US2680985A - Open end wrench - Google Patents

Open end wrench Download PDF

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Publication number
US2680985A
US2680985A US26110551A US2680985A US 2680985 A US2680985 A US 2680985A US 26110551 A US26110551 A US 26110551A US 2680985 A US2680985 A US 2680985A
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Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
wrench
head
socket
handle
hub
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Inventor
Herbert L Fish
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Tubing Appliance Co Inc
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25BTOOLS OR BENCH DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, FOR FASTENING, CONNECTING, DISENGAGING OR HOLDING
    • B25B13/00Spanners; Wrenches
    • B25B13/46Spanners; Wrenches of the ratchet type, for providing a free return stroke of the handle
    • B25B13/461Spanners; Wrenches of the ratchet type, for providing a free return stroke of the handle with concentric driving and driven member
    • B25B13/462Spanners; Wrenches of the ratchet type, for providing a free return stroke of the handle with concentric driving and driven member the ratchet parts engaging in a direction radial to the tool operating axis
    • B25B13/463Spanners; Wrenches of the ratchet type, for providing a free return stroke of the handle with concentric driving and driven member the ratchet parts engaging in a direction radial to the tool operating axis a pawl engaging an externally toothed wheel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S81/00Tools
    • Y10S81/08Crowfoot-type wrenches

Description

H. L. FISH OPEN END WRENCH Jupe 15, 1954 Oniginal Filed March 10, 1947 5 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR ATTORNEYS BY m June 15, 1954 H. FISH 2,680,985

OPEN END WRENCH Original Filed March 10, 1947 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 FEG 6. w -iw wg INVENTOR HERBERT L. FISH W/QK WW ATTOR KEYS June 15, 1954 I H. FISH 2,680,985

' OPEN END WRENCH Original Filed March 10, 194 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 HQ. w M I )2 Patented June 15, 1954 OPEN END WRENCH Herbert L. Fish, Los

Tubing Appliance Angeles, Calif., assignor to Co. Inc., Los Angeles, Calif.,

a corporation of California Original application March 10, 1947, Serial No.

733,533, now Patent N0. 2,578,687, dated December 18, 1951.

2 Claims.

This invention relates to wrenches and more particularly to open end wrenches of the reversible type.

This application is a division of my parent application Serial No. 733,533, filed March 10, 1947, which issued on December 18, 1951, as Patent No. 2,578,687, entitled Split Ratchet Socket Wrench.

This invention relates to socket wrenches and more particularly to a split form of socket wrench particularly adapted for use in difiicult applications such as to encircle tubing, conduit, cable, shafting and the like in close quarters where wrenches of ordinary construction can not be used.

Wrenches previously intended for a similar purpose have been of too bulky or rugged construction for closest types of work and their vulnerability to spreading under heavy loads has made them of limited adaptability, and generally cumbersome in use as well as uneconomical in production. A split or tubing type wrench with a universally manipulatable handle, whose opcrating parts are of small compass, and which can sell within the competitive price range of more conventional types of wrenches, has not hitherto been successfully made. Heretofore, wrenches of the general type intended by this invention, if made at all, have required massive jaws and a bulky, struction to provide adequate strength for sustaining the extraordinary stresses to which this type of equipment is often subjected.

This invention therefore has for an object the provision of a wrench of the ratchet type utilizing split sockets combining maximum strength and adaptability with minimum overall dimensions for accomplishment of the desired purposes herein referred to. Another object of my invention is to provide a combined wrench head and fully adjustable torque handle, all parts of which are quickly and easily assembled.

It is another object of the invention to provide a wrench for use on tube fittings allowing maximum clearance for working around obstructions and in restricted locations.

It is another object of the invention to provide a simplified and sturdy assembly of socket wrench head and adjustable handle.

Referring to the drawings:

Figure 1 is an elevational view of a preferred embodiment of this invention showing in dotted outline alternate relative positions of the wrench, head, socket and handle respectively.

Figure 2 is a view on the line 22 of Figure 1.

non-adaptable and rigid con- Divided and December 11, 1951, Serial No.

this application 261,105

Figure 3 is a view on the line 3-3 of Figure 1.

Figure 4 is an enlarged view of the wrench body or head similar to Figure 2, the cover being removed to show the working parts.

Figure 5 is a fragmentary, enlarged view of a portion of the socket-driving construction.

Figure 6 is' a sectional elevational View on the line 6-6 of Figure 4.

Figure '7 is a reduced view similar to Figure 4, but showing the operative parts in a diirerent functional relationship.

Figure 7a is an enlarged sectional view on the line :'ala of Figure 7.

Figure 8 is a view similar to Figure '7, but showing the parts in a subsequent operative position.

Figure 9 is an elevational View of the wrench as used.

Figure 10 is an elevational view of the adjustable handle of the torque wrench on a modified head.

Figure 11 is a plan view of a modified head.

Referring more particularly to the drawings, a wrench head generally designated by the numeral 20 may be provided with a handle 2| optionally pivotal through an angle of by means of a knuckle 22 and provided, if desired, with a cross bar 23 extensible to any desired extent through a suitably formed hole 24 in the handle through which the cross bar 23 is slidable or completely withdrawable. The end of the handle adjacent the head 20 is preferably provided with a square end 25 equipped with a spring urged ball 26 and is adapted for engagement in a correspondingly shaped opening 2? in the wrench head. The wrench head may, but need not, be provided with a suitable concavity 2"!" for the reception of the ball 26, as is conventional in similar forms of construction. Other customary features of the handle may include knurling 28 of the hand grip or reducing shank portions 29.

The head 28 comprises a preferably oval shaped body portion 32 formed at one end with a slot 33 adapted for the accommodation of conduit 34 (Figure 9) or the like. The slot 33 is in communication with a bore 35 extending, like the slot 33, throughout the thickness of the body 32.

Rotatably mounted within the bore 33, in a manner to be described, is a hub or ratchet wheel 3? formed with a slot 38, corresponding to the slot 33, communicating with a hollow central portion 39. The hub 31 is provided with full-width, notch-like grooves 4| and teeth 42 circumferentially about its entire unslotted periphery. The hub is further formed with an arcuate socket receptor face 43 preferably ter- 3 minating in substantially hook shaped driving faces M and 45, thereby providing a recess for the slidable reception of a shank 46 of any selected work engaging member such as the socket 41.

Surrounding the bore 35 preferably upon one side 50, herein arbitrarily designated as the bottom of the wrench body, an annular flange 52 is preferably formed bounded by a concentric annular groove 53. Said groove is continuous upon one of its walls with a wall 55 of the body 32.

The hub 31 is normally rotatable within the bore 35 and may be guided for such purpose as well as strongly reinforced by a concentric annular shoulder or flange 56 complementary to the annular groove 53 and an annular groove 57 complementary to the annular flange 52.

Leaf shaped pawls 61: and 6! having bearing ends 62 are disposed within suitable bores or recesses 63 and 64, respectively, in one end of the body in a manner to turn the hub from a side remote from the slot 35. These are normally urged into engagement with the teeth :22 at their operative edges E as by means of pyramid shaped coil springs or the like 56. It will be seen that the orientation of the pawls is such that rotation of the hub is permitted in only one direction. In order to reverse the direction of effective rotation of the hub and therefore of the wrench, it is necessary to reverse the relative position of the socket as illustrated in Figure l in dotted outline and as further elaborated below.

The sockets, such as socket ll, may be of all standard sizes and of any conventional construction upon their nut engaging end it and may, for example, be formed with an outer wall "H and any conventional number of facets S2. The sockets may be of any desired depth and are most desirably provided, as heretofore stated, with an axially disposed shank 46 of arcuate shape, an inner face "it of which confronts the space 39, and an outer face ll of which is normally contiguous with the inner face 43 of the hub 31.

It is to be noted that the shank 48 terminates at each side in acute angles 18 and 59 forming by driven faces 89 and BI, respectively. Angles l8 and 19 on the driven shank are more acute than those formed by the corresponding driving faces 55 and 34, respectively, on the hub 37 (as disclosed most clearly in Figure 5). By this means potentially distorting contact between the shank 46 and the points 82 and $3 on the driving hooks 85 and 85, respectively, is prevented.

Thus, the hooks 84 and 85, although subject to a great deal of direct strain, will not be peened over at said points, nor the hooks bent out of line. Instead the torquing forces will be directly absorbed by the innermost angles of the hooks, avoiding the usual and undesired spreading of the hub and socket.

The end 86 of the body 32 opposite from the slot 33 is, as stated, adapted for the handle 2i and is furthermore preferably drilled and tapped as at 31 for the reception of any suitable securin means such as screws 88 extending through an appropriately shaped cover 89 which is preferably nested in a similarly shaped recess 99 formed in the top side SI of the body 32. In this manner the cover 89 is made flush with the top of the wrench body.

The cover 89 serves not merely to form one side of the wrench head but also serves to retain the pawls 60 and Bi in place. It, moreover, serves to retain the hub 31 in proper position and within the groove 53 and upon the annular flange 52. Removal of the cover renders all of these parts accessible and readily removable for replacement or repair.

The sockets, through their shanks 46, may be retained within the hub either through friction alone or as by means of a spring urged ball 92 in a similar manner to the retention of the handle within the wrench head by the spring urged ball 25.

The wrench as thus formed comprises a compact unit into which a socket All may be fit from either the top side or the bottom side of the head and made to rotate in a corresponding clockwise or counterclockwise motion, respectively, as desired.

Operation In the use of this new and improved wrench as disclosed in Figures. 1 through 9, as for example, where a coupling or packing nut 95 upon a conduit 34 (Figure 9) must be removed although disposed closely between like structures 96 and 91 in a manifold or the like, a socket 41 of proper size corresponding to the nut s5 is selected and inserted into the hub 3'?! from the top side SI of the body. The handle 2! may then be inserted into the opening 21 from either side of the wrench head and may then be extended either radially in the manner of a torque wrench, or vertically, utilizing the cross bar 23 or, if desired, the handle may be positioned at any convenient intermediate angle.

In order to slip the wrench over the conduit 34 it will be necessary to align the slots 33 and 38 in the body and hub of the wrench respectively. Such alignment will automatically place the slot 96 or the socket and shank in correct alignment with said other slots 33 and 38 all in a manner to permit the wrench head to be placed in a working position. In such position the head itself is normally placed between the conduit or, as shown, slightly above the nut 95, thereby providing greater clearance for the head than is required between the nuts 95 themselves (except of course upon very large nuts which may exceed the width of the head 29). However, in the more confined position between the fittings, the sockets are easily accommodated. The wrench may now be turned by continuous oscillation of the handle and, depending upon the angular spacing of the teeth equal tooth spacing of between 3%-'! /2 has been found suitable.

When the nut has been completely removed and it is desired to replace the same, the position of the parts must be operatively reversed and for this purpose the socket 4"! may be removed from the hub and inserted from the opposite or bottom side 501! of the wrench head and the whole again inverted into position upon the nut, whereupon like oscillatory movement of the handle will act to drive the nut in a clockwise direction, tightening the same. In removing the socket for the effective reversing movement thereof it will be necessary to align the slot in the socket with the body and the hub in a similar manner to that previously required for fitting them to the nut in the first instance.

The form of wrench body ml, shown in Figures 10 and 11, comprises a pair of arms Hi2 and H13 formed with suitable hooks IM and [05. The inner faces I06 and it? of the hooks form preferably acute angles with the inner face [05 comprising the socket retaining recess of this form of the device. No ratchet and therefore no hub is necessary in this simplified form, but it has been found practical to provide a suitably shaped, preferably square openin I09 at the back side of the wrench for the insertion of a handle either of any conventional, rigid construction or of a substantially similar construction to that illustrated for the preferred embodiment first above described and illustrated.

From the foregoing, it will be apparent that the modified form embodies in a non-ratchet construction the secure and flexible structural advantages of the primary form, in that the wrench head and socket are prevented from spreading under a heavy load by the coacting hook and socket face elements. In addition the pivoted handle in rectangular aperture E99 provides for this economical and simplified form to maximum advantage through its ability to pivot through 180 and to be addressed to the head from either side in order to obtain reversibility.

The manner of use of the modified form is identical to that of the first embodiment except that it is not subject to use in such confined quarters nor with as much facility. It is not necessary to reverse the socket in order to reverse their operative motion but replaceable sockets are provided in either case. This modified form has the advantage of simplicity and therefore is more economical of production and within its relatively limited usefulness requires even less attention and may be iven more abuse than the preferred embodiment first described.

I claim:

1. In a wrench including a head provided with a work-turning element and having a longitudinally oifset projection, and a non-circular aperture extending transversely through said projection; a handle, comprising an elongated lever, a wrench engaging shank havin one end shaped to complement said aperture and insertable therein from either side of said head, one end of said lever being pivoted directly on the opposite end of said shank for pivotal movement through an angle of with respect to said shank, and in a plane which intersects the longitudinal axis of said head, whereby the relative operating position of said lever may be adjusted within said plane.

2. A device as claimed in claim 1 wherein the aperture has a rectangular cross-sectional shape to present opposing wall members arranged parallel to each other and disposed on opposite sides of an axis transversely intersecting the axis of rotation of said Work turnin element and the shank engagin end of said lever is formed with a pair of spaced ears adapted to receive therebetween an end of said shank and a pivot pin extending through said ears and shank end, and a cross bar connected to the opposite end of said lever.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 763,105 Morrison June 21, 1904 1,643,855 Peterson Sept. 27, 1927 2,294,510 Nakano Sept. 1, 1942 2,358,362 Taylor Sept. 19, 1944 2,578,687 Fish Dec. 18, 1951

US2680985A 1947-03-10 1951-12-11 Open end wrench Expired - Lifetime US2680985A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2578687A US2578687A (en) 1947-03-10 1947-03-10 Split ratchet socket wrench
US2680985A US2680985A (en) 1947-03-10 1951-12-11 Open end wrench

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US2680985A US2680985A (en) 1947-03-10 1951-12-11 Open end wrench

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US2680985A true US2680985A (en) 1954-06-15

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2791143A (en) * 1955-07-21 1957-05-07 Rossi Slidable side jaw wrench
US3882753A (en) * 1973-10-18 1975-05-13 Charles R Svensen Speed wrench tool
US4748874A (en) * 1987-01-27 1988-06-07 Sharp Peter G Wrenches
US6112625A (en) * 1997-09-22 2000-09-05 Turtle; Floyd Thomas Extension bar for tool
US6186034B1 (en) 1998-12-11 2001-02-13 Dan E. Lamons Flex handle adjustable wrench
US20040020329A1 (en) * 2000-09-28 2004-02-05 Tore Boman Socket wrench
US20070062341A1 (en) * 2005-09-19 2007-03-22 Chih-Ching Hsieh Hand tool with replaceable and rotatable function head
US7343836B1 (en) 2005-03-01 2008-03-18 Jess Ward Bender wrench

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US763105A (en) * 1903-09-10 1904-06-21 Byron H Morrison Ratchet-wrench.
US1643855A (en) * 1925-08-21 1927-09-27 John N Peterson Socket wrench
US2294510A (en) * 1940-05-29 1942-09-01 Nakano Rikio Hinged ratchet wrench
US2358362A (en) * 1942-06-01 1944-09-19 William R Taylor Ratchet wrench
US2578687A (en) * 1947-03-10 1951-12-18 Tubing Appliance Company Inc Split ratchet socket wrench

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US763105A (en) * 1903-09-10 1904-06-21 Byron H Morrison Ratchet-wrench.
US1643855A (en) * 1925-08-21 1927-09-27 John N Peterson Socket wrench
US2294510A (en) * 1940-05-29 1942-09-01 Nakano Rikio Hinged ratchet wrench
US2358362A (en) * 1942-06-01 1944-09-19 William R Taylor Ratchet wrench
US2578687A (en) * 1947-03-10 1951-12-18 Tubing Appliance Company Inc Split ratchet socket wrench

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2791143A (en) * 1955-07-21 1957-05-07 Rossi Slidable side jaw wrench
US3882753A (en) * 1973-10-18 1975-05-13 Charles R Svensen Speed wrench tool
US4748874A (en) * 1987-01-27 1988-06-07 Sharp Peter G Wrenches
US6112625A (en) * 1997-09-22 2000-09-05 Turtle; Floyd Thomas Extension bar for tool
US6186034B1 (en) 1998-12-11 2001-02-13 Dan E. Lamons Flex handle adjustable wrench
US20040020329A1 (en) * 2000-09-28 2004-02-05 Tore Boman Socket wrench
US7024970B2 (en) * 2000-09-28 2006-04-11 Tore Boman Socket wrench
US7343836B1 (en) 2005-03-01 2008-03-18 Jess Ward Bender wrench
US20070062341A1 (en) * 2005-09-19 2007-03-22 Chih-Ching Hsieh Hand tool with replaceable and rotatable function head
US7204175B2 (en) * 2005-09-19 2007-04-17 Chih-Ching Hsieh Hand tool with replaceable and rotatable function head

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