denwa Co Ltd Apparatus to deposit a ferromagnetic film on a conductive wire
US3436322A (en) * 1965-08-19 1969-04-01 Louise L Good Plating apparatus and process
US3549507A (en) * 1967-08-09 1970-12-22 Honeywell Inc Method of fabricating a plated wire ferromagnetic memory element
US3963588A (en) * 1975-04-21 1976-06-15 United States Steel Corporation Coalescent-jet apparatus and method for high current density preferential electroplating
US4183799A (en) * 1978-08-31 1980-01-15 Production Machinery Corporation Apparatus for plating a layer onto a metal strip
US4367125A (en) * 1979-03-21 1983-01-04 Republic Steel Corporation Apparatus and method for plating metallic strip
US4401523A (en) * 1980-12-18 1983-08-30 Republic Steel Corporation Apparatus and method for plating metallic strip
US4374718A (en) * 1981-05-08 1983-02-22 Wean United, Inc. Electrolytic cell
US4374719A (en) * 1982-03-19 1983-02-22 United States Steel Corporation System for electrolytic cleaning of metal wire in loop form
US7014538B2 (en) 1999-05-03 2006-03-21 Applied Materials, Inc. Article for polishing semiconductor substrates
US7344431B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2008-03-18 Applied Materials, Inc. Pad assembly for electrochemical mechanical processing
US6991528B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2006-01-31 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive polishing article for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US6988942B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2006-01-24 Applied Materials Inc. Conductive polishing article for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US7029365B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2006-04-18 Applied Materials Inc. Pad assembly for electrochemical mechanical processing
US7670468B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2010-03-02 Applied Materials, Inc. Contact assembly and method for electrochemical mechanical processing
US20060148381A1 (en) * 2000-02-17 2006-07-06 Applied Materials, Inc. Pad assembly for electrochemical mechanical processing
US7077721B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2006-07-18 Applied Materials, Inc. Pad assembly for electrochemical mechanical processing
US7678245B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2010-03-16 Applied Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for electrochemical mechanical processing
US7125477B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2006-10-24 Applied Materials, Inc. Contacts for electrochemical processing
US7569134B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2009-08-04 Applied Materials, Inc. Contacts for electrochemical processing
US7137868B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2006-11-21 Applied Materials, Inc. Pad assembly for electrochemical mechanical processing
US7207878B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2007-04-24 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive polishing article for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US7374644B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2008-05-20 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive polishing article for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US7285036B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2007-10-23 Applied Materials, Inc. Pad assembly for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US7303462B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2007-12-04 Applied Materials, Inc. Edge bead removal by an electro polishing process
US7303662B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2007-12-04 Applied Materials, Inc. Contacts for electrochemical processing
US7278911B2 (en) 2000-02-17 2007-10-09 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive polishing article for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US7059948B2 (en) 2000-12-22 2006-06-13 Applied Materials Articles for polishing semiconductor substrates
US7311592B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2007-12-25 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive polishing article for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US7344432B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2008-03-18 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive pad with ion exchange membrane for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US7137879B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-11-21 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive polishing article for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US6979248B2 (en) 2002-05-07 2005-12-27 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive polishing article for electrochemical mechanical polishing
US7446041B2 (en) 2004-09-14 2008-11-04 Applied Materials, Inc. Full sequence metal and barrier layer electrochemical mechanical processing
US7084064B2 (en) 2004-09-14 2006-08-01 Applied Materials, Inc. Full sequence metal and barrier layer electrochemical mechanical processing
US7520968B2 (en) 2004-10-05 2009-04-21 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive pad design modification for better wafer-pad contact
US7427340B2 (en) 2005-04-08 2008-09-23 Applied Materials, Inc. Conductive pad
US8475637B2 (en) * 2008-12-17 2013-07-02 Novellus Systems, Inc. Electroplating apparatus with vented electrolyte manifold
US20100147679A1 (en) * 2008-12-17 2010-06-17 Novellus Systems, Inc. Electroplating Apparatus with Vented Electrolyte Manifold
WO2013004414A1 (en) * 2011-07-07 2013-01-10 Nv Bekaert Sa Distribution plate in electrolyte bath

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