US2673343A - Electric system - Google Patents

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US2673343A
US2673343A US520335A US52033544A US2673343A US 2673343 A US2673343 A US 2673343A US 520335 A US520335 A US 520335A US 52033544 A US52033544 A US 52033544A US 2673343 A US2673343 A US 2673343A
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radio
receiving
gas
antenna
discharge
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Rines Robert Harvey
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Rines Robert Harvey
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/02Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S13/00
    • G01S7/04Display arrangements

Description

March 23, 1954 R. H. RINES ELECTRIC SYSTEM F'led Jan. 29, 1944 Patented Mar. 23, 1954 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ELECTRIC SYSTEM Robert Harvey=Rines, Brookline, Mass.
Application January 29, 1944, Serial No. 520,335
19 Claims.
l The present invention relates to electric systems, and more particularly to radio-receiving systems that, while having more general elds of usefulness, are especially adapted for use 'in television.
An object of the invention is to provide a new and improved radio-receiving system.
Another object 'is to provide a new and improved television system.
Another object is to provide a novel combined radio-and-television system.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved radio-locator system for both ldetecting the presence of a body and rendering it Visible.
A further object is to provide a new rangefinder.
Other and further objects will be explained hereinafter and will be more particularly pointed out in the appended claims.
The invention will now be more fully explained in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic View of circuits and apparatus arranged and constructed in accordance with a preferred embodiment thereof, showing also the airplane object from which the radi-o waves are reflected and scattered to the receiving system; Fig. 2 is a section of a modification, upon a larger scale, taken upon the line 2 2 of Fig. 1, looking in the direction of the arrows; and Fig. 3 is a schematic fragmentary View similar to Fig. 2 of a modication.
An electromagnetic-wave generator 4 is shown exciting a dipole 2 to produce ultra-high-frequency microwave-radio energy, say, of 3 or 1.5 centimeters wave-length. A continuous-wave o-r any other type of modulated-wave generator may be employed, though pulsed energy, at present, has the advantage of economical and easy highpower ultra-high-frequency generation.
The waves emitted by the dipole 2 may be directed by a reflector 3 upon a parabolic reflector 6. The parabolic reflector 6 is shown directing the Waves toward an object, say, lan airplane 6, from which they are reflected and scattered toward a receiving station.
At the receiving station, the radio waves thus reected and scattered from the object 8 may be focused by an electromagnetic dielectric lens 5, such as polystyrene, upon a bank or array 7, comprising a plurality of normally ineffective insulated radio-receiving pick-up unit antenna elements. The dielectric lens 5 may be replaced by any other type of well-known lens, mirror or other directive system for focusing the electro- 2 magnetic energy scattered and reflected from the object 8 on the bank or array I of antenna elements.
The pick-up elements may be in the form of square thin metal antenna sections 1%; centimeter length and breadth, and separated by electrical insulation strips I one millimeter thick. 1% centimeter is one-quarter the wave-length of a three-centimeter wave. The insulation I prevents discharge between the antenna elements'by preventing interaction between them. The square pick-up antenna elements` may constitute the front sides of hollow cubes (not shown), the rear sides of which may be open, as shown in Fig. 1, or covered by a screen or screens, as shown in Fig. 2. The inside faces of the cubes are preferably polished, in order that they may constitute mirrors. In each hollow cube there may be disposed a neon or other appropriate gas cell connected by a conductor to the front face of the cube, or other gas-discharge means may be employed.
The square pick-up antenna elements are shown arranged in the form of rows and columns, in the proximity of the focal plane of the lens 5. The rst or uppermost row of the bank for example, is illustrated as comprising the sections I Il, I2, I4, I6, etc., shown as equally spaced horizontally. The last antenna section of the first row is indicated at 39. The second row from the top is shown comprising the sections I8, 2S, 22, etc., and the last section of this second row is shown at 45. The third or next-lower row is shown comprising the sections 24, 26, etc., with the last section at 5I and so on for the remaining rows off sections. Though only a small number of antenna units is shown in each row, this is merely for illustrative purposes, in yorder not to confuse the disclosure. It will be Lmderstood that, in practice, a large number of antenna units willbe employed in each row. In order to x the ideas, for vpurposes of description, let that number be chosen as 180.
The sections IU, I8, 24, etc., are arranged in the rst or left-hand column. The sections I2, 20, 26, etc., are disposed in the second column from the left. The sections I4, 22, etc., are disposed in the third column from the left, and so on. There may be as many columns as there are antenna sections in each row. The columns and rows uare separated by .the insulation strips I. Though each columnis shown as vcomprising only afew .antenna units, this isagaininnrder not to complicate the drawings. In actual practice,
the number of antenna strips in each column may be quite large, say 180.
The number 180 may of course, be varied. 150 to 180 rows and columns of antenna sections of resonant dimensions will yield good dennition for large close-range objects when threecentimeter waves are used. For the dimensions given above, the array 1 would be approximately ve feet square.
Though the antenna elements may be in the form of cubes (not shown), as before stated, it is preferred to have the pick-up elements of each row constitute the front side of a long, hollow rectangular prism or cell the rear side of which is open, as shown in Fig. 1, or covered by a screen or screens, as shown in Fig. 2, and the inside faces of which may be polished, to constitute mirrors; and to dispose a long neon or other gas cell in each prism, directly behind the pick-up elements of the corresponding row, and extending substantially throughout the length of the row. n this case, as in the case of the cubical cells (not shown) before mentioned, at least portions of the neon-gas-discharge cells are each associated with an correspond to one of the antenna elements, energization of which by the received radio-frequency energy will produce a likeness on the array of antenna elements corresponding to the energy received by the corresponding antenna elements.
Preferably, indeed, the hollow prisms may themselves constitute the gas-discharge cells, bounding, at least in part, the dielectric gaseous medium, particularly if their rear sides are hernietically covered with a screen and, if desired, provision may be made for maintaining constant pressure of the gas Within the hollow-prism gasdischarge cells in any well known manner.
Thus, the rst row of metal antenna sections It, l2, I4, I5, etc., may constitute the front side of a hollow metal prism, the rear side of which is covered by a screen i I, as shown in Fig. 2. The second row of antenna sections I8, 2E), 22, etc., inay constitute the front side of a hollow metal prism the rear side of which is covered by a screen I3, as also shown in Fig. 2. The third row of antenna sections 24, 26, etc., may constitute the front side of a hollow metal prism the rear side of which is covered by a screen I5 (Fig. 2), and so on. There will be as many such hollow prisms, the rear sides of which are covered by screens, as there are rows; say, 180. Each or these prisms may be hermetically sealed, and may contain a suitable gas, such as neon, to constitute a gas cell. Each screen I3, I5, etc., may be constituted of darkened transparent material to serve as a suitable weak lter. If neon is 'the gas employed, the lter should be orangecolored. The prisms will be separated from one another by the insulating strips.
The screens II, I3, I5, etc., may be regarded as the single screen of the antenna array 1. Though omitted from Fig. l, this screen is shown embodied in the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 2.
A thin electrode may extend throughout substantially the length of each hollow-prism gas cell. The first or uppermost hollow prism is shown provided with a thin electrode It, the second with a thin electrode 2|, the third with a thin electrode 23, and so on. A bank or array of hollow-prism gas cells is thus provided, all insulated from one another, each of square transverse section and oblong longitudinal section, polished on ve of its inner faces, provided with a screen on the sixth or rear face., 3.11.@ @adi having an elongated electrode extending substantially throughout its length.
The electrodes are shown mounted on the rst and last antenna sections of the respective hollow-prism cells by insulating rings. Thus, the electrode i9 is shown mounted by an insulator ring 35 to the rst section I0, and by the insulator ring 31 to the last section 39, of the first row; the electrode 2| is shown mounted on the rst section I8, by the insulator ring 4|, and by the insulator 43 to the last section 45, of the second row; the electrode 23 is shown mounted by the insulator ring 41 to the iirs't section 2t, and by the insulator 49 to the last section 5|, of the third row; and so on.
Each two adjacently disposed antenna sections are connected together through an ultra-highfrequency isolating element illustratively shown as a choke inductance in the form of a coil 25. Though these choke coils will serve to minimize the coupling, interaction or transfer of radio energy between the antenna elements and thus to prevent discharge between the antenna elements by preventing the flow of radio-frequency energy between adjacently disposed antenna sections, they will not prevent the flow of direct current between them. Each antenna element, therefore, will receive a radio distribution from the distant object 8 that corresponds to a particular area of the object, and that distribution will be undisturbed by the distribution received by adjacent antenna elements. The possibility of interference of the glow produced by one oi the elements with the glow produced by the other elements is further reduced by the use of the individual prismatic glow-tubes before described.
A direct-current voltage may be supplied from any desired source, such as a battery 21, to one side of which one end of each of the electrodes I9, 2|, 23, etc., may be connected by a conductor 29. The left-hand ends of the electrodes I9, 2|, 23, etc., near the insulators 35, 4|, 41, etc., are thus connected in parallel to the conductor 29. The other end of the battery 21 may be connected to the choke coils 25, through a master choke coil 3|, by a conductor 33. The conductor 33 thus connects, through isolating choke coils 25, to each of the antenna sections. The antenna sections are furthermore shown grounded at 53 through the master choke coil 3|, as well as through the individual choke coils 25.
A permanent direct-current striking voltage is thus provided by the battery 21 between the electrodes I9, 2|, 23, etc., and the row of surrounding hollow-prisrn cells or antenna sections, with their radio-receiving elements, of the system. This direct-current voltage is sufficient to serve as the ignition voltage of the gas in the various hollow-prism cells. A glow discharge will thus be established through the gas-discharge neon cells between each electrode and the mirror faces of the hollow-prism antenna cell in which it is enclosed, these mirror faces serving as cathodes.
The totality of pick-up antenna-section units will, of course, all receive the reiiected or scattered radio waves through the lens 5 simultaneously. There will be focused on each antenna section a radio-frequency voltage corresponding to the scattering from a corresponding area of the object 8.
The pick-up elements will thus receive different eld strengths of reflected or scattered radio energy, corrresponding tothe amount or energy reiiected or scattered from the various parts of the object 8 and converged upon the totality of parts of the array of pick-up elements by the lens 5. A radio-energy picturev of the object 8 is thus recorded upon the array, specific elemental areas of which will correspond to specific elemental areas of the object 8, and this specific elemental-area correspondence will be preserved by reason of the fact that there is no discharge between the antenna elements. By means of the present invention, this radio-energy picture may be converted into a visible picture. While it has heretofore been proposed to convert such a radio-energy image into a visual likeness, in accordance with a feature of the present invention, improved results are obtained through the preservation of elemental-area correspondence between the object, the radio-energy image thereof and the likeness produced therefrom.
The received radio energy conducted along the surfaces of the pick-up antennae will disturb or modify the normal relation between the pickup antennae, serving as c'athodes, and the electrodes I9, ZI, 23, etc., serving as anodes of the hollow-prism cells in which they are disposed. The electrodes I9, 2l, 23, etc. do not directly receive the radio energy from space, but, on the contrary, are shielded from space by the antenna elements along the surfaces of which, of course, as before stated, the radio-frequency energy does ow. The glow through the various portions of the neon cells will become correspondingly modified in accordance with the radio-frequency energy received by the corresponding antenna elements.
Two electrodes, an antenna-section cathode and one of the corresponding electrodes I9, ZI, 23, etc., are required to produce the ignition initially from the battery 27. Only a single electrode, however, is needed to ionize a gas by radiofrequency energy. A single-wire conductor inserted in the neon cell, and connected to the antenna section, will therefore serve to ignite the cell. Only the single antenna-section electrode I0, I2, I4, etc., need be excited by the radiofrequency energy, therefore, to produce further gas excitation and ionization. Since these sections IU, I2, I4, etc., are also polished mirrors, they will glow noticeably, reflecting the illumination produced by the gas-discharge glow.
By suitable design, it is possible to operate on a portion of the characteristic of the neon cell such that a nearly linear relationship shall exist between the radio frequency excitation and the illumination or glow intensity of the neon cells, within the range of operation. Such a portion of the characteristic has been found to exist, applicable for use in varying the illumination proportional to the current.
There is a steep linearity between, say, 30v and 55 milliamperes, and again between 50 and 80 milliamperes. The radio-frequency currents that may be employed with this invention are of the order of microamperes; and the linearity is so steep that every microampere may produce its effect.
The radio distribution received by each radioreceiving element may therefore be converted, according to the present invention, into a corresponding light distribution.
The color corresponding to the direct-current excitation is orange. The direct-current voltage of the battery 2l, therefore, produces `an orange glow throughout the system. The color corresponding to the ionization resulting from the radio-frequency excitation. impinging on the antenna. elements, on the other hand, is pink. The radio-frequency energy received by the anenna sections, therefore, will result in modify ing the orange color in the corresponding section by` a pinkish hue, of intensity depending upon the strength of the received radio-frequency energy. The response is very sensitive; even differences of the order of microamperes will produce a difference in this color intensity.
To nx the ideas, consider the cell I 2, for example, where a direct-current poten-tial is established by the battery 21 between the electrode I9 and the antenna section I2. This causes ionization of the neon and a slight orange Vglow between the electrode I9 and the antenna section i2. The impressing of radio-frequency energy at the section I2 will cause the section I2 to glow with an additional modifying pink glow behind the element I2. The intensity of this glow bears a Xed relation to the amount of radio-frequency energy. The orange glow is thus modified by the pink. The mirror surfaces of the section i2 reflect this hue through the screen II.
There will be little or no interference between the glows in the prism-shaped cells behind adjacent antenna sections, because the radio-frequency-exciting electrode gas-glow boundaries between the antenna sections are rather sharply defined. The slightly darkened aspect produced by the orange-colored lters II, i3, I5, etc. will help to keep the daylight olf the gas, thus preventing affecting the ignition characteristics. The weak orange ltering action serves also to help produce the pink glow in response to the radio-frequency signals, ltering out the background of the orange direct-current glow, and thus helping to produce on the bank of holiowprism neon cells the visible image of the object 8 as impressed, in radio-frequency form, on the antenna sections.
As before stated, however, separate neon tubes may be employed, with separate cathodes, connected to the respective radio-receiving elements. A uniform background is attained in this manner. The picture of the object 8 would be visible on the neon cells themselves, if cells separate from the hollow prisms were employed. A striking radio-frequency voltage, moreover, may be applied to the cells from the transmitter 4, suitably attenuated, instead of the directcurrent ignition potential from the battery 2?. The neon cells may, furthermore, be supplied with control-grid electrodes and anodes, omitted from the disclosure for the sake of simplicity. If the radio-frequency signals should be weak, they may be enhanced by means of ampliers 56, 58, etc. between the antennas I 2, 2li, etc. and the neon cells, as shown in Fig. 3. The hollow chambers, and the spacing between the inner electrodes and the antenna sections shown in Figs'. l and 2, however, can provide for resonance and slight amplification. rThis resonance, of course, makes the system quite sensitive to Weak radio elds and the construction .lends itself to the microwave frequencies before mentioned. In all cases, a'likeness corresponding to the radio energy received by the radio-receiving array l of antennae will thus be electromagnetically produced on the screen of the gas-discharge neon cells.
This likeness will be a distinct, definite, sharp visible image of the distant object. The definition of the likeness depends.merelyQupOnthe size of the antenna-elements and theirnumber.
The greater the number of the elements, and the smaller their size, the more sharp the denition.
Not only will this invention provide a picture of the object 8, but it will provide also a rangender, assuming that the size of the object 8 is known. The position of the lens to produce a sharp electromagnetic image on the array 'l of pick-up units, coupled with the sise of the visual image, may be used to deduce the range, by simple geometrical optics. If, for example, the object seen is a lighter, or a bomber, plane, the size of the image divided by the known size of the fighter or bomber, will be proportional to the ratio between the distance of the lens 5 from the bank 'I of antennae, adjusted to obtain clear vision, divided by the distance of the object 8. The range of the object S may also easily be obtained by monitoring the pulse emission and reliection, if radio pulses are used, on a separate oscilloscope, according to common practice.
Although the invention has been described in connection with antennae arranged in rows and columns, it will be understood that this is not essential, for other arrangements are also possible. Antennae arranged along concentric circles covering the eld, or a continuous spiral, will also serve.
Further modifications will occur to persons skilled in the art, and all such are considered to fall within the spirit and scope of the invention, as dened in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
l. An electric system having, in combination, a plurality of insulated radio-receiving elements, choke inductance means for preventing transfer of energy between the elements, and means for producing a likeness corresponding to the enegy distribution received by the radio-receiving elements.
2. An electric system having, in combination, a plurality of radio-receiving elements, means for preventing transfer of radio-frequency energy between the elements, gas-discharge means having portions associated with the corresponding elements, electrode means, means for shielding the electrode means from direct reception of the received radio-frequency energy, means for producing a glow discharge between the elements and the electrode means through the gasdischarge means, and means for modifying the glow discharge through the gas-discharge means in accordance with the radio-frequency energy received by the corresponding elements to produce a likeness corresponding to the energy distribution received by the radio-receiving elements.
3. An electric system having, in combination, a plurality of radio-receiving elements, electrode means, means for shielding the electrode means from direct reception of the received radiofrequency energy, means for producing a directcurrent potential between the elements and the electrode means, means for producing a glow discharge between the elements and the electrode means, and means for producing a likeness corresponding to the energy distribution received by the radio-receiving elements.
4. An electric system having, in combination, an electric circuit having an anode and a cathode, two members respectively connected to the anode and the cathode, 'one of the members comprising a plurality of radio-receiving elements for receiving radio waves from an object,
8 the other member comprising gas-discharge means having portions connected with the corresponding elements, and means controlled by the radio waves received by the elements for energizing the gas-discharge means to produce a likeness of the object.
5. An electric system having, in combination, means for receiving radio waves, gas-discharge means, means for producing a background-color gas discharge through the gas-discharge means, means controlled by the received radio waves for modifying the background color of the gas discharge with another color, and means for ltering out the background color.
6. An electric system having, in combination. means for receiving radio waves, neon-gas-discharge means, means for producing an orangebackground-color gas discharge through the neon-gas-discharge means, means controlled by the received radio waves for pinkishly modifying the orange color of the neon-gas-discharge, and means for iiltering out the orange-background color.
7. An electric system having, in combination, means for receiving radio waves from an object, means for focusing the waves upon the receiving means to produce upon the receiving means a radio-energy likeness speclc elemental areas of which correspond to specic elemental areas oi the object, the receiving means being provided with interaction-preventing means to maintain the said specific elemental-area correspondence, and means controlled by the receiving means for converting each said elemental area on the receiving means into a visible elemental area, thereby to produce a visible likeness of the object.
8. An electric system having, in combination, means for converging radio waves from an object, a plurality of radio-receivingvelements disposed in rows and columns adapted to be disposed simultaneously in the path of the radio waves converged from the object so as simultaneously to receive the radio waves from the object, each radio-receiving element corresponding to a predetermined elemental portion of the object from which elemental portion it receives radio waves, a column of illuminating elements, each illuminating element being connected to a row of radioreceiving elements, and means controlled by each radio-receiving element in accordance with the radio waves received thereby from the corresponding elemental portion of the obj ect for producing upon the corresponding illuminating element a likeness of the said corresponding elemental portion of the object.
9. An electric system having, in combination, means for converging microwaves from an object, a plurality of dielectric-filled microwave-receiving elements bounded by conducting walls and adapted to be disposed simultaneously in the path of the microwaves converged from an object so as simultaneously to receive the said microwaves from the object, each microwave-receiving element corresponding to a predetermined elemental portion of the object from which elemental .portion it receives micro-waves, and means controlled by each microwave-receiving element in accordance with the microwaves received thereby from the corresponding elemental portion of the object for producing a likeness of the said corresponding elemental portion of the object.
l0. An electric system having, in combination, means having a plurality of parts for receiving radio waves, means for converging radio waves from an object upon all the parts of the receiving means to produce on the totality of parts of the receiving means a radio-wave likeness of the object, whereby each of the parts of the receiving means corresponds to a predetermined elemental portion of the object from which elemental portion it receives the converged radio waves, means for preventing the transfer of radio-wave energy between the parts, and means controlled in accordance with the radio waves converged upon each radio-receiving part from the corresponding elemental portion of the object for producing a likeness of the said corresponding elemental portion of the object.
11. An electric system having, in combination, a plurality of radio-receiving elements for receiving radio waves, the elements being of dimensions resonant'I to the radio waves, gas-discharge means connecting with the receiving elements, means connectedwith the gas-discharge means for producing a luminous indication along the dimensions of each of the radio-receiving elements of the radio Waves received by the corresponding element, and means for preventing interference between the radio-wave energy received by each of the elements.
12. An electric system having, in combination, means for receiving radio waves comprising a mirror-like surface for reflecting the illumination produced by a glow discharge, and gas-discharge means connected with the mirror-like surface for producing a glow discharge at the mirror-like surface that may be reflected thereby corresponding to the radio energy received by the radio-receiving means.
13. An electric system having, in combination, a plurality of radio-receiving elements for receiving radio waves, electrode means spaced from the radio-receiving elements a distance sufficient to produce resonance to the radio waves between the radio-receiving elements and the electrode means, and gas-discharge means connected with the spaced means for producing a likeness of the radio-wave energy received by the radio-receiving elements.
14. An electric system having, in combination, plurality of radio-receiving elements adopted to be disposed simultaneously in the path of radio waves from an object so as simultaneously to receive the radio waves from the object, a plurality of gas-discharge means one corresponding to each of the radio-receiving elements, a plurality of amplifying means for connecting the respective radio-receiving elements to the respective gasdischarge means, and means connected with the amplifying means for producing a likeness of the object upon the gas-discharge means` 15. An electric system having, in combination, a two-dimensional array of gas-discharge elements, radio-receiving means for receiving radio waves from an object, and amplifying means connected with the receiving means and connecting the receiving means to the gas-discharge ele- 10 ments for producing a likeness of the object upon the array of gas-discharge elements.
16. An electric system having, in combination, a plurality of radio-receiving elements, means for preventing transfer of radio-frequency energy between the elements, means for amplifying the energy received by the elements, and means connected with the amplifying means for producing a likeness corresponding to the energy distribution received by the radio-receiving elements.
17. An electric system having, in combination, dielectric-lled radio-wave receiving means bounded in part by conducting walls, conducting means spaced within the dielectric from one of the conducting walls to produce resonance to the received radio waves, and means connected with the radio-wave receiving means and the conducting means and responsive to the received radio waves for producing a likeness corresponding to the radio-wave energy received by the radio-wave receiving means.
18. In a radio-wave receiving system having a plurality of radio-receiving means and gas-discharge means, apparatus of the character described that comprises means for producing a background glow discharge within the gas-discharge means, means for converging radio waves upon the plurality of radio-receiving means, means for conducting the radio waves converged upon the radio-receiving means within the gasdischarge means, means for modifying the glow discharge in the gas-discharge means in accordance with the received radio Waves, and means for preventing the transfer of radio-wave energy between the radio-receiving means.
19. In a radio-wave system having a plurality of radio-receiving means and gas-discharge means, apparatus of the character described that comprises means for producing a background glow discharge within the gas-discharge means, means for impinging radio waves upon the radioreceiving means, means for conducting the radio waves impinged upon the radio-receiving means within the gas-discharge means, means for resonating the received, radio Waves within the gasdischarge means to modify the glow discharge in the gas-discharge means in accordance with the received radio waves, and means for preventing the transfer of radio-wave energy between the radio-receiving means.
ROBERT HARVEY RINES.
References Cit-ed in the iile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,015,885 Dallenbach Oct. 1, 1935 2,083,292 Cawley June 8, 1937 2,123,242 Hallmann July 12, 1938 2,155,471 Cawley Apr. 25, 1939 2,168,566 Goldsmith Aug. 8, 1939 2,395,850 Colman Mar. 5, 1946 2,396,112 Morgan Mar. 5, 1946
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Cited By (3)

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US3122742A (en) * 1957-11-22 1964-02-25 Diamond Antenna & Microwave Co Radio frequency to light frequency transducer
US3246244A (en) * 1962-12-10 1966-04-12 Frank M Darrow Apparatus for determining the field pattern of a high frequency radiation field
EP3485294A4 (en) * 2016-07-17 2020-02-26 B.G. Negev Technologies and Applications Ltd., at Ben-Gurion University Upconversion system for imaging and communication

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US2083292A (en) * 1930-01-30 1937-06-08 Aloysius J Cawley Diavision
US2123242A (en) * 1935-12-20 1938-07-12 Telefunken Gmbh Ultrashort wave receiver
US2155471A (en) * 1931-03-19 1939-04-25 Aloysius J Cawley Fog and mist penetrating device
US2168566A (en) * 1937-07-30 1939-08-08 Alfred N Goldsmith Television system
US2395850A (en) * 1943-09-18 1946-03-05 Government Of The United Sates Means for indicating the presence of radio frequency fields
US2396112A (en) * 1943-09-02 1946-03-05 Curtis Engineering Company Radio navigation system and method

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US2083292A (en) * 1930-01-30 1937-06-08 Aloysius J Cawley Diavision
US2155471A (en) * 1931-03-19 1939-04-25 Aloysius J Cawley Fog and mist penetrating device
US2015885A (en) * 1932-04-22 1935-10-01 Meaf Mach En Apparaten Fab Nv Method of producing a source of light
US2123242A (en) * 1935-12-20 1938-07-12 Telefunken Gmbh Ultrashort wave receiver
US2168566A (en) * 1937-07-30 1939-08-08 Alfred N Goldsmith Television system
US2396112A (en) * 1943-09-02 1946-03-05 Curtis Engineering Company Radio navigation system and method
US2395850A (en) * 1943-09-18 1946-03-05 Government Of The United Sates Means for indicating the presence of radio frequency fields

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3122742A (en) * 1957-11-22 1964-02-25 Diamond Antenna & Microwave Co Radio frequency to light frequency transducer
US3246244A (en) * 1962-12-10 1966-04-12 Frank M Darrow Apparatus for determining the field pattern of a high frequency radiation field
EP3485294A4 (en) * 2016-07-17 2020-02-26 B.G. Negev Technologies and Applications Ltd., at Ben-Gurion University Upconversion system for imaging and communication
US11099126B2 (en) 2016-07-17 2021-08-24 B. G. Negev Technologies And Applications Ltd., At Ben-Gurion University Upconversion system comprising a glow discharge device (GDD) for imaging and communication

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