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US2666979A - Method for attaching members by vacuum pressure - Google Patents

Method for attaching members by vacuum pressure Download PDF

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Publication number
US2666979A
US2666979A US1336848A US2666979A US 2666979 A US2666979 A US 2666979A US 1336848 A US1336848 A US 1336848A US 2666979 A US2666979 A US 2666979A
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Prior art keywords
pressure
ring
shell
shells
inner
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Expired - Lifetime
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Laurence W Van Dusen
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DUSEN ENGINEERING Co VAN
VAN DUSEN ENGINEERING Co
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DUSEN ENGINEERING Co VAN
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A47FURNITURE; DOMESTIC ARTICLES OR APPLIANCES; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; SUCTION CLEANERS IN GENERAL
    • A47JKITCHEN EQUIPMENT; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; APPARATUS FOR MAKING BEVERAGES
    • A47J31/00Apparatus for making beverages
    • A47J31/44Parts or details or accessories of beverage-making apparatus
    • A47J31/50Urns with devices for keeping beverages hot or cool
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A47FURNITURE; DOMESTIC ARTICLES OR APPLIANCES; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; SUCTION CLEANERS IN GENERAL
    • A47JKITCHEN EQUIPMENT; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; APPARATUS FOR MAKING BEVERAGES
    • A47J41/00Thermally-insulated vessels, e.g. flasks, jugs, jars
    • A47J41/02Vacuum-jacket vessels, e.g. vacuum bottles
    • A47J41/022Constructional details of the elements forming vacuum space
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A47FURNITURE; DOMESTIC ARTICLES OR APPLIANCES; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; SUCTION CLEANERS IN GENERAL
    • A47JKITCHEN EQUIPMENT; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; APPARATUS FOR MAKING BEVERAGES
    • A47J41/00Thermally-insulated vessels, e.g. flasks, jugs, jars
    • A47J41/02Vacuum-jacket vessels, e.g. vacuum bottles
    • A47J41/022Constructional details of the elements forming vacuum space
    • A47J41/024Constructional details of the elements forming vacuum space made of glass
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A47FURNITURE; DOMESTIC ARTICLES OR APPLIANCES; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; SUCTION CLEANERS IN GENERAL
    • A47JKITCHEN EQUIPMENT; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; APPARATUS FOR MAKING BEVERAGES
    • A47J2203/00Devices having filling level indicating means
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A47FURNITURE; DOMESTIC ARTICLES OR APPLIANCES; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; SUCTION CLEANERS IN GENERAL
    • A47JKITCHEN EQUIPMENT; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; APPARATUS FOR MAKING BEVERAGES
    • A47J41/00Thermally-insulated vessels, e.g. flasks, jugs, jars
    • A47J41/0038Thermally-insulated vessels, e.g. flasks, jugs, jars comprising additional heating or cooling means, i.e. use of thermal energy in addition to stored material
    • A47J41/005Thermally-insulated vessels, e.g. flasks, jugs, jars comprising additional heating or cooling means, i.e. use of thermal energy in addition to stored material comprising heat or cold producing means, i.e. energy transfer from outside the vessel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S29/00Metal working
    • Y10S29/044Vacuum
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49805Shaping by direct application of fluent pressure
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49826Assembling or joining
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49826Assembling or joining
    • Y10T29/49879Spaced wall tube or receptacle

Description

Jan. 26, 1954 w VAN DUSEN 2,666,979

METHOD FOR ATTACHING MEMBERS BY VACUUM PRESSURE 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 6, 1948 3' G Di 0. I70

INVENTOR. I wJJT' 4/21/11, BY

ATTORNEYS 1954 L. w. VAN DUSEN METHOD FOR ATTACHING MEMBERS BY VACUUM PRESSURE '2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 6, 1948 JNVENTOR.

Jx/ihm/l u/wn Patented Jan. 26, 1954 2,666,979 METHOD FOR ATTACHIN G MEMBERS BY VACUUM PR Laurence W. Van Dusen,

signor to Van ESSURE San Diego, Calif., as-

Dusen Engineering Company,

San Diego, Calif., a copartnership Application March 6, 1948, Serial No. 13,368 4 Claims. (Cl. 229-1482) This invention relates to the use of vacuum pressure for securing members in assembled relation. This invention finds usefulness in a number of difierent fields and is particularly useful in connection with vacuum insulated containers and in securing together structural units composed of glass, tile, ceramics, and vitreous products generally, as well as plastic materials and metallic materials.

An important object of this invention is to provide a new and improved method for securing together structural or other members by vacuum pressure.

Another object is to provide new and improved forms of vacuum insulated containers.

A further object is to provide a novel form of resilient sealing ring adapted to be confined between members secured in assembled relation by suction pressure.

A more detailed object is to provide an improved sealing ring and mounting therefor for attaching a plurality of members forming a composite container in assembled relation by means of suction pressure.

Other objects and advantages will appear here inafter.

In the drawings:

Figure l is a side elevation partly in section showing a vacuum insulated container embodying my invention.

Figure 2 is a sectional plan view taken substantially on the line 2-2, as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 3 is a sectional detail partly broken away showing the method of withdrawing air from space between nesting container shells in accordance with my invention, and also illustrating a preferred type of resilient seal ring.

Figure 4 is a view similar to Figure 3 illustrating the container parts as held in assembled relation by vacuum pressure.

Figure 5 is a side elevation partly in section showing a modified form of vacuum insulated container such as, for example, a coffee pot.

Figure 6 is a sectional detail of the seal ring and mounting employed in connection with the device shown in Figure 5, prior to extraction of air between the container shells.

Figure 7 is a view similar to Figure 6 showing the parts in assembled relation under vacuum pressure.

Figure 8 is a perspective view of an item of household furniture having various component parts maintained in assembled relation by means of the process and apparatus embodying my invention.

Figure 9 is a sectional view partly broken away taken substantia y on the lines 99, as shown in Figure 8.

Figure 10 is a side elevation partly in section showing a further modified form of vacuum insulated container embodyin my invention.

Figure 11 is a sectional detail partly broken away showing on an enlarged scale the sealing ring and associated parts used in connection with the device illustrated in Figure 10.

Figure 12 is a partial perspective view showing details of the hinge construction of the device shown in Figure 10.

Figure 13 is a sectional elevation showing the application of my invention to a skylight construction.

Referring to the drawings, the ice bucket shown in Figures 1 to 4 illustrates a preferred embodiment of materials such as glass, tile, and other vitreous substances. Accordingly, the outer shell it and the inner shell l I may be constructed of glass.

chamber I2 therebetween. is provided with an outwardly extending lip I3 which may extend into a recess M provided in the upper portion of the outer shell it. Parallel shoulders or radial surfaces l5 and it on the inner and outer shells respectively cooperate with the shells to define a cavity l? which encircles the inner shell ll. As shown in the drawings, the shells are circular in cross-section, and accordingly the cavity ii is annular in shape.

Means are provided for sealing the clearance the inner shell II.

this means includes mounted within the annular cavity i 7 and adapteddtoscontact the juxtapositioned shoulders an pressure to the hose 2! and needle 20. The device 22 may include a vacuum pressure gage 23 and a valve 24 leading to a line 25 connected to a source of vacuum pressure. Accordingly, when the valve M is opened, suction in the hose 2! and needle 20 serves to evacuate the space #2 between the inner and outer shells and thereby compress the resilient rubber-like sealing ring iii. The ring I8 then may take the shape illustrated in Figure 4.

While it is recognized that rings of conventional circular cross section may be employed in connection with my invention, I prefer to use rings having a noncircular cross-section such as, for example, as shown in Figures 3, 6 and 9. Each of these forms of sealing rings has a central body section and a plurality of outwardly extending lips which initially contact the adjacent shoulders 15 and Hi.

The construction is such that the lips form an adequate seal to permit evacuation of the space l2 to proceed, and after a pressure differential is established between the space if and the interior of the shell H the sealing ring is distorted sufficiently to bring the central body portion into contact with the shoulders l5 and I8. As shown in Figure 3, the lips 26 initially contact the shoulders l5 and IE, and a relatively light endwise force is sufficient to effect an initial seal. When a large pressure differential is established between the space l2 and the interior the shell II, the ring is distorted as shown in Figure 4. This feature has been found to be highly advantageous, since the space between the shoulders l5 and i6 may not absolutely uniform, particularly if glass is employed as the material for the shells, and hence the provision of the lips 26 enables an initial seal to be effected between the shells even though some irregularity of the surfaces l5 and it exists.

When the space l2 has been evacuated to the desired degree, the hollow needle 20 is simply withdrawn through the opening I9. The pierced hole in the rubber-like ring it promptly seals itself under the force exerted by the pressure differential. It will be observed that a relatively small difference in pressure will produce a relatively large force, because the mounting of the ring is such that the full effective end area of the inner shell including the lip I3 is available to atmospheric pressure. Accordingly, the unit pressure on the rubber ring is relatively high, and an effective seal of the puncture is easily maintained.

For example, it may be shown that the pressure tending to seal the ring against the flanges is equal to 7T72P, where r is the mean radius of a circular rubber washer and P is the atmospheric pressure. The area of the rubber on which this pressure is acting is equal to 1r-d-w, where d is the diameter of the circular rubber washer and w is the width across a section of the washer. The total pressure L! in p. s. i. tending to seal the rubber washer equals the total pressure acting divided by the area of the rubber on which this pressure is acting.

Hence U==( On an 8" diameter circle using a rubber ring in width across a section, the total sealing,

pressure is approximately 240 p. s. i., theunit pressure tending to cause the leak to be atmospheric, or approximately 15 p. s. i. Accordingly, an effective sealing action is accomplished.

The inner surface 21 of the outer shell Ill may be silvered prior to assembly with the inner shell II. This silvering not only lends an attractive appearance to the device but is effective in reflecting a major portion of radiant energy which might otherwise be transmitted through the shells to heat the contents of the inner shell H. Since the silvering operation can be accomplished before assembly of the shells, it is possible to effect substantial manufacturing economies in applying the silver coating to the inner surface of the shell H).

A lid 28 of any suitable or desirable shape may be provided to close the opening in the upper end of the inner shell i i. This lid 28 may rest on the upper surface 29 of the lip 13. The vacuum insulated container provided by the nesting shells it and H may be used for any suitable or. desirable purpose such as, for example, as a container for cracked ice or ice cubes. By suitably proportioning the inner and outer shells a vacuum insulated drinking glass may be provided. It will be understood that the lid 28 may be omitted if desired.

In Figures 5, 6 and 1 I have shown details of coffee making apparatus which may employ essential features of my invention. Inner and outer nesting shells 30 and Si respectively are provided, and these shells define a clearance space 32 therebetween. The shells may be formed of glass or any other suitable material. Anannular cavity 33 is formed between shoulders 34 i and, 35, and a resilient rubber-like sealing rin 38 is positioned in the cavity. Lips 31 on the ring contact the shoulders initially, and uponinsertion of the hollow needle 20 through the port 31 and through the body of the ring 36 the space 32 may be partially evacuated to compress the ring 36 to the distorted shape illustrated in Figure '7. Upon withdrawal of the hollow needle 20 the end pressure between the shoulders 34 and seals the puncture in the ring and permits no leakage whatever. To this extent the device shown in Figure 5 is similar to that describedin connection with Figures 1 to 4 above.

A. basket-type insert generally designated 38 may be positioned within the inner shell 3|. This insert may be of conventional style and includes a. circular perforated container 39 mounted on tube 40 and provided with a flanged base 4|. Ground coffee placed in the container 38 is subjected to so-called percolator action when the fluid within the inner shell 3[ is heated. The lid 42 may include the usual sight indicator 43 for observing the percolating action. The lid 42 may rest on the upper surface of the shell 3|, or if desired may be pivotally mounted on the outer shell in any convenient fashion. A suitable form of handle 5!! may be attached to the outer shell as shown.

In order to heat the contents of the inner shell 3 I, I prefer to provide a heat lamp 44 adapted to direct radiant energy through the bottom 45 of the outer shell 30 across the space 32 and. through the bottom 46 of the inner shell 31. The surface of the bottom 46 may be coated with black paint or other heat absorbing medium 41. This coating may be applied before the inner shell 3| is placed in assembled relation within the outer shell 30. If desired, the lamp 44 may be enclosed within a reflector casing 48 which. is adapted to support the outer shell 30. Electric energy for the lamp 44 may be provided through the lead wires 49.

After the cofiee making cycle has been completed, the lamp may be extinguished and the insert unit 38 and contents withdrawn from the interior of the shell 3|. The coffee pot unit generally designated 5| and including the inner and outer shells and lid 42 then may be carried from place to place by means of the handle 50. The coffee stays hot because of the insulating charactor of the evacuated space 32.

As shown in Figures 8 and 9, the method and apparatus pertaining to my invention may be advantageously used in the assembly of structural units. The coffee table generally designated 60 may include a slab 6| which serves as the upper surface of the table. This slab may be formed of a laminated plastic material such as, for example, Bakelite, or if desired may be formed of glass or other vitreous product. The legs of the table may be conveniently formed of commercially available glass building blocks 62 and 63. Assembly of blocks 62 and 63 and slab 6! is readily accomplished by providing a rubberlike resilient gasket or sealing ring 64 between adjacent ends of the blocks and between the blocks 62 and the slab 6|. Evacuation of the air between the blocks then results in a permanent assembly held together by suction pressure.

The evacuation may be conveniently efiected by means of the hollow needle 2!] and associated parts shown in Figure 3. The needle is inserted through the central body portion of the seal ring 64 between the outwardly extending lips 65. When the air pressure between the glass blocks has been reduced sufficiently the needle is simply withdrawn. The effective end area of the block is sufiiciently large in relation to the size of the seal ring 64 to' develop a relatively large squeezing force on the ring, and the puncture in the ring is thus effectively sealed. The crosssection of the ring 64 difiers from those shown in Figures 3 and 6, but

even though the adjacent surfaces of the blocks may not be uniformly spaced.

It will thus be understood that by means of the advantages flowing from my invention the various structural elements of the table may be secured together without requiring unsightly bolts, screws, or attachment fittings, and no attachment holes need be drilled or otherwise provided.

The vacuum insulated container shown in Figures 10, 11 and 12 employs a U shaped annular sealing ring 10. This ring has an upper lip 1| adapted to seal against the outwardly directed flange 12 on the upper end of the inner shell 13. The lower lip 14 seals against the inwardly di rected flange 15 on the upper end of the outer shell 16. The space between the lips 1| and 14 receives an inwardly directed ledge 11 provided on the rim member 18. The arrangement of the flanges 12 and 15 and the ledge 11 is such that the single rubber-like ring 10 is enabled to hold the rim member 18 and inner and outer shells 13 and 16 in assembled relation. 7

Evacuation of the space 19 between the shells 13 and 1B is accomplished by inserting the ho]- low needle 20 into the aperture and through the lower lip 14. When the air pressure has been lowered sufiiciently within the space 19, the needle 20 is withdrawn. The relatively large squeezing force produced by atmospheric pressure acting over the maximum diameter of the inner shell 13 then acts to seal effectively the puncture left by the hollow needle 20. An important feature of this construction is that the rim member 18 and ledge 11 may be formed of somewhat porous material without affecting the air-tight seal between the shells 13 and 16. {Thus the rim member and ledge may be formed as a metallic die casting, if desired, and any possible porosity would have no bad elfects.

The rim member 18 may be provided with a plurality of laterally extending fingers 8| carrying a hinge pin 82 near their outer ends. A cover assembly generally designated 83 is mounted on the hinge pin 82, and this assembly includes a closure 84 adapted to seat on the upper portion of the rim member 18. A forwardly extending handle 85 is provided for raising and lowering the closure 84 about the hinge pin 82. A pair of crusher jaws 86 may be carried on the assembly 83 and adapted to enter the spaces between the fingers 8|. The jaws 86 and fingers 8! thus cooperate to provide an effective device for crushing ice cubes. The ice cubes may be stored within the vacuum insulated container and withdrawn for crushing as needed. It will be noted that when the closure 84 is in closed position the jaws 85 extend completely through the spaces between the fingers 8|, and hence all of the crushed ice is ejected when the handle 85 is lowered.

The skylight construction shown in Figure 13 illustrates another use of the method and apparatus embodying my invention. Glass plates SI and 92 are held in assembled relation by means of a partial vacuum in the space 93 between them. The plates are separated by a sealing ring 94 which may be U-shaped in cross-section to receive an inwardly protruding ledge 95. The ledge 95 may form part of the structural framework of the building, and any porosity of the material from which the ledge is constructed does not aifect the air-tight seal between the plates 9! and. 92. The space 93 is evacuated by means of a hollow needle in the manner described above in connection with Figure 11. A relatively simple yet effective mounting for a light is thus provided without requiring the use of conventional attachment fittings.

Other uses for my improved method of attaching members by vacuum pressure are also contemplated. Thus, for example, a towel rack may be rigidly attached to a tile, porcelain or enamelled surface without the necessity of drilling holes for attachment bolts or fittings. Also fixtures may be attached to glass or brick walls and the mounting of mirrors may be simplified by means of my invention. Mounting oifice equipment on metal filing cabinets, the assembly of plastic glass or metal lamp bases, assembly of moisture-proofdust-tight display cases are otherillustrations of the application of the essential features of my invention. The attachment achieved is permanent in character, sincesynthetic rubber-like materials, such as for example neoprene, are available which show little if any deterioration upon long exposure to air at ordinary temperatures. Such materials effectively withstand temperatures as high as that of boiling water, and hence the sealrings illustrated in connection with the coifee maker in Fig. 5 and skylight in Figure 13 have practically indefinite length of service life.

The source of suction pressure for the hollow needle 20 may be a suction pump, either power Weatherproof sky- 7. driven or 'manually operated. In many cases suction pressure developed by the mouth of the operator may be adequate. Suction may also be generated by the action of a venturi. The needle itself may take that form of a commercially available hypodermic needle, and hence is of such small diameter as to leave a puncture of minimum size.

Having fully described my invention, it is to be understood that I do not wish to be limited to the details herein set forth, but my invention is of the full scope of the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. The method of securing together inner and outer nesting shells of a double wall container, comprising steps of providing a counterbore within the wall at the mouth of the outer shell, said counterbore having a radial surface, forming an aperture in said wall communicating with the counterbore, providing a peripheral lip on the wall. at the mouth of the inner shell so that the lip be received within the counterbore, saidlip having a radial surface, inserting a distortable rubber-like sealing ring in the counterbore between said radial surfaces on said wall and said lip, holding said radial surfaces in contact with said sealing ring to form an initial seal therebetween, projecting a hollow needle laterally through said aperture and through the sealing ring to puncture said sealing ring and establish communication with the space between said nesting shells, applying suction pressure to said hollow needle to evacuate said space, and withdrawing the needle laterally through the aperture to permit the longitudinal squeezing force on the sealing ring developed by atmos pheric pressure acting upon the exterior of the shells to seal the needle puncture in the sealing ring to prevent disassembly of the shells.

2. The method of securing together inner and outer nesting shells of a double wall container, the outer shell having an axially extending wall with a radial surface defining an annular recess for reception of a peripheral lip on the inner container, said lip having a radial surface, and the wall having an aperture extending therethrough and communicating with said recess, the steps comprising: inserting a distortable rubberlike sealing ring inthe recess between said radial surfaces on said wall and said lip, holding said radial surfaces in contact with said sealing ring to form an initial seal therebetween, projecting a hollow needle laterally through said aperture andthrough the sealing ring to puncture said sealingring and establish communication with the space between said nesting shells, applying suction pressure to said hollow needle to evacuate said. space, and withdrawing the needle laterally through the aperture to permit the longitudinal squeezing force on the sealing ring developed by atmospheric pressure acting upon the exterior of the shells to seal the needle puncture in the sealing ring and to prevent disassembly of the shells.

3. The method of securing together inner and outer non-porous nesting shells of a double wall container together with a separate porous rim member on the outer shell, comprising the steps of providing inwardly directed flanges on the outer shell and rim member and an outwardly directed flange on the inner shell, inserting a distortable gasket U-shaped in cross-sectioned that the flange on the rim member is received between the legs of the U and so that the shell flanges engage above and below the gasket, holding the flanges in contact with the gasket to form an initial seal therebetween, projectinga hollow needle laterally through one leg of said 4. The method of securing together inner and outer non-porous nesting shells of a double wall container together with a separate porous rim member on the outer shell, comprising the steps of providing inwardly directed flanges on the outer shell and rim member and an outwardly directed flange on the inner shell, inserting a distortable gasket U-shaped in cross-section so that the flange on the rim member is received between the legs of the U and so that the shell flanges engage above and below the gasket, said rim having an aperture in the same plane as one leg of the gasket, holding the flanges in contact with the gasket to form an initial seal therebetween, projecting a hollow needle laterally through the aperture in the rim and" through one leg of said gasket to puncture said gasket and establish communication with the space between said nesting shells, applying suction pressure to said hollow needle to evacuate} said space, and withdrawing the needle laterally to permit the longitudinal squeezing force on the gasket developed by atmospheric pressure acting upon the exterior of the shells to seal the needle puncture in the gasket and to prevent disassembly of the shells and rim member.

LAURENCE W. VAN DUSEN.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 220,642 Murphin Oct. 14, 1 379, 595,311 Johnson Dec. 14, 1897 962,710 Levin June 28, 1910 999,672 Puffer Aug. 1, 1911 1,041,028 Church Oct. 15, 1912 1,130,679 Staunton Mar. 2, 1915 1,199,772 Engel Oct. 3, 1916 1,459,675 James June 19, 1923 1,509,916 Waite Sept. 30, 1924 1,675,258 Dawsey June 26, 1939. 2,181,240 Kimble Nov. 28, 1939 2,183,944 Salisbury Dec. 19, 1939 2,187,395 Glocker Jan. 16, 1940 2,244,697 Hell June 10, 1941' 2,349,588 Brand May 23, 1944 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 318,116 Germany Jan. 13, 1920 620,292 France Apr. 19, 1927 623,620 Germany Dec. 30, 1935 189,637 Switzerland May 18, 1937

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US3062140A (en) * 1959-06-22 1962-11-06 Bista Inc Internal lock
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US3376625A (en) * 1965-07-19 1968-04-09 Mac Bee Engineering Inc Method of making fluid pulsation dampeners
US3412888A (en) * 1967-09-15 1968-11-26 Sinclair Koppers Co Combination container and tray
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US4348581A (en) * 1979-08-17 1982-09-07 Karl Fischer Electric hotplate
FR2596634A1 (en) * 1986-04-07 1987-10-09 Arques Verrerie Cristallerie Recipient insulated glass
EP0477669A1 (en) * 1990-09-12 1992-04-01 EAGLE FLASK INDUSTRIES Ltd. Vacuum vessel with heat input portal
US6308846B1 (en) * 1996-07-25 2001-10-30 Thewi Holding B.V. Double-walled bottle
US20050211711A1 (en) * 2004-03-23 2005-09-29 Reid Aarne H Vacuum insulated structures
US20140090737A1 (en) * 2012-10-03 2014-04-03 Concept Group Inc. Vacuum Insulated Structure With End Fitting And Method Of Making Same

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