US2694481A - Method and means for selectively changing the effective printing surface of type - Google Patents

Method and means for selectively changing the effective printing surface of type Download PDF

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US2694481A
US2694481A US258375A US25837551A US2694481A US 2694481 A US2694481 A US 2694481A US 258375 A US258375 A US 258375A US 25837551 A US25837551 A US 25837551A US 2694481 A US2694481 A US 2694481A
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type
printing
ribbon
impressions
membrane
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Thomas A Sharp
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Remington Rand Inc
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J3/00Typewriters or selective printing or marking mechanisms, e.g. ink-jet printers, thermal printers characterised by the purpose for which they are constructed
    • B41J3/30Typewriters or selective printing or marking mechanisms, e.g. ink-jet printers, thermal printers characterised by the purpose for which they are constructed for printing with large type, e.g. on bulletins, tickets

Description

NOV. 16, 1954 SHARP 2,694,481

METHOD AND MEANS FOR SELECTIVELY CHANGING THE EFFECTIVE PRINTING SURFACE OF TYPE Filed NOV- 27, 1951 4 Sheets-Sheet l THMAS A. SHARP 5%, ATTORNEY- NOV. 16, 1954 SHARP 2,694,481

METHOD AND MEANS FOR SELECTIVELY CHANGING THE EFFECTIVE PRINTING SURFACE OF TYPE Filed NOV- 27, 1951 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. I THOMAS A. SHARP ATTORNEY.

Nov. 16, 1954 s P 2,694,481

METHOD AND MEANS FOR SELECTIVELY CHANGING THE EFFECTIVE PRINTING SURFACE OF TYPE Filed NOV. 27, 1951 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 ark/KI 14 m mm:-

INVENTOR. THOMAS A. SHARP ATTORNEY.

Nov- 1 9 1-. A. SHARP 2,694,431

METHOD AND MEANS FOR SELECTIVELY CHANGING THE EFFECTIVE PRINTING SURFACE OF TYPE Filed Nov. 27, 1951 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR THOMAS A. SHARP ATTORNEY.

United States Patent METHOD AND MEANS FOR SELECTIVELY CHANGING THE EFFECTIVE PRINTING SURFACE OF TYPE Thomas A. Sharp, Rowayton, Conn., assignor to Remington Rand Inc., New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware Application November 27, 1951, Serial No. 258,375

7 Claims. (Cl. 197-151) This invention relates broadly to typewriting or like printing machines, and more particularly to a new method and means of controlling the printing of such machines for selectively effecting light and bold printed impressions from the same type.

Various attempts have heretofore been made to utilize conventional typewriting or similar printing machines in the preparation of master information copy for directories, part lists, catalogues, indexes, or the like, in order to reduce the cost of setting such copy in printers type. In using typewriters for this class of work the desired information is typed upon a work sheet, or narrow strips of paper, and printing plates are subsequently prepared from the typed information by the well known photoengraving process. However, in setting copy for directories etc., it is highly desirable to have a certain amount of contrast between various parts of the columnar information. For example, in telephone directories it is preferable to have the names and telephone numbers printed with bold-face type and the addresses or other information printed with light-face type.

One purpose of the present invention is to duplicate, on convention typewriters or like printing machines, the contrast between light and bold printed impressions made from separate fonts of printers type, without the use of repeat or over-printing operations.

The present invention therefore contemplates the provision of means added to conventional typewriters and like printing machines wherein printed impressions, having variable area printing characteristics, may be made from the same type; in which bold impressions may be I made upon conventional typewriters without the necessity of repeat or over-printing operations or any change of type; in which light or bold impressions can be selectively controlled by the operator of the machine; a print controlling mechanism in which normal typing speeds are maintained irrespective of whether light or bold impressions are being typed; and a print controlling mechanism which is of simple and practical construction, economical to manufacture, highly eflicient and reliable in operation, and one that can be readily installed upon conventional typewriters or like printing machines.

Through numerous experiments and tests it has been found that by employing a membrane between the type and inking medium of a typewriter, the characteristics of printed impressions or the area printed from said type may be changed. Furthermore, through other tests it has been found that a membrane used for this purpose may be made from a wide variety of materials some of which are of a transparent nature and others of which are opaque. For example, a pliable transparent membrane used as a complement for the printing face of typewriter type may be made from vinyl resin or the like while membranes of the opaque variety may be made from fabrics of silk, linen, nylon etc., and of a grade and weight generally used in the manufacture of conventional inked typewriter ribbons. Attention is directed to the fact that when an opaque membrane is used it is desirable that it be moved into and out of the printing zone in order to retain visible printing. However, it will be obvious that when a transparent membrane is employed 2,694,481 Patented Nov. 16, 1954 there is no need for it to be vibrated, or moved in unison with the inking medium when typing bold faced impressions, since the printing is readily visible therethrough.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 shows portions of an electric typewriter in perspective to illustrate the improved print controlling mechanism, a single type action, and the power driven roll, portions being broken away and shown in cross-section for convenience in illustrating the invention.

Fig. 2 shows one form of the invention in perspective wherein the auxiliary ribbon, or membrane, is manually shifted to an operative position when bold printed impressions are desired, and to an inoperative position when light printed impressions are desired.

Figs. 3 and 4 are highly magnified fragmentary detail views illustrating the manner in which light and bold impressions are selectively made from the same type.

Fig. 5 is a top plan detail view of the ribbon-carriers or vibrating arms, one of which is mounted upon the conventional type guide and the other upon a bracket attached to one of the cross plates of the machine.

Fig. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical section of the ribbon-carrier arms and portions of the mechanism for raising and lowering said arms, the section being taken substantially along the line 66 of Fig. 7.

Fig. 7 is a front elevation of the ribbon-carrier structure shown in Fig. 6 omitting the platen shown in crosssection in Fig. 6.

Figs. 8 and 9 are highly magnified views illustrating the word print as it will appear when typed with light and bold impressions from the same type.

Fig. 10 shows a modified construction of the mechanism for raising and lowering the ribbon-carrier arms, the view being in side elevation and the parts shown in normal or rest position.

Fig. 11 is a view similar to Fig. 10 but showing the parts in the positions they assume when both ribboncarrier arms are elevated.

Fig. 12 is a view similar to Fig. 11 but with one ribboncarrier arm elevated and the other in normal lowered position, and

Fig. 13 is a front elevational view of Fig. 10 partly in vertical section, with the ribbon-carrier arms omitted.

It is believed that the detailed description of the invention will be more readily understood if it is read with a knowledge of the general construction and operation of the apparatus as a whole. The following general description is provided for this purpose.

The present invention will be described and shown in the drawings as embodied in a Remington electric typewriter, more specifically known by the trade name Electri-conomy, in which a one-time carbon paper ribbon and means for feeding the same is used. While the features of the present invention were designed primarily for embodiment in this particular machine and may be included therein without modifying or materially modifying the existing structural features thereof, it should be understood that the invention is not restricted to use in such machine but may be applied with equal success to different types of machines as will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art.

According to the present invention two ribbon supporting arms or carriers are provided adjacent the printing point instead of one in the conventional manner. One arm or carrier supports the inking medium or ribbon and the other arm or carrier supports an auxiliary ribbon or membrane which may be selectively moved into the path of the printing type when bold-faced or other impressions from the type are desired and removed from the path of the type when light-faced impressions from the type are desired. In other words, when the auxiliary member or membrane is positioned in front of the inking medium, and in the path of the typewriter type, the effective impact surface or printing area of the type faces against the inking medium is changed with the result that bold-faced, enlarged, or different impressions covering a larger area are made from the type upon the work sheet or sheets, and when said membrane is removed from the path of the type travel the effective impact surface of the type faces is returned to normal so that light-faced upon the work sheet or sheets.

The typewriter mechanism, with the exception of certain parts illustrated in this application, is substantially similar to the structure shown in Patents Nos. 2,289,531, July 14, 1942; 2,304,216, December 8, 1942; 2,326,311, August 10, 1943; and U. 8, application Serial No. 101,450, filed June 25, 1949, now Patent No. 2,638,199, in view of which only those portions of a typewriter are illustrated as are necessary to show the invention in association with related typewriter parts.

Referring now to the drawings in detail and at present to Fig. 1, portions of the typewriter shown include spaced parallel side frames 1 which are connected at desired points by a plurality of transversely extending bars, one of which is shown at 2 and others of which will be hereinafter described. These side frames support the principal operating mechanism of the typewriter including the type acti tIS, key levers, and power driven roll, the latter being continuously rotated by a suitable electric motor drive means which is not illustrated since it forms no part of the instant invention and may be of any conventional type.

A plurality of type bars 3 are pivotally mounted in type segment 4, only one central type bar 3 being illustrated inFigs. 1 and 2 with its associated operating mechanism which includes a conventional power arm 5, key lever 6, and bell crank 7. The foregoing mechanism is usual in a Remington Electri-conorny machine. The conventional type guide 8 is mounted upon type segment 4 and serves to guide the usual ribbon-carrier or arm 9 in a vertical path when it is shifted or vibrated in a manner presently disclosed, and the type segment 4 is mounted for vertical movement to provide the conventional case shift for upper and lower case letters, as shown in Patent No. 2,289,531.

A second ribbon-carrier or arm 10 is provided for supporting the inking medium which, in the instant invention, comprises a -one-time carbon paper ribbon 11 that is intermittentl y fed from spool 12, past the printing point P and wound upon spool 13 in the usual and well known manner.

It has become general practice in the typewriter art to employ carbon paper ribbons as the inking medium instead of the conventional cloth inked ribbons when the typed copy is to be subsequently photographed, since carbon paper ribbons provide blacker and sharper impressions from typewritr type than impressions made through the conventional cloth ribbon. Moreover, when a typewriter is equipped with a carbon paper ribbon, and means for feeding the same through the machine, the conventional cloth ribbon'is not needed or used and consequently the regular or usual ribbon spools 14 and 15 are not needed. The present invention takes advantage of this fact by utilizing the spools 14 and 15 for supporting and feeding a ribhon-like membrane 16 past the printing point P, and in front of the carbon paper ribbon 11, as clearly shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 6. The mechanism for feeding spools 14 and 15 is substantially the same as that shown and described in the above-mentioned Patents 2,304,216 and 2,326,312.

The ribbon-carrier or arm 10, for carbon paper ribbon 11, is vibrated in the usual manner into and out of the path of the type travel in the power operation of each ty e bar 3, by the following mechanism. The lower end of ribbon-carrier 10 is pivotally connected to the forwardend of supporting lever 17. The rear end of this lever is fixed to one end of a shaft 18 rotatable in bracket 19 suspended from transversely extending supporting plate 20 secured at its ends to cross bar 2. The other end of shaft 18 carries a second forwardly projecting 'arm 21 the free end of which is pivotally attached to. the upper end of link 22 as best seen in Fig. 2.

A universal shaft 23 is mounted at opposite ends on side frames 1 for oscillating movement and carries a universal bar 24 extending entirely across the typewriter between side frames 1 with one margin secured to said universal shaft 23 and the opposite marginal portion engaged over rearwardly extending arms 25 of all of the type bar bell cranks 7. A rock arm 26 is pivoted intermediate its ends at 27 to the lower end of supporting bracket 28, the latter having its upper end supported by and attached to the cross bar 2 as indicated at 29. The forward end of rock arm 26 carries a sidewardly projecting pin 30, received by the bifurcated end of arm '31 which is carried by universal shaft 23. The rear end of rock arm 26 is pivotally connected with the lower end of link 22 A leaf spring 32 has one end mounted on bracket 28 and the opposite end engaged with the universal bar 24 for normally rotating universal shaft 23 in a clockwise direction, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 2, and maintaining universal bar 24 in engagement with rearwardly extending arms 25 of type bar bell cranks 7. It will now be understood that for each type bar operation, the universal bar 24 and shaft 23 will be rotated counter-clockwise by arms 25 of hell cranks 7. Accordingly, carbon paper ribbon 11 is moved into the path of the typewriter type 33, on type bars 3, by ribboncarrier 10 through its supporting lever 17 and shaft 18, arm 21, link 22 and rock arm 26. This mechanism for vibrating the inking medium, or carbon paper ribbon 11, into and out of the path of travel of the typewriter type 33 is of substantially conventional design as used in the Remington electric typewriter.

The means for manually moving auxiliary ribbon or membrane 16 into and out of the path of typewriter type 33 will now be described. As previously pointed out, membrane 16 is positioned between carbon paper ribbon 11 and type 33 when bold impressions from the type are desired, and removed from the path of type travel when light impressions from the type are desired. Suitable manually operatedmeans is provided for shifting membrane 16 between operative and inoperative positions. This means comprises a transversely extending shaft 34 the outer end of which is journaled in the right side frame 1 and the inner end of which is journaled in a depending arm of bracket 19. Arm 35, fast on the innerend of shaft 34, has its bifurcated free end engaged with a stud 36 projecting inwardly from the depending portion of lever 37, the latter being free to rotate upon shaft 18,. The forwardly projecting portion of lever 37 is pivotally attached to the lower end of ribbon-carrier or arm 9. It will now be clear that rotation of shaft 34, in a clockwise direction as viewed in Figs. 1 and 2, will impart counter-clockwise rotation to lever 37 which in turn elevates ribbon-carrier 9 to project membrane 16 into the path of type 33 when bold impressions from the type are desired. Shaft 34 may be rotated from the front of the typewriter whenever the operator desires to elevate or lower ribbon-carrier 9 to effect bold or light impressions from type 33. The means for rotating shaft 34 preferably comprises a manually shiftable lever 38, pivoted at 39 for horizontal movement upon a plate 40 mounted upon cross shaft 41 of the machine. Horizontal movement of lever 38 is confined between a pair of ears 42 struck upwardly from plate 40. A second lever 43, pivoted intermediate its ends at 44 to plate 40, carries a pair of pins 45 46. Pin 45 co-operates with the bifurcated end of lever 38 and pin 46 pivotally connects the forward end of link 47 with said lever 43. The rearward end of link 47 is pivotally connected to the free end of arm 48 fast on shaft 34. It will now be apparent that when lever 38 is moved or shifted to the right (Figs. 1 and 2), shaft 34 will be rocked clockwise to elevate membrane 16 to its operative position within the path of type 33, and conversely, when lever 38 is moved to the left, rotation of shaft 34 is reversed, or rocked counterclockwise, tolower membrane 16 to its inoperative position or out ofthepath of the type during its travel toward printing point P.

' As previously stated, when membrane 16 is made from a flexible transparent plastic material such as vinyl resin or the like, it need not be vibrated or lowered after each printing stroke of the machine in order to eliminate blind printing since theprinted characters are clearly visible therethrough. However, when an opaque membrane is being used it will be necessary to vibrate it in unison with the carbon paper ribbon 10 when bold or impressions of other characteristics are being typed, but held in its lowered inoperative position when light" or normal impressions are being typed. The modified structure shown in Figs. 10 to 13 respectively is provided when an opaque membrane is to be employed, but it should be clearly understood that the structure about to be. described can be used for either transparent or opaque membranes.

Referring now to Figs. 10. to 13 respectively, an arm 35 is fixed to shaft 34 as a modification of the bifurcated arm 35 used in the first described form. One end of a short link 58 is pivotally connected to arm 35*- and its other end carries a horizontally projecting stud 59. This stud is engaged within an inverted L-shapetl slot 60 in lever 37- and an elongated slot 61 in supporting lever 17. Lever 17 and arm 21 are fixed to opposite ends of shaft 18 and lever 37 is free to rotate. on said shaft. Arm 21 is spaced from bracket 19 by a spacing collar 49 mounted upon shaft 18. Lever 37 is held against axial movement upon shaft 18 by spacing collars 50 and 51, and lever 17 is spaced from bracket 19 by a spacing collar 52 as clearly illustrated in Fig. 13.

It will now be observed that each type bar operation rocks universal bar 24 and shaft 23 clockwise as previously explained to elevate link 22, which in turn rocks shaft 18 counter-clockwise through arm 21. Counter-clockwise rotation of shaft 18 rocks lever 17 counterclockwise as viewed in Figs. 10, 11 and 12 thus elevating ribboncarrier or arm as heretofore explained.

It will be recalled that when bold printed impressions from type 33 are desired, the operator shifted print control lever 33 to the left (Figs. 1 and 2), to elevate membrane 16 into the path of said type, and that said membrane remained in this elevated position until such time as lever 38 was manually shifted to the right to lower said membrane.

However, when membrane 16 is of an opaque character it is desirable to have it vibrate in unison with inking medium 11 during the printing of bold impressions but remain in its lowered inoperative position during the printing of light impressions, as heretofore explained.

This is effected in the modified construction just described by operatively engaging and disengaging stud 59 with lever 17 In other words, when manually controlled lever 38 is shifted to the right to rock shaft 34 clockwise for bold printing, stud 59 will be positioned in the bottom of L-shaped slot 60 as illustrated in Fig. 10. With the stud in this position lever 37 is caused to vibrate in unison with lever 1'7 thus raising and lowering membrane 16 in unison with inking medium 11. Conversely, when lever 38 is shifted to the left to rock shaft 34 counter-clockwise for light printing, stud 59 will be positioned in the top or enlarged portion of inverted L-shaped slot 60 as illustrated in Fig. 12 so that rocking motion of lever 17 is not imparted to lever 37 through stud 59.

From the foregoing detailed description of the inven tion it will now be clear from a study of Fig. 4 that whenever membrane 16 is moved into the path of type 33, in its travel toward inking medium 11 and platen 53, the effective impact or printing surface 54 of said type is enlarged or otherwise altered by the membrane so that a bold impression 55 is made upon work sheet 56. Conversely, when membrane 16 is removed from the path of type 33 in its travel toward inking medium 11 and platen 53 a normal or light impression 57 from the type is made upon work sheet 56, as graphically illustrated in Fig. 3.

While several embodiments of the invention have been shown and described, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art of typewriters and like printing machines that numerous variations and modifications may be made in the particular construction without departing from the underlying principles of the invention. It is therefore desired, by the following claims, to include within the scope of the invention, all such variations and modifications whereby substantially the results of the invention may be obtained by the use of substantially the same or equivalent means.

The invention claimed is:

1. In a typewriter or like printing machine, the combination of a platen; type bars movable toward and from said platen; type carried by said type bars; a type segment in which said type bars are mounted; key controlled means for moving the type bars into operative engagement with said platen; and inking medium normally supported below the printing point of said machine; means to shift said inking medium into position adjacent the printing point for each printing excursion of said type bars; a membrane for supplementing the impact surface of said type, and normally supported out of the path of said type; and manually operative means for shifting said membrane into the path of said type to change the effective impact surface of the type only when impressions other than normal from the type are desired.

2. In combination with a typewriter or like printing machine having but a single font of type, an inking ribbon; a non-inked ribbon-like membrane positioned in 6 l a vertical plane between said inked ribbon and type but normally out of the path of type travel; and manual means including a control lever at the front of said machine to shift said membrane into .the path of type travel to supplement the impact surface of said type when bold printed impressions from said type are desired and to remove said membrane from the path of type travel when light or normal printed impressions from the type are desired.

3. In a typewriter or like printing machine, the improvement which consists of mechanism for selectively controlling the printing of light and bold impressions from the same type comprising, the combination of: a platen; type bars movable toward and from said platen; type carried by said bars; an inking medium; a vibrator normally supporting said inking medium below the printing point of said machine; a pliable membrane for supplementing the impact surface of said type; a second vibrator supporting said membrane below the printing point of said machine; means to eifect a shift of said first named vibrator to carry said inking medium into the path of the type travel when normal impressions from said type are desired; and means to effect a shift of said second named vibrator in unison with said first named vibrator to simultaneously carry said inking medium and membrane into the path of the type travel only when bold impressions from said type are desired.

4. In a typewriter or like printing machine, the improvement which consists of mechanism for selectively controlling the printing of light and bold impressions from the same type comprising, the combination of: a platen; type bars movable toward and from said platen; type carried by said bars; an inked ribbon; a vibrator normally supporting said inked ribbon below the printing point of said machine; a non-inked ribbon for supplementing the impact surface of said type; a second vibrator normally supporting said non-inked ribbon below the printing point of said machine; means to eifect a shift of said first named vibrator for each excursion of said type bars to carry said inked ribbon into the path of type travel when normal or light impressions from said type are desired; and means to effect a shift of said second named vibrator in unison with said first named vibrator to carry said inked and non-inked ribbons into the path of travel when bold impressions from said type are desired.

5. In a typewriter, the improvement consisting of means for selectively controlling the printing of light and bold impressions from the same type comprising, in combination: a platen; type bars movable toward and from said platen; type carried upon the free ends of said bars; an inked ribbon; a ribbon vibrator for said inked ribbon; a non-inked ribbon; a second ribbon vibrator for said non-inked ribbon; means to elevate said first named ribbon vibrator for each excursion of said type bars to position said inked ribbon into the path of travel of said type when light impressions from the type upon a work sheet on said platen are desired; and manually controlled means for elevating said second ribbon vibrator to position said non-inked ribbon into the path of type travel only when bold impressions from said type upon said work sheet are desired.

6. In a typewriter or like printing machine, the combination comprising: a platen; type bars movable toward and from said platen; type carried by the free end of said bars; a type segment in which said bars are pivotally mounted; key controlled means for moving the type into printing engagement with said platen; an inked ribbon normally supported below the printing point of said type relative to the platen; means including a vibrator for elevating said inked ribbon into position adjacent the printing point during each printing stroke of said type bars; a relatively flexible ribbon-like membrane; a second vibrator normally supporting said membrane below the printing point of said type relative to said platen; and means for selectively elevating said second vibrator to thereby carry said membrane into the path of said type adjacent the printing point to change the etfective impact surface of the type against the inked ribbon when bold printed impressions from the type are desired.

7. In a typewriter or like printing machine, the combination of a single font of type; an inking ribbon; an auxiliary non-inked ribbon normally positioned in a vertical plane between said inking ribbon and said type but out of the path of type travel; and means to effect a 7 shift of said non-inked ribbon intothepath-oftype travel when bold impressions from said type are-"desired'and to prevent shift of said'non-inked ribbon into=the path of type travelwhemnormal impressionsfrom-said type are desired.

UNITED STATES PATENTS Name Date Taylor -Feb. 13, 1894 Brunn May 2, 1916 Smith Apr. 1, 1941

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3149711A (en) * 1963-08-15 1964-09-22 William H Wolowitz Error-correcting typewriter
US3204746A (en) * 1963-08-23 1965-09-07 Wolowitz William Howard Typewriter with error-correction features
US3349888A (en) * 1962-09-12 1967-10-31 Royal Typewriter Co Inc Vibrator type ribbon handling mechanism
US3397767A (en) * 1965-09-07 1968-08-20 Robert B. Hobbs Erasure tape mechanism for typewriters
US4967662A (en) * 1989-03-23 1990-11-06 International Business Machines Corp. High speed printer with interposer

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US514517A (en) * 1894-02-13 Charles fayette tayloe
US1181832A (en) * 1915-01-19 1916-05-02 Alfred Brunn Type-writer.
US2236611A (en) * 1938-12-30 1941-04-01 Underwood Elliott Fisher Co Typewriting machine

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US514517A (en) * 1894-02-13 Charles fayette tayloe
US1181832A (en) * 1915-01-19 1916-05-02 Alfred Brunn Type-writer.
US2236611A (en) * 1938-12-30 1941-04-01 Underwood Elliott Fisher Co Typewriting machine

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3349888A (en) * 1962-09-12 1967-10-31 Royal Typewriter Co Inc Vibrator type ribbon handling mechanism
US3149711A (en) * 1963-08-15 1964-09-22 William H Wolowitz Error-correcting typewriter
US3204746A (en) * 1963-08-23 1965-09-07 Wolowitz William Howard Typewriter with error-correction features
US3397767A (en) * 1965-09-07 1968-08-20 Robert B. Hobbs Erasure tape mechanism for typewriters
US4967662A (en) * 1989-03-23 1990-11-06 International Business Machines Corp. High speed printer with interposer

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