US2664852A - Vapor coating apparatus - Google Patents

Vapor coating apparatus Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2664852A
US2664852A US15842350A US2664852A US 2664852 A US2664852 A US 2664852A US 15842350 A US15842350 A US 15842350A US 2664852 A US2664852 A US 2664852A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
aluminum
temperature
low
high
zone
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Jr Earl E Chadsey
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
NAT RES CORP
National Research Corp
Original Assignee
NAT RES CORP
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/22Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the process of coating
    • C23C14/24Vacuum evaporation
    • C23C14/246Replenishment of source material
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/22Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the process of coating
    • C23C14/24Vacuum evaporation
    • C23C14/26Vacuum evaporation by resistance or inductive heating of the source

Description

Jan. 5, 1954 E. E. CHADSEY, JR 2,664,852

VAPOR COATING APPARATUS Filed April 27, 1950 IN V EN TOR.

0mm. w

ATTORNEY Patented Jan. 5, 1954 VAPOR COATING APPARATUS Earl E. Chadsey, Jr., Newton, Mass., assignor to National Research Corporation, Cambridge, Mass., a corporation of Massachusetts Application April 27, 1950, Serial N0. 158,423

1 Claim.

This invention relates to coating and more particularly to vacuum-deposition coating of the type wherein a metal, such as aluminum, is vaporized in a vacuum and the vapors thereof are condensed on a substrate which is moved past the source of the metal vapors.

In vacuum-deposition coating, it is desired to have a relatively large source of the coating metal, such as aluminum, so that large areas of substrate may be coated without shutting down the operation of the coating device. In the prior art this problem has been approached in several ways. In one prior art method, a large source of the metal, such as aluminum, is provided and vaporization takes place from the whole source. In another method, a relatively small source of aluminum is provided and aluminum is fed thereto in solid form.

In the first prior art method the radiant heat transferred to the substrate is very excessive unless the aluminum is heated to a high temperature. However, heating to this high temperature has the disadvantage that the rate of vapor emission at these high temperatures is so great that the substrate must be moved at an impracticably high speed past the source. This first method also has the disadvantage that aluminum at high temperatures is very reactive with practically all materials, and the containers that hold such high temperature aluminum require special surface coatings to prevent reaction between the aluminum and the container. In the second method, Where solid aluminum is fed to the vapor source, this feeding has numerous disadvantages. In the first place, the solid aluminum may cause a vapor shadow which interferes with the uniformity of the coating operation. In the second place, this feeding involves a relatively complex control of the amount of feed. In the third place, this feeding of cold metal is apt to cause considerable changes in the temperature of the aluminum being evaporated, thereby changing the rate of vapor emission.

Accordingly, it is a principal object of the present invention to provide an improved process for vapor-deposition coating with metals, such as aluminum, wherein the above-mentioned disadvantages are overcome.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved process for vapor-deposition coating of the above type wherein a large supply of mol ten metal is maintained within the vacuum coating chamber, but only a small portion of the surface of the molten metal is used for vaporizing the metal.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved vacuum-deposition coating apparatus which provides for accurate coating control by providing a steady vapor stream, which permits a high temperature of evaporation of the metal, and which can operate over a long period of time.

Other objects of the invention will in part be obvious and will in part appear hereinafter.

The invention accordingly comprises the process involving the several steps and the relation and the order of one or more of such steps with respect to each of the others, and the apparatus possessing the construction, combination of elements and arrangement of parts which are exem plified in the following detailed disclosure, and the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the claims.

For a fuller understanding of the nature and objects of the invention, reference should be had to the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing wherein:

Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic, schematic, partially sectional view of one embodiment of the invention; and

Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic, schematic, partially sectional view of an alternative embodiment of the invention.

In the practice of the present invention there is provided a usual vacuum coating chamber which can be evacuated to pressures in the micron range. Within this chamber, or adjacent thereto, there is provided a large body of the metal to be coated by vacuum-deposition procedures. In a preferred form of the invention this metal comprises aluminum, and for simplicity of description aluminum will be referred to hereafter.

This large body of aluminum is preferably positioned in a container which can be heated to a point somewhat above the melting point of aluminum so as to maintain the aluminum therein in a molten condition. Associated with the container for holding this relatively large body of molten aluminum, there is provided an evaporating zone in which the aluminum may be heated to a relatively high temperature, on the order of 1300 C. or above. At this temperature the heat transmitted by radiation from a unit area of the evaporating metal surface to a unit area of the substrate is less than the heat trans: mitted to a unit area of the substrate by the vapors condensing thereon. This evaporating rating area so that the vapor emission rate from the total area will not be too high, it being apparent that extremely high total vapor emission rates require unduly high substrate speeds. In practicing the process of the invention, the aluminum in the large source is maintained at a relatively low temperature, just above its melting point for example, and is fed from the large source to the evaporating zone to maintain a predetermined amount of aluminum in the evaporating zone. Thus, most of the aluminum in the coating apparatus is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature so that it does not have an appreciable vapor pressure (1. e. less than about .001 mm. Hg abs.) and is not particularly reactive with the container materials which confine the molten aluminum. However, thealuin'inum which is being evaporated is raised to a high temperature, on the order of 1300" C. and above, so that there is minimum radiation per gram. of aluminum evaporated, the evaporating aluminum having a vapor pressure .on the order of 0.3 mm. Hg abs. and above.

In one preferred form of the invention, the molten aluminum is fed by means of induced .currents existing in the aluminum as a result .of the heating thereof. In this form of the invention, the aluminum is heated in the evaporation zone by a high frequency induction coil, and the physical flow currents produced in the body of the aluminum by induced eddy currents are utilized for forcing the aluminum from the low-temperature pool thereof to the high-temperature evaporation zone.

In another embodiment of the invention, the

aluminum is fed from the low-temperature sup- 1 ply thereof to the evaporation zone by means of a difference in pressure between the pressure existing over the surface of the pool of lowtemperature aluminum and the aluminum in the evaporation zone. at a very low pressure, on the order of 1 mm. Hg abs. or less, a very small pressure over the surface of the low-temperature pool of metal is suflicient to lift the aluminum to a very considerable height.

Instill other forms of the invention the feed of the molten aluminum may be achieved by gravity flow, or actual pumping thereof, by means of the application .of a mechanical force, such as a centrifugal force, .to the molten low-temperatune aluminum.

In the above embodiments of the invention the evaporation zone preferably comprises a second container, and the low-temperature molten .aluminum is preferably fed thereto at a point below the evaporation surface to prevent lowering of the temperature of this evaporation surface as .a result of the feed of the cooler aluminum thereto. This low-temperature molten aluminum is preferably fed to the bottom of this second container and rises in the second container, it being heated as it rises to the high temperature desired for the rapid high-temperature evaporation at the evaporation surface.

This second container, which comprises the evaporation Zone, preferably confines the hightemperature aluminum therein so that the evaporation surface of the high-temperature aluminum has a smaller area than the surface area of the molten aluminum in the first container.

Referring now to Fig. 1, there is shown one preferred embodiment of the invention wherein the feeding of the molten aluminum to the evaporation zone is achieved by physical flow currents in the aluminum produced by induced electrical Since the evaporation zone is therebetween the substrate 20.

' tures on the order of 1300 C. and above.

4 l eddy currents. The apparatus of Fig. 1 comprises a vacuum-tight housing l0 which defines therewithin a vacuum chamber l2, this vacuum chamber being arranged to be evacuated to very low pressures, on the order of one micron, by means of a vacuum pumping system schematically indicated at [4. Within the vacuum chamber there is provided a means for supporting the substrate to be coated, this means comprising a first spool 16 and a second spool l8 carrying For holding the relatively large supply of metal, there is included a low-temperature zone generally indicated at 22,

while for evaporating the metal there is provided a high-temperature zone indicated generally at The low-temperature zone comprises a con tainer 24 which may be formed of carbon or the like, this container holding a large body of molten aluminum 26.

For feeding the molten aluminum 26 from the low-temperature zone in the bottom of the carbon container 24., there is provided a guide means shown as a hollow, cylindrical tube .28, which extends from the low-temperature zone 22 to the high-temperature zone 21. Cylindrical tube 28 thus serves as a second and smaller container which holds the high-temperature aluminum. The large container 24 is preferably partially closed by a cover plate 30, of a refractory material, which prevents the passage of radiation and low-temperature vapors from the large body of aluminum to the substrate 20. A spacing 32 between the cover plate 30 and the feeding tube 28 permits the retru'n of excess aluminum from the high-temperature zone back to the lowtemperature zone. For heating the aluminum in both the low and high-temperature zones, there is provided an induction coil 34. This coil .is preferably arranged so that a majority of the heating current is induced in the upper portion of the feeding tube 28 and the aluminum contained therein. However, .a sufficient amount of the current is induced in the low-temperature body of aluminum to maintain the aluminum molten therein. This induction .coil .34, due to the creation of eddy currents in the tube 28 and in the molten aluminum, also acts to cause :a physical flow of the aluminum upwardly from the low-temperature, large body thereof into the upper end of the tube .28 and thus .into the hightemperature evaporation zone. The tube 28 and the aluminum therein become highly heated due to these induced eddy currents. A suitable power source 36 is indicated for supplying an alternating current to the induction coil 34.

In a preferred form of the invention, the container 24 comprises carbon or a carbon graphite mixture which is relatively .inert to molten aluminum at temperatures below about 1000 C. The feeding tube 28 may be formed of carbon, but preferably comprises carbon or the like having a surface stratum of zirconium or a similar group IVa or group Va metal carbide, which is relatively inert .to molten aluminum at tempera- If such a zirconium carbide surface stratum is employed, the wetting action of the aluminum thereon assists in the lifting action of the induced eddy currents in the aluminum, this wetting action being described more fully in the copending application of Godley filed on even date therewith. In one preferred embodiment of the Fig.

1 form of the invention, the carbon container 24 and the feeding tube 28 have a wall thickness of A inch. When an alternating current of 10,000 C. P. S. is. used, the induced current has a skin depth of about .7 inch so that most of the induced current flows within the aluminum.

In the operation of the device of Fig. 1, a substrate is positioned in thevacuum chamber I2, and the chamber is evacuated to a low pressure, on the order of one micron Hg abs, by means of the vacuum pumping system I4. The aluminum 26, in solid form, is then heated by supplying current to the induction coil 34. As the aluminum becomes molten, it becomes more concentrated in the center of the container 24 by the action of the eddy currents flowing within the aluminum, and the central portion of the aluminum rises up within the feeding tube 28 as shown, the top portion of this lifted column of aluminum extending up into the high-temperature evaporation zone 21. As a result of these eddy currents, the aluminum in the evaporation zone is heated to relatixely high temperatures, preferably above 1300 C. to cause rapid evaporation of the aluminum. This high-temperature evaporation gives a low amount of radiant heat per gram of aluminum coated on the substrate. The relatively low temperature of the aluminum in the bottom of the container 24, in the lowtemperature zone 22, prevents attack of the molten aluminum by the carbon crucible 24. This arrangement has the additional advantage that any aluminum carbide scum which forms into the tube 28 enters the tube at the bottom thereof, any aluminum carbide contained in this latter portion of the aluminum being violently agitated and remaining intermixed so as not to form a scum. The aluminum in the high-temperature zone 21 is also being violently agitated with the resultant prevention of scum formation, as described more fully in the copending application of Chadsey et al., Serial No. 134,988, filed December 24, 1949, now Patent No. 2,643,201.

The embodiment of the invention described in Fig. 1 thus provides a coating device wherein the major portion of the aluminum is confined at relatively low temperatures, and the aluminum is fed from the large, low-temperature zone to a small, high-temperature evaporation zone where a rapid evaporation of the high-temperature aluminum is achieved.

Referring now to Fig. 2', where like numbers refer to like elements in Fig. 1, there is shown an alternative embodiment of the invention r wherein the aluminum is fed from the low-temperature, large body thereof to the high-temperature evaporation zone by gas pressure on the surface of the low-temperature body of aluminum. In this embodiment of the invention the low-temperature zone 46 comprises a gas-tight container 42 in which a carbon container 44 is positioned for confining low-temperature molten aluminum. The means for feeding molten aluminum from the low-temperature zone to the high-temperature evaporation zone 45 comprises a tube 40 which extends from below the surface of the aluminum in the low-temperature zone to the high-temperature zone. For heating the aluminum in the high-temperature zone I confined thereby, is preferably shielded by a re- 'in the low-temperature zone 40 by means of an induction coil 56. Induction coils 4B and 56 are preferably suitably energized from power sources which are not shown.

In one preferred embodiment of the Fig. 2 form of the invention, the feeding tube 46 is connected in a gas-tight manner with the gas-tight housing 42 to permit the creation within the housing 42 of a gas pressure greater than that existing in the coating chamber. For providing this gas pressure there is included a pipe 58 leading from a suitable source 60 of gas. This source 60' may comprise a source of an inert gas, such as argon or the like, or may be a bleed valve to the atmosphere. It is preferred that an inert gas be employed so as to prevent reaction between the aluminum in the low-temperature zone and the gas.

The Fig. 2 embodiment of the invention is preferably formed of the same materials as those employed in the Fig. l embodiment. In this case the container 44 preferably comprises carbon, as does the connecting tube 46. The'tube 46 also preferably includes a surface stratum of a carbide of the group IVa and group Va metals. The gas-tight housing 42 preferably comprises a metal such as steel. The gas supply tube 58 may also be formed of metal.

In the operation of the Fig. 2 device, the coating chamber I2 is evacuated. The low-temperature zone 40 may also be evacuated at this time through a suitable connection (not shown). Heat is then supplied to the low-temperature zone 40 by means of induction coil 56, and gas is provided through the tube 58 to provide a pressure differential between the interior of the gas-tight housing 42 and the evacuated chamber l2 to force the molten aluminum up to the hightemperature evaporation zone 45. Since the vacuum chamber [2 is at a very low pressure, less than 1 mm. Hg abs, the absolute pressure over the surface of the molten aluminum does not have to be very high. When the aluminum reaches the hightemperature evaporation zone, it is rapidly evaporated by heat supplied by the induction coil 48, this heat preferably raising the temperature of the aluminum in the evaporation zone to temperatures on the order of 1300 C. or above. The level of the aluminum in evaporation zone 45 may be readily controlled by controlling the pressure of the gas existing above the surface of the molten aluminum in the gas-tight housing 42. As will be apparent, this pressure is essentially constant, it being necessary to increase the pressure slightly as the level of aluminum in the gas-tight housing falls due to evaporation of the aluminum from the high-temperature zone. Since the aluminum in the low-temperature zone 40 is relatively inert, it is a relatively simple matter to measure the level of the aluminum therein by mechanical or electrical means, this indication of level being utilized to control the degree of gas pressure existing within the gas-tight housing 42.

As mentioned previously, the present invention has been described in connection with preferred embodiments thereof, but other forms may be equally utilized. For example, other mechanical forces may be employed for feeding the aluminum from the low-temperature zone to the hightemperatin'e evaporation zone. For example, centrifugal force may be employed. Equally, gravity may be utilized for causing the fiow of molten aluminum from a relatively low-temperature, large body thereof to a high-temperature evaporation zone. While induction heating has been shown for simplicity of illustration, other forms, such as radiant heating, are equally practicable.

Since certain changes may be made in the above process and apparatus without departing from the scope of the invention herein involved, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description, or shown in the accompanying drawings, shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

What is claimed is:

Apparatus for coating a heat-sensitive substratewith aluminum by vacuum-evaporation of said aluminum and condensation of said aluminum upon said substrate, said apparatus comprising means defining a vacuum-tight chamber, a container mounted in said vacuum chamber for confining molten aluminum, a heater surrounding said container for melting aluminum in said container and maintaining said aluminum at a. temperature not much in excess of the melting point thereof, aheat-resistant carbon tube mounted vertically in said chamber for confining high-temperature molten aluminum within said 8 vacuum chamber so that vapors from said hightemperature aluminum maybe condensed on-said substrate, said tube having an interior surface stratum comprising a carbide of the class consisting of the carbides of the metals titanium. zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, columbium and tantalum, a second heater for heating molten aluminum at the top of said tube to a temperature on the order of 1300 C. and above, said tube extending below the surface of the molten aluminum in said container, pneumatic means for forcing aluminum up said tube from said container to the top of said tube, a radiation shield between the upper portion of the outer surface of said tube and said substrate for preventing radiation from said tube to said substrate, and means for moving said substrate past the top of said tube.

EARL E. CHADSEY, JR.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,143,723 Walker et al Jan. 10, 1939 2,153,786 Alexander et al Apr. 11, 1939 2,363,781 Ferguson Nov. 28, 1944 2,382,432 McMa-nus et a1 Aug. 14, 1945 2,384,578 Turner Sept. 11, 1945 2,450,853 Colbert et a1 Oct. 5. 1948 2,508,500 De Lange et a1 May 23, 1950 2,584,660 Bancroft Feb. 5, 1952

US2664852A 1950-04-27 1950-04-27 Vapor coating apparatus Expired - Lifetime US2664852A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2664852A US2664852A (en) 1950-04-27 1950-04-27 Vapor coating apparatus

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2664852A US2664852A (en) 1950-04-27 1950-04-27 Vapor coating apparatus

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2664852A true US2664852A (en) 1954-01-05

Family

ID=22568047

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US2664852A Expired - Lifetime US2664852A (en) 1950-04-27 1950-04-27 Vapor coating apparatus

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2664852A (en)

Cited By (30)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2909149A (en) * 1957-11-15 1959-10-20 Cons Electrodynamics Corp Apparatus for evaporating metal
US2945771A (en) * 1953-07-03 1960-07-19 Mansfeld Hubert Formation of light-sensitive layers on photographic films
US2996037A (en) * 1959-01-26 1961-08-15 Nat Res Corp Vacuum coating apparatus
US3016873A (en) * 1959-01-26 1962-01-16 Nat Res Corp Coating
US3059612A (en) * 1959-10-19 1962-10-23 Wean Engineering Co Inc Vacuum coating apparatus
US3129315A (en) * 1961-12-26 1964-04-14 Lear Siegler Inc Vacuum vaporizing fixture
US3153137A (en) * 1961-10-13 1964-10-13 Union Carbide Corp Evaporation source
US3260235A (en) * 1961-07-25 1966-07-12 Aerojet General Co Apparatus for coating material with metal
US3467058A (en) * 1965-12-03 1969-09-16 United States Steel Corp Apparatus for vaporizing metal
US3510345A (en) * 1967-11-01 1970-05-05 Gen Electric Apparatus and method for automatically controlling the molten metal bath level in a metallurgical process
US3598085A (en) * 1968-10-11 1971-08-10 Gen Electric Dip forming apparatus
US3836387A (en) * 1966-10-31 1974-09-17 Republic Steel Corp Method of vaporizing metal
US3930463A (en) * 1972-07-14 1976-01-06 The Secretary Of State For Defense In Her Britannic Majesty's Government Of The United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Northern Ireland Vapor deposition apparatus including a three-compartment evaporator
WO2000008226A2 (en) * 1998-08-03 2000-02-17 The Coca-Cola Company Vapor deposition system
US6223683B1 (en) 1997-03-14 2001-05-01 The Coca-Cola Company Hollow plastic containers with an external very thin coating of low permeability to gases and vapors through plasma-assisted deposition of inorganic substances and method and system for making the coating
US6599584B2 (en) 2001-04-27 2003-07-29 The Coca-Cola Company Barrier coated plastic containers and coating methods therefor
WO2003071000A1 (en) * 2002-02-21 2003-08-28 Corus Technology Bv Method and device for coating a substrate
US20030194563A1 (en) * 2002-04-15 2003-10-16 Yu Shi Coating composition containing an epoxide additive and structures coated therewith
US6720052B1 (en) 2000-08-24 2004-04-13 The Coca-Cola Company Multilayer polymeric/inorganic oxide structure with top coat for enhanced gas or vapor barrier and method for making same
US6740378B1 (en) 2000-08-24 2004-05-25 The Coca-Cola Company Multilayer polymeric/zero valent material structure for enhanced gas or vapor barrier and uv barrier and method for making same
WO2005116290A1 (en) * 2004-05-27 2005-12-08 Sidrabe, Inc. Method and apparatus for vacuum deposition by vaporizing metals and metal alloys
US20090148598A1 (en) * 2007-12-10 2009-06-11 Zolla Howard G Methods and Apparatus to Provide Group VIA Materials to Reactors for Group IBIIIAVIA Film Formation
US20110146575A1 (en) * 2009-12-22 2011-06-23 Samsung Mobile Display Co., Ltd. Evaporation source and deposition apparatus having the same
US20110146579A1 (en) * 2009-12-17 2011-06-23 Samsung Mobile Display Co., Ltd. Linear evaporation source and deposition apparatus having the same
WO2012109591A1 (en) * 2011-02-10 2012-08-16 Apple Inc. Direct liquid vaporization for oleophobic coatings
US20130199447A1 (en) * 2010-12-13 2013-08-08 Posco Continuous Coating Apparatus
WO2015082022A1 (en) * 2013-12-06 2015-06-11 Applied Materials, Inc. Depositing arrangement, deposition apparatus and methods of operation thereof
WO2017191082A1 (en) 2016-05-03 2017-11-09 Tata Steel Nederland Technology B.V. Apparatus for feeding a liquid material to an evaporator device
WO2017191083A1 (en) 2016-05-03 2017-11-09 Tata Steel Nederland Technology B.V. Method to operate an apparatus for feeding liquid metal to an evaporator device
WO2017191081A1 (en) 2016-05-03 2017-11-09 Tata Steel Nederland Technology B.V. Method to control the temperature of an electromagnetic pump

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2143723A (en) * 1934-04-13 1939-01-10 Gen Electric Method and apparatus for applying metal coatings
US2153786A (en) * 1936-07-17 1939-04-11 Alexander Process and apparatus for thermal deposition of metals
US2363781A (en) * 1940-08-29 1944-11-28 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Apparatus for and method of applying metallic coatings by thermal evaporation
US2382432A (en) * 1940-08-02 1945-08-14 Crown Cork & Seal Co Method and apparatus for depositing vaporized metal coatings
US2384578A (en) * 1943-03-10 1945-09-11 Bausch & Lomb Optical element
US2450853A (en) * 1946-12-03 1948-10-05 Libbey Owens Ford Glass Co Method of coating by evaporating metals
US2508500A (en) * 1942-05-23 1950-05-23 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Apparatus for applying metal coatings on insulators
US2584660A (en) * 1949-09-24 1952-02-05 Eastman Kodak Co Vacuum coating process and apparatus therefor

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2143723A (en) * 1934-04-13 1939-01-10 Gen Electric Method and apparatus for applying metal coatings
US2153786A (en) * 1936-07-17 1939-04-11 Alexander Process and apparatus for thermal deposition of metals
US2382432A (en) * 1940-08-02 1945-08-14 Crown Cork & Seal Co Method and apparatus for depositing vaporized metal coatings
US2363781A (en) * 1940-08-29 1944-11-28 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Apparatus for and method of applying metallic coatings by thermal evaporation
US2508500A (en) * 1942-05-23 1950-05-23 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Apparatus for applying metal coatings on insulators
US2384578A (en) * 1943-03-10 1945-09-11 Bausch & Lomb Optical element
US2450853A (en) * 1946-12-03 1948-10-05 Libbey Owens Ford Glass Co Method of coating by evaporating metals
US2584660A (en) * 1949-09-24 1952-02-05 Eastman Kodak Co Vacuum coating process and apparatus therefor

Cited By (51)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2945771A (en) * 1953-07-03 1960-07-19 Mansfeld Hubert Formation of light-sensitive layers on photographic films
US2909149A (en) * 1957-11-15 1959-10-20 Cons Electrodynamics Corp Apparatus for evaporating metal
US2996037A (en) * 1959-01-26 1961-08-15 Nat Res Corp Vacuum coating apparatus
US3016873A (en) * 1959-01-26 1962-01-16 Nat Res Corp Coating
US3059612A (en) * 1959-10-19 1962-10-23 Wean Engineering Co Inc Vacuum coating apparatus
US3260235A (en) * 1961-07-25 1966-07-12 Aerojet General Co Apparatus for coating material with metal
US3153137A (en) * 1961-10-13 1964-10-13 Union Carbide Corp Evaporation source
US3129315A (en) * 1961-12-26 1964-04-14 Lear Siegler Inc Vacuum vaporizing fixture
US3467058A (en) * 1965-12-03 1969-09-16 United States Steel Corp Apparatus for vaporizing metal
US3836387A (en) * 1966-10-31 1974-09-17 Republic Steel Corp Method of vaporizing metal
US3510345A (en) * 1967-11-01 1970-05-05 Gen Electric Apparatus and method for automatically controlling the molten metal bath level in a metallurgical process
US3598085A (en) * 1968-10-11 1971-08-10 Gen Electric Dip forming apparatus
US3930463A (en) * 1972-07-14 1976-01-06 The Secretary Of State For Defense In Her Britannic Majesty's Government Of The United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Northern Ireland Vapor deposition apparatus including a three-compartment evaporator
US6599569B1 (en) 1997-03-14 2003-07-29 The Coca-Cola Company Plastic containers with an external gas barrier coating, method and system for coating containers using vapor deposition, method for recycling coated containers, and method for packaging a beverage
US6279505B1 (en) 1997-03-14 2001-08-28 The Coca-Cola Company Plastic containers with an external gas barrier coating
US6223683B1 (en) 1997-03-14 2001-05-01 The Coca-Cola Company Hollow plastic containers with an external very thin coating of low permeability to gases and vapors through plasma-assisted deposition of inorganic substances and method and system for making the coating
US6548123B1 (en) 1997-03-14 2003-04-15 The Coca-Cola Company Method for coating a plastic container with vacuum vapor deposition
US6251233B1 (en) 1998-08-03 2001-06-26 The Coca-Cola Company Plasma-enhanced vacuum vapor deposition system including systems for evaporation of a solid, producing an electric arc discharge and measuring ionization and evaporation
WO2000008226A3 (en) * 1998-08-03 2000-12-07 Coca Cola Co Vapor deposition system
US6447837B2 (en) 1998-08-03 2002-09-10 The Coca-Cola Company Methods for measuring the degree of ionization and the rate of evaporation in a vapor deposition coating system
WO2000008226A2 (en) * 1998-08-03 2000-02-17 The Coca-Cola Company Vapor deposition system
US6811826B2 (en) 2000-08-24 2004-11-02 The Coca-Cola Company Multilayer polymeric/zero valent material structure for enhanced gas or vapor barrier and UV barrier and method for making same
US6808753B2 (en) 2000-08-24 2004-10-26 The Coca-Cola Company Multilayer polymeric/inorganic oxide structure with top coat for enhanced gas or vapor barrier and method for making same
US6740378B1 (en) 2000-08-24 2004-05-25 The Coca-Cola Company Multilayer polymeric/zero valent material structure for enhanced gas or vapor barrier and uv barrier and method for making same
US6720052B1 (en) 2000-08-24 2004-04-13 The Coca-Cola Company Multilayer polymeric/inorganic oxide structure with top coat for enhanced gas or vapor barrier and method for making same
US6599584B2 (en) 2001-04-27 2003-07-29 The Coca-Cola Company Barrier coated plastic containers and coating methods therefor
US20030233980A1 (en) * 2001-04-27 2003-12-25 George Plester Systems for making barrier coated plastic containers
US7323229B2 (en) 2002-02-21 2008-01-29 Corus Technology Bv Method and device for coating a substrate
WO2003071000A1 (en) * 2002-02-21 2003-08-28 Corus Technology Bv Method and device for coating a substrate
US20050064110A1 (en) * 2002-02-21 2005-03-24 Corus Technology Bv Method and device for coating a substrate
CN100545299C (en) 2002-02-21 2009-09-30 科鲁斯技术有限公司 Method and device for coating a substrate
US20030194563A1 (en) * 2002-04-15 2003-10-16 Yu Shi Coating composition containing an epoxide additive and structures coated therewith
US6982119B2 (en) 2002-04-15 2006-01-03 The Coca-Cola Company Coating composition containing an epoxide additive and structures coated therewith
US20030219556A1 (en) * 2002-04-15 2003-11-27 Yu Shi Coating composition containing an epoxide additive and structures coated therewith
WO2005116290A1 (en) * 2004-05-27 2005-12-08 Sidrabe, Inc. Method and apparatus for vacuum deposition by vaporizing metals and metal alloys
US20090148598A1 (en) * 2007-12-10 2009-06-11 Zolla Howard G Methods and Apparatus to Provide Group VIA Materials to Reactors for Group IBIIIAVIA Film Formation
US8323408B2 (en) * 2007-12-10 2012-12-04 Solopower, Inc. Methods and apparatus to provide group VIA materials to reactors for group IBIIIAVIA film formation
US8845807B2 (en) * 2009-12-17 2014-09-30 Samsung Display Co., Ltd. Linear evaporation source and deposition apparatus having the same
US10081867B2 (en) 2009-12-17 2018-09-25 Samsung Display Co., Ltd. Linear evaporation source and deposition apparatus having the same
US20110146579A1 (en) * 2009-12-17 2011-06-23 Samsung Mobile Display Co., Ltd. Linear evaporation source and deposition apparatus having the same
US20110146575A1 (en) * 2009-12-22 2011-06-23 Samsung Mobile Display Co., Ltd. Evaporation source and deposition apparatus having the same
US20130199447A1 (en) * 2010-12-13 2013-08-08 Posco Continuous Coating Apparatus
US9267203B2 (en) * 2010-12-13 2016-02-23 Posco Continuous coating apparatus
CN103348033A (en) * 2011-02-10 2013-10-09 苹果公司 Direct liquid vaporization for oleophobic coatings
WO2012109591A1 (en) * 2011-02-10 2012-08-16 Apple Inc. Direct liquid vaporization for oleophobic coatings
CN103348033B (en) * 2011-02-10 2016-02-10 苹果公司 Directly for vaporization of the liquid coating oleophobic
WO2015082022A1 (en) * 2013-12-06 2015-06-11 Applied Materials, Inc. Depositing arrangement, deposition apparatus and methods of operation thereof
CN105874095A (en) * 2013-12-06 2016-08-17 应用材料公司 Depositing arrangement, deposition apparatus and methods of operation thereof
WO2017191082A1 (en) 2016-05-03 2017-11-09 Tata Steel Nederland Technology B.V. Apparatus for feeding a liquid material to an evaporator device
WO2017191083A1 (en) 2016-05-03 2017-11-09 Tata Steel Nederland Technology B.V. Method to operate an apparatus for feeding liquid metal to an evaporator device
WO2017191081A1 (en) 2016-05-03 2017-11-09 Tata Steel Nederland Technology B.V. Method to control the temperature of an electromagnetic pump

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Aronson et al. Thermodynamic Properties of the Potassium–Graphite Lamellar Compounds from Solid‐State emf Measurements
US3095316A (en) Process for coating carbonaceous articles with silicon dioxide
US6063185A (en) Production of bulk single crystals of aluminum nitride, silicon carbide and aluminum nitride: silicon carbide alloy
US4861524A (en) Apparatus for producing a gas mixture by the saturation method
US3031275A (en) Process for growing single crystals
US4655893A (en) Cubic boron nitride preparation utilizing a boron and nitrogen bearing gas
US4623400A (en) Hard surface coatings for metals in fluidized beds
US4156042A (en) Coating articles having fine bores or narrow cavities in a pack-cementation process
US20020170490A1 (en) Method and apparatus for growing aluminum nitride monocrystals
US5348703A (en) Vapor deposition apparatus and method
US20050229856A1 (en) Means and method for a liquid metal evaporation source with integral level sensor and external reservoir
Kaito Coalescence growth of smoke particles prepared by a gas-evaporation technique
US2944405A (en) Conservation arrangement
US6086672A (en) Growth of bulk single crystals of aluminum nitride: silicon carbide alloys
US2780553A (en) Process of providing a controlled atmosphere containing a heat decomposable metal compound
US2747971A (en) Preparation of pure crystalline silicon
Reed et al. Diffusion and convection in vapor crystal growth
US5253266A (en) MBE effusion source with asymmetrical heaters
US5047113A (en) Method for directional solidification of single crystals
US4426267A (en) Process and apparatus for the coating of shaped articles by cathode sputtering
US6045612A (en) Growth of bulk single crystals of aluminum nitride
US6045613A (en) Production of bulk single crystals of silicon carbide
US5858086A (en) Growth of bulk single crystals of aluminum nitride
Chupka et al. Dissociation energy of gaseous LaO
US20040016404A1 (en) Vaporizer delivery ampoule