US2678269A - Molybdenum-titanium alloys - Google Patents

Molybdenum-titanium alloys Download PDF

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US2678269A
US2678269A US25020451A US2678269A US 2678269 A US2678269 A US 2678269A US 25020451 A US25020451 A US 25020451A US 2678269 A US2678269 A US 2678269A
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molybdenum
titanium
alloy
zero
oxygen
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John L Ham
Frederick P Bens
Alvin J Herzig
George A Timmons
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Climax Molybdenum Co
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Climax Molybdenum Co
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C27/00Alloys based on rhenium or a refractory metal not mentioned in groups C22C14/00 or C22C16/00
    • C22C27/04Alloys based on tungsten or molybdenum

Description

Patented May 11, 1954 UNITED* STATES PATENT OFFICE MOLYBDENUM-TITANIUM ALLOYS John L.. Ham, Dearborn, Frederick P. Bens and Alvin J. Herzig, Detroit, and George A. Timmons, Ferndale, 'Mich., assignors to Climax Molybdenum Company, New York, N. Y., a corporationof Delaware No Drawing. Application October 6, 1951, Serial No. 250,204

13 Claims. 1

glass, die-casting dies for brass and other metals,-

etc. This application is a continuation-in-part of applicants copending iapplicationlserial No. 218,521, filed March 30, 1951, now abandoned.

The principal object of the invention is to provide improved cast alloys of molybdenum which have high melting points and which are capable of being worked at elevated temperatures.-

It is a further object, of the invention. to provide improved molybdenumebase. alloys as castings of substantial sizev which have increased strength and hardness at both .room and elevated temperatures and which exhibit a pronounced tendency. to retain at elevated temperatures hardening induced by working at elevated temperatures.

A still further object of this invention is topro- Yide improved cast molydenum-base alloys which have a lower specific gravity than pure molybdenum and thus are particularly suitedfor such applications as gas turbine blades. 7 V

A further object is to, provide molybdenumbase alloys in which the carbide phase is di'spersed by thegaddition. of the alloying element.

The terms feast? and -casting asused in this specification are intended to designate the product resulting from the melting of metal and I solidifying the same .in a mold, whether or not the metal has been subjected to subsequent working or machining.v The term fcasting is also used to designate any process or,;method-which involves melting metal and solidifying the same in a mold.

In accordance with this invention, highly desirable cast alloys of molybdenum are obtained This invention is also con-' when titanium is employed as the alloying element. Such alloys exhibit improved strength and hardness at elevated temperatures as well as a marked tendency to retain at elevated tern-2 peratures,..hardness induced by working,

It has previously been established that the presence of minute amounts of oxygen in a cast ing of molybdenum or a molybdenum-base alloy seriously impairs or destroys the capacity of the casting to be worked .at elevated temperatures if the oxygen is segregated at the grain boundaries in the form of certain metallic oxides.- The detrimental oxide is visible on microscopic examination of intergranular fracturesand is believed to consist largely of M002. However, the oxides of certain other metals, if present, are also detrimental. In any event, when examined 1nicr'o-' scopically, castings which can be worked at-elevated temperatures have no similar visible oxide segregations at the grainboundaries which are similar. to the manifestations of Mo Oa- Cast molybdenum'containing less than about '.001%

oxygen 'can be worked at elevated temperatures butit is very difiicultin'the production of cast ingots of molybdenum and its alloys to reduce the oxygen contentof the metal to such a 10w value.

As set forth in the patent to Frederick P.-Bens et al.,'No. 2,580,273,-the detrimental oxide segregation is not found in molybdenum castings containing not more than .005% oxygen if small amounts of carbon are present. Such castings can be worked at elevated temperatures.

It is now found that the detrimental oxides may' also be eliminated by incorporating in the casting certain metals which have a stronger aflinity for oxygen than does molybdenum and form oxides which either do not segregate at the grain boundaries or, if segregated at the boundaries, provide greater intergranular cohesion than does the oxide of molybdenum. Alu-' minumand beryllium have been found to fulfill these requirements, and forgeable castings of molybdenum and molybdenum-base alloys containing up to a maximum of .05% oxygen have been produced byineorporating small quantities of aluminum or beryllium or both in the casting.

Carbon may also be present, if desired, and-small quantities of carbon or aluminum are particularly beneficial in molybdenum-base alloys containing beryllium.

The effect of oxygen on the molybdenum' titanium alloy castings of the present invention is similar to its effect in other molybdenum-base alloy castings, and consequently it is necessary to eliminate segregations' of molybdenum oxide at i the grain boundaries if the casting is to be workedat elevated temperatures.

This is preferably done by incorporating carbon, aluminum or beryllium in th'e alloy, either -singly' 'or in com bination. This critical effect 01 oxygen on the capacity of the alloy to be worked is peculiar to cast alloys as distinguished from those produced by sintering metal powders.

If carbon is present in amounts between .01% and 04% and no aluminum or beryllium is present, the maximum oxygen content which can be tolerated in a casting that must be worked at elevated temperatures is about .005%. The minimum quantity of residual carbon should, preferably, increase within these limits as the residual oxygen content approaches 005%. Larger amounts of carbon up to a maximum of about 25% may be present in casting, that must be worked at elevated temperatures, but the resulting additional carbides increase the diinculty of working the cast alloy without imparting other advantages and, therefore, it is preferred that the carbon not exceed about 07%.

If aluminum or beryllium is present in adequate quantities, the maximum oxygen content which can be tolerated in a casting that must be worked at elevated temperatures is about 05%. The quantity of aluminum or beryllium must be at least sufiicient to stoichiometrically react with the oxygen present in the final alloy to form A1203 or BeO, and is preferably thre times that quantity in the case of aluminum. Thus, aluminum in the range of 003% to 4% or beryllium in the range of 001% to 03% may be present. In actual practice, aluminum is preferred to beryllium for this purpose and, if beryllium is used, it is preferred to use small quantities of aluminum or carbon with the beryllium. When aluminum is present within th ran es stated, residual carbon is preferably omitted altogether or does not exceed 02%. However, cast molybdenum-titanium alloys containing aliuninum and as high as 06% carbon can be worked at elevated temperatures. When beryllium is used, it is preferred that the carbon not exceed 06%.

Excellent results are achieved in the working of molybdenum-titanium castings containing carbon in the range of .02% to .05% and oxygen less than 003%; or aluminum from 003% to 2% and oxygen less than 02%; or beryllium from 001% to .02% and oxygen less than 02%. Quantities of aluminum and beryllium above the minimum required to react with the oxygen have other beneficial effects and hence aluminuni may be present up to a maximum of about 2.5% or beryllium up to a maximum of about 25%. However, as set forth hereinafter, the amount of titanium present must be reduced below its maximum if the aluminum exceeds about or the beryllium exceeds about 03% and the alloy is to be worked at elevated temperatures.

Molybdenum-base alloys containing aluminum or beryllium and the herein-disclosed process of producing such alloys are more fully disclosed and claimed in applicants copending applications, Serial No. 250,202, on Molybdenum- Tungsten-Aluminum Alloys, and Serial No. 150,201, on Cast Alloys and Method for Heat- Treating the Same, both filed concurrently herewith.

Alloying molybdenum with titanium increases the room temperature hardness as well as the hardness and strength at elevated temperatures. Titanium also reduces the grain size of the cast alloy to a greater extent than other known alloying elements when present in amounts of 2.5% or more, the refining effect increasing with increasing titanium content. Cast molybdenum-titanium alloys containing more than about 14% titanium by weight cannot be worked at elevated temperatures to a beneficial degree. However, alloys in which the titanium percentage is at or below 14% by weight can be worked at elevated temperatures. Particularly useful alloys result when the titanium content is between .25% and 8%, and this range is preferred. The addition of titanium has been found to be effective in increasing the retention of work-hardness at high temperatures, this effect increasing with increasing amounts of titanium. Percentages below about 25% titanium were not found to be particularly advantageous. Alloys of from 25% to 14% titanium in molybdenum comprise solid solutions at room temperature and have melting points above 3000 F.

A portion of the molybdenum may be replaced by tungsten as long as the tungsten does not exceed the molybdenum remaining in the final alloy, without destroying the ability of the alloy to be worked at elevated temperatures; such substitution also increases hot-hardness, but to a lesser degree than titanium. However, as the tungsten percentage is increased toward the maximum of about alloys capable of being worked at elevated temperatures are formed only if the titanium percentage is proportionately decreased toward the minimum of 25%. It is to be understood that this relationship between the tungsten and titanium contents relates only to the maximum allowable titanium which may be present for a given tungsten percentage without interfering with working at elevated temperatures, and that alloys containing less titanium than such maximum fall within the scope of this invention. Actual- 1y, it is preferred to use no tungsten or amounts less than 10%. It has also been found advantageous, in improving the ease of working, for the oxygen content to decrease toward the practical minimum of about 001% as the amounts of titanium or tungsten increase. In accordance with these generalizations, an alloy containing 14% titanium should preferably con tain approximately 001% oxygen.

The useful eiiects of titanium in molybdenumbase alloy castings are realized as long as, in a given alloy, molybdenum is present in an amount exceeding the amount of tungsten present, if any, and the total of the molybdenum and tungsten contents constitutes at least of the alloy. Minor quantities of other elements may also be present. Thus, certain hereinafter-listed transition elements produce advantageous efiects when added to the molybdenum-titanium alloys of the present invention. However, to produce a cast alloy which can be worked at elevated temperatures to a beneficial degree, the amounts of tungsten, other transition elements, aluminum and beryllium must be limited; the pre ferred alloys contain at least molybdenum. Thus, even in pure binary alloys of molybdenum, the following beneficial transition elements should not be present in amounts exceeding the following percentages if the alloy is to be worked at elevated temperatures.

Beryllium amounts in excess-of 03% and upto a maximum of about .25% and aluminum in amounts in excess'of 31% and up. to. a maximum of 2.5% have an effect on workability similar to that of the'above transition elements. They all produce a proportionateincrease in hardness at 1600 F.. astheir quantities increase toward the above maximums.- The maximum amounts given above for beryllium, aluminum and each of the transition elements other than tungsten correspond roughly to those quantities of each element which, when'added alone to molybdenum, will produce a hardness at 1600 F. of 200 V. P. N. (Vickers Pyramid. Numeral) in an annealed casting. It has not been possible with normal working techniques to achieve a worthwhile percentage of recovery from the working of metals and alloys having greater hardness,-

buta beneficial hot-working at temperatures substantially above 1600 F. may be performed on the alloys of the present invention provided the hardness at 1600 F. does not exceed about 200 V. P. N. in an annealed casting. The effects of all of the above-mentioned metals, also titanium and tungsten, on hot-hardness andadditive and, therefore, when two are present the maximum permissible amount of one should be proportionately reduced from its maximum given to the extent that the other approaches its maximum if the-alloy is to be capable of being worked to a beneficial degree. Still further reductions on the same basis must be made if more than two are present, and in all cases less than those maximums. gives the best re-.

sults. From the standpoint of high strength and hardness at elevated temperatures in a molybdenum-titanium alloy that is well adapted.

to working at elevated temperatures, the preferred alloying transition elements are columbium, zirconium, vanadium and tantalum.

Molybdenum-base alloys characterized primarily by the beneficial effects of. tantalum,

zirconium, columium and vanadium, respectively,

are more fully disclosed and claimed in applicants copending applications filed concurrently herewith, as follows:

Serial No. 250,205, Molybdenum-Tantalum Alloys Serial No. 250,206, Molybdenum-Zirconium Alloys serial No. 250,207, Molybdenum-Columbium Alloys Serial No. 250,203, Molybdenum-Vanadium Alloys um in molybdenum, but that the alloys may also contain quantities of unspecified elements, such as the above-mentioned transition .ele-

ments, which do not. appreciably impair the..-

beneficial effects oftitanium;. or destroy the. capacity of the alloy tobe worked at elevated. temperatures to a beneficial degree.

By way'of exampleythe .following' alloyszmayz.

6 be worked. at. elevated-temperatures and are useful in practice:

Example 1 Titanium 2.5% Carbon.- i 054% Oxygen less than 005% Molybdenum balance Example- 2 Titanium 2.7% Aluminum .10% Oxygen less than .05% Molybdenum balance.

Example 3 Titanium 13%- Carbon 015%- Oxygen less than: 005% Molybdenum balance 1 Example 4 Titanium 7% Carbon 015% Oxygen less than .0025% Tungsten." 5% Molybdenum. balance Example 5 Titanium 6% Carbon .02% Beryllium 015% Oxygen. 03% Molybdenumbalance The alloys of this invention may .be made by a variety of procedures, but cast alloys containing carbon are preferably made by the process which consists in the steps of (1) mixing molybdenum, titanium, carbon and. any other desired. elements inthe form of powder, in the desired proportions; (2.) pressing the mixture into successive pellets to form a continuous rod;

(3) sintering. therod to impart sufiicient strength to the same to render it self-supporting; and (4) arc-melting the sintered rod. as a consumable electrode in a vacuum. and collecting the metal directly into a water-cooled copper mold.

The starting materials. used in. the process are commercially pure molybdenum, preferably containing not more: than about 05% oxygen, and commercially available carbon and titanium powders as" well as powders ofany other elements used. Metals in the form of small chips or granules may comprise part of the charge. The starting materials are analyzed for carbon and oxygen, and the carbon required to react stoichiometri'ca'lly-with the oxygen to form carbonmon'oxide and-to provide a residual carbon content of at least 01% but less than 25% is employed".-

The powder charge is 'fed into an extrusion die positioned. beneath: the ram of" a reciprocating press wherein successive pellets of the powder material are pressed continuously on top of preceding pellets to. form acontinuous rod of pressed. metal. powders. Pelleting pressures of approximately 10,000 p.-s. i. to 20,000 p. s. i. have been used, 14,000. p. s. i. normally being adequate; The pressing is accomplished in a vacuum-tight container.

Sufficient strength to make the pressed metal rod self-supporting is imparted by sintering the rod in vacuum at -a temperature of approximately'2400 F. to 2900'F. for approximately a quarter of a minute to several minutesw Sintering may 7 be accomplished by any well-known method of heating; electrical resistance heating is preferred.

The sintered rod is then used as a consumable electrode in a vacuum arc furnace. Melting is started by striking an are between the rod and a starting electrode comprising a pile of chips of the same or similar alloy placed on a disc of molybdenum at the bottom of the casting mold. A water-cooled copper mold has been found suitable for receiving the molten molybednumtitanium alloy without contaminating the alloy with copper. Molten alloy striking the watercooled copper mold quickly solidifies, forming a protective coating on the surface of the mold. Thereafter, the liquid alloy becomes the lower electrode and the upper, consumable electrode is mechanically fed toward the lower, liquid electrode to maintain continuous melting with the proper arc spacing.

For steps 2, 3 and 4, the pressure within the container should be as low as possible and should not exceed a maximum of 500 microns, and preferably should be below 100 microns. All three of these steps may be carried out in the same container.

If aluminum or beryllium or any other relatively volatile element is employed in the alloy, the above-described process cannot be practiced under the degree of vacuum set forth above and hence it is necessary to employ an inert atmosphere of higher pressure in the melting chamber. An argon or helium atmosphere at or slightly above atmospheric pressure has been found suitable for this purpose. Except for the change from vacuum to an inert atmosphere at higher pressure, the process previously described may be used. The desired quantities of alumi num or beryllium are added to the mixture of metal powders which are sintered to produce the consumable electrode.

Inasmuch as extremely minute quantities of oxygen impair the capacity of the alloy casting to be worked, the starting materials should be as low in oxygen as possible and it is necessary to avoid the introduction of significant quantities 1 of oxygen as a contaminant in the inert atmosphere. The inert atmosphere may be purified by circulating it through a commercial drying tower before introduction into the casting container. The gas may be recirculated or re-used after passing over a bed of titanium metal maintained at approximately 1500 F., and a bed of magnesium metal maintained at approximately 1100 F. Because of the relatively high volatility of aluminum and beryllium at the arc temperature, the pressure of the inert atmosphere within the casting container is preferably maintained at substantially atmospheric pressure or slightly above, for example, up to about 15.5 pounds per square inch. The casting container is first evacuated and then flushed with the inert gas; and, during operation, the insert gas is bled into the casting container to maintain atmospheric pressure or slightly above.

If carbon is employed in addition to aluminum or beryllium, the partial pressure of carbon monoxide in the melting chamber should be maintained below about 100 microns. In some cases, this may require a flow of the purified inert gas through the chamber.

One suitable form of apparatus for use in form-- ing, sintering and melting the powder rod is disclosed in the copending application of Edgar K. Leavenworth, Serial No. 787,797, filed November 24, 1947, now Patent No. 2,651,952 issued September 15, 1953.

A large number of tests of molybedenumtitanium alloys indicated that such alloys possess an unexpected tendency to retain work-hardness at elevated temperatures. The testing procedure and results are typified by the following data.

The alloy of Example 1 in the form of a bar 1 inches in diameter and 2%; inches long having a hardness of 207 V. P. N. in the annealed casting was heated in the range of 2500 F. to 2600 F. and extruded in a die having a diameter of .85 inch. After extrusion the hardness was 283 V. P. N. The as-extruded bar was then annealed for 1 hour at 2200 F. and the hardness decreased only to 271 V. P. N. After annealing 1 hour at 2400" F., the hardness was 248 V. P. N. The beneficial characteristic of titanium in retaining work-hardness at elevated temperatures is apparent when it is noted that, in the absence of tanium, molybdenum similarly treated and having the same carbon content lost all of its work-hardness in 1 hour at 2000 F.

Microscopic examination of a large number of cast molybdenum-titanium alloys indicated that the addition of titanium effects a redistribution of the carbide phase and substantially eliminates carbide segregation at the grain boundaries. As a result of the carbide redistribution, the alloys are more easily worked at elevated temperature and have improved plasticity.

The fact that molybdenum-titanium alloys of the present invention combine reduced specific gravity with high strength and retention of workhardness at elevated temperatures makes them peculiarly advantageous for use in gas turbine blades.

All of the proportions given herein are proportions by weight in the final alloy.

What is claimed is:

1. A cast alloy consisting of at least molybdenum and characterized by its capacity to be worked at elevated temperatures and its capacity to retain a significant amount of work hardness after one hour at 2200 ER, said alloy containing from .25% to 14% titanium, from .003% to .4% aluminum, from zero to .02% carbon, oxygen less than .02%, and the balance con sisting essentially of molybdenum.

2. A cast alloy consisting of at least 85% molybdenum and characterized by its capacity to be worked at elevated temperatures and its capacity to retain a significant amount of work hardness after one hour at 2200 F., said alloy containing from 25% to 14% titanium; at least one element from the group consisting of carbon from .01% to .25%, aluminum from .003% to 2.5% and beryllium from .00l% to 25%; metal from the group consisting of the transition elements, vanadium from zero to 7%, chromium from zero to 2%, iron from zero to 1.3%, cobalt from zero to .9 nickel from zero to .4%, zirconium from zero to 2%, columbium from zero to 10%, tantalum from zero to 9%, and tungsten from zero to 10%, the total amount of metal from said group of transition elements being further limited to an amount within the range from none to the amount which will increase the hardness of the annealed casting to a value not exceeding 200 V. P. N. at 1600 F.; and the balance consisting essentially of molybdenum.

3. A cast alloy consisting of at least 85% molybdenum and characterized by its capacity to be worked at elevated temperatures and its capacity to retain a significant amount of work hardness after one hour at 2200 F., said alloy containing from 25% to 14% titanium; from .003% to 4% aluminum; from-zero to-;02% carabon; oxygen less than .02%-; metal from the the annealed casting'to a value not exceeding 200 V. P. N. at 1600 F.; and-thebalance consisting essentially of molybdenum.

4. A cast alloy consisting of at least 85% mo lybdenum and characterized by its capacity to be worked at elevated temperatures, said alloy containing from 25% to 14% titanium; at least one element from the group consisting of carbon from .0l% to .25 aluminum from .003% to 2.5% and beryllium from .001% to 25%; metal from the group consisting of the transition elements vanadium from zero to 7%, chromium from zero to 2%, iron from zero to 1.3%, cobalt from zero to .9 nickel from zero to 4%, zirconium from zero to 2%, columbium from zero to tantalum from zero to 9%, and tungsten from zero to 10%, the total amount of metal from said group of transition elements being further limited to an amount within the range from none to the amount which will increase the hardness of the annealed casting to a value not exceeding 200 V. P. N. at 1600 F.; and the balance consisting of molybdenum.

5. A cast alloy characterized by its capacity to be worked at elevated temperatures and its capacity to retain a significant amount of work hardness after one hour at 2200 F., said alloy casting comprising from to 14% titanium, carbon from .0l% to 25%, oxygen not more than .005%, and the balance consisting essentially of molybdenum.

6. A cast alloy characterized by its capacity to be worked at elevated temperatures and its capacity to retain a significant amount of work hardness after one hour at 2200 F., said alloy casting comprising from 25% to 14% titanium, oxygen not more than .05%, aluminum in an amount at least sufficient to react with all of the oxygen present and not more than 2.5%, the maximum amount of aluminum within the range stated being reduced toward 4% as the amount of titanium approaches its upper limit, and the balance consisting essentially of molybdenum.

'7. A cast alloy characterized by its capacity to be Worked at elevated temperatures and its capacity to retain a significant amount of work hardness after one hour at 2200 F., said alloy casting comprising from 25% to 14% titanium, oxygen not more than .05%, beryllium in an amount at least suflicient to react with all of the oxygen present and not more than 25%, the maximum amount of beryllium within the range stated being reduced toward .03% as the amount of titanium approaches its upper limit, and the balance consisting essentially of molybdenum.

8. A cast alloy consisting of at least 85% molybdenum and characterized by its capacity to be worked at elevated temperatures, said alloy casting containing from 25 to 14% titanium, carbon from .01% to 25%, oxygen not more than 005%, metal from the group consisting ofthe transition elements vanadium from zero to 7%, chromium from zero to 2%, iron from zero to 1.3%, cobalt from zero to .9%, nickel from zero to 4%, zirconium from zero to 2%,.columbium from zero to 10%, tantalum from zero to 9%, and tungsten from zero to 10%, the total amount of metal from said group of transition elements being-further limited to an amount within the range from none to the amount which will increase the hardness of the annealed casting to a value not exceeding 200 V. P. N. at 1600 F., and the balance consisting of molybdenum.

9. A cast alloy consisting of at least molybdenum and characterized by its capacity to be :worked atelevated.temperatures, said alloy-castingcomprisingfrom 25% to 14% titanium,,oxy-

gen not more than .05 aluminum in an amount at least sufiicient to react with all or the oxygen present and not more than 2.5%, the maximum amount of aluminum Within the range stated being reduced toward .04% as the amount of titanium approaches its upper limit, metal from the group consisting of the transition elements vanadium from zero to 7%, chromium from zero to 2%, iron from zero to 1.3%, cobalt from zero to .9%, nickel from zero to 4% zirconium from zero to 2%, columbium from zero to 10 tantalum from zero to 9%, and tungsten from zero to 10%, the total amount of metal from said group of transition elements being further limited to an amount within the range from none to the amount which will increase the hardness of the annealed casting to a value not exceeding 200 V. P. N. at 1600 F., and the balance consisting of molybdenum.

10. A cast alloy consisting of at least 85% molybdenum and characterized by its capacity to be worked at elevated temperatures, said alloy casting comprising from 25% to 14% titanium, oxygen not more than .05%, beryllium in an amount at least sufficient to react with all of the oxygen present and not more than 25%, the

maximum amount of beryllium within the range stated being reduced toward .03% as the amount of titanium approaches its upper limit, metal from the group consisting of the transition elements vanadium from zero to 7 chromium from zero to 2%, iron from zero to 1.3%, cobalt from zero to .9%, nickel from zero to 4%, zirconium from zero to 2%, columbium from zero to 10%, tantalum from zero to 9%, and tungsten from zero to 10%, the total amount of metal from said group of transition elements being further limited to an amount within the range from none to the amount which will increase the hardness of the annealed casting to a value not exceeding 200 V. P. N. at 1600 F., and the balance consisting of molybdenum.

11. A cast, molybdenum-base alloy characterized by its capacity to be Worked at elevated temperatures, said alloy casting comprising from 25% to 14% titanium, carbon from .01% to .07%, oxygen not more than .003 and the balance consisting of molybdenum.

12. A cast, molybdenum-base alloy characterized by its capacity to be worked at elevated temperatures, said alloy casting comprising from 25% to 14% titanium, aluminum from 003% to .4%, carbon not more than 116%, oxygen not more than .05%, the minimum amount of aluminum within the range stated being that required to combine with all of the oxygen in the alloy to form aluminum oxide, and the balance consisting of molybdenum.

13. A cast, molybdenum-base alloy characterized by its capacity to be worked at elevated temperatures, said alloy casting comprising from 25% to 14% titanium, beryllium from .001% to .03%, carbon not more than .06%, oxygen not more than .05 the minimum amount of beryllium within the range stated being that required to combine with all of the oxygen in the alloy to form beryllium oxide, and the balance consisting of molybdenum.

References Cited in the file Of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 969,064 Kuzel Aug. 30, 1910 1,363,162 Myers et a1 Dec. 21, 1930 12 Number Name Date 1,670,463 Marden May 22, 1938 2,144,250 Allen et a1. June 17, 1939 2,304,297 Anton Dec. 8, 1942 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 718,822 Germany Mar. 24, 1942 OTHER REFERENCES Parke et al.: Treatise in Transactions of American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, vol. 171, 1947, pages 416-430.

Kessler et al., 1949. Preprint No. 33 of paper presented at the American Society for Metals Convention, Cleveland, Ohio, October 17-21, 1949.

Claims (1)

1. A CAST ALLOY CONSISTING OF AT LEAST 85% MOLYBDENUM AND CHARACTERIZED BY ITS CAPACITY TO BE WORKED AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES AND ITS CAPACITY TO RETAIN A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF WORK HARDNESS AFTER ONE HOUR AT 2200* F., SAID ALLOY CONTAINING FROM .25% TO 14% TITANIUM, FROM .003% TO .4% ALUMINUM, FROM ZERO TO .02% CARBON, OXYGEN LESS THAN .02%, AND THE BALANCE CONSISTING ESSENTIALLY OF MOLYBDENUM.
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Cited By (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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US2850385A (en) * 1955-08-29 1958-09-02 Universal Cyclops Steel Corp Molybdenum-base alloy
US2883283A (en) * 1957-07-02 1959-04-21 Horizons Inc Oxidation resistant molybdenum base alloy
US2884324A (en) * 1955-12-06 1959-04-28 American Metal Climax Inc Molybdenum-titanium-cobalt alloy
DE1103595B (en) * 1955-12-06 1961-03-30 American Metal Climax Inc Use of a cast alloy Molybdaengrundlage for preparing articles of high tensile strength
US3035341A (en) * 1958-03-20 1962-05-22 Gen Electric Manufacturing method for making molybdenum base alloy articles
US3090686A (en) * 1958-02-19 1963-05-21 Nachtman John Simon Recovery of metal by use of lead
US3116145A (en) * 1962-04-30 1963-12-31 American Metal Climax Inc Tungsten-hafnium alloy casting
US3169860A (en) * 1962-04-30 1965-02-16 American Metal Climax Inc Molybdenum-hafnium alloy casting
US3177076A (en) * 1961-06-12 1965-04-06 American Metal Climax Inc Forgeable high temperature cast alloys
US3275434A (en) * 1964-04-13 1966-09-27 Gen Electric Molybdenum-base alloy
US4370299A (en) * 1980-07-08 1983-01-25 Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Molybdenum-based alloy
US5028756A (en) * 1988-10-18 1991-07-02 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Electrode wire for electric spark cutting
WO1994002657A1 (en) * 1992-07-23 1994-02-03 PERFECT, Marjorie, L. Master alloys for beta 21s titanium-based alloys and method of making same
US5364587A (en) * 1992-07-23 1994-11-15 Reading Alloys, Inc. Nickel alloy for hydrogen battery electrodes
US20080314737A1 (en) * 2005-10-20 2008-12-25 Mark Gaydos Methods of Making Molybdenium Titanium Sputtering Plates and Targets
US20110117375A1 (en) * 2010-06-30 2011-05-19 H.C. Starck, Inc. Molybdenum containing targets
US8449817B2 (en) 2010-06-30 2013-05-28 H.C. Stark, Inc. Molybdenum-containing targets comprising three metal elements
US9334565B2 (en) 2012-05-09 2016-05-10 H.C. Starck Inc. Multi-block sputtering target with interface portions and associated methods and articles
US9334562B2 (en) 2011-05-10 2016-05-10 H.C. Starck Inc. Multi-block sputtering target and associated methods and articles
US20160369379A1 (en) * 2013-04-26 2016-12-22 Rolls-Royce Plc Alloy composition

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Cited By (28)

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US2850385A (en) * 1955-08-29 1958-09-02 Universal Cyclops Steel Corp Molybdenum-base alloy
US2884324A (en) * 1955-12-06 1959-04-28 American Metal Climax Inc Molybdenum-titanium-cobalt alloy
DE1103595B (en) * 1955-12-06 1961-03-30 American Metal Climax Inc Use of a cast alloy Molybdaengrundlage for preparing articles of high tensile strength
US2883283A (en) * 1957-07-02 1959-04-21 Horizons Inc Oxidation resistant molybdenum base alloy
US3090686A (en) * 1958-02-19 1963-05-21 Nachtman John Simon Recovery of metal by use of lead
US3035341A (en) * 1958-03-20 1962-05-22 Gen Electric Manufacturing method for making molybdenum base alloy articles
US3177076A (en) * 1961-06-12 1965-04-06 American Metal Climax Inc Forgeable high temperature cast alloys
US3116145A (en) * 1962-04-30 1963-12-31 American Metal Climax Inc Tungsten-hafnium alloy casting
US3169860A (en) * 1962-04-30 1965-02-16 American Metal Climax Inc Molybdenum-hafnium alloy casting
US3275434A (en) * 1964-04-13 1966-09-27 Gen Electric Molybdenum-base alloy
US4370299A (en) * 1980-07-08 1983-01-25 Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Molybdenum-based alloy
US5028756A (en) * 1988-10-18 1991-07-02 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Electrode wire for electric spark cutting
WO1994002657A1 (en) * 1992-07-23 1994-02-03 PERFECT, Marjorie, L. Master alloys for beta 21s titanium-based alloys and method of making same
US5364587A (en) * 1992-07-23 1994-11-15 Reading Alloys, Inc. Nickel alloy for hydrogen battery electrodes
US8911528B2 (en) 2005-10-20 2014-12-16 H.C. Starck Inc. Methods of making molybdenum titanium sputtering plates and targets
US20110097236A1 (en) * 2005-10-20 2011-04-28 H. C. Starck Inc. Methods of making molybdenum titanium sputtering plates and targets
US20080314737A1 (en) * 2005-10-20 2008-12-25 Mark Gaydos Methods of Making Molybdenium Titanium Sputtering Plates and Targets
US8449818B2 (en) * 2010-06-30 2013-05-28 H. C. Starck, Inc. Molybdenum containing targets
US8449817B2 (en) 2010-06-30 2013-05-28 H.C. Stark, Inc. Molybdenum-containing targets comprising three metal elements
US20110117375A1 (en) * 2010-06-30 2011-05-19 H.C. Starck, Inc. Molybdenum containing targets
US9017762B2 (en) 2010-06-30 2015-04-28 H.C. Starck, Inc. Method of making molybdenum-containing targets comprising three metal elements
US9150955B2 (en) 2010-06-30 2015-10-06 H.C. Starck Inc. Method of making molybdenum containing targets comprising molybdenum, titanium, and tantalum or chromium
US20150332903A1 (en) * 2010-06-30 2015-11-19 H.C. Starck Inc. Molybdenum containing targets
US9837253B2 (en) * 2010-06-30 2017-12-05 H.C. Starck Inc. Molybdenum containing targets for touch screen device
US9945023B2 (en) 2010-06-30 2018-04-17 H.C. Starck, Inc. Touch screen device comprising Mo-based film layer and methods thereof
US9334562B2 (en) 2011-05-10 2016-05-10 H.C. Starck Inc. Multi-block sputtering target and associated methods and articles
US9334565B2 (en) 2012-05-09 2016-05-10 H.C. Starck Inc. Multi-block sputtering target with interface portions and associated methods and articles
US20160369379A1 (en) * 2013-04-26 2016-12-22 Rolls-Royce Plc Alloy composition

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