US2664710A - Vapor pressure starter for internal-combustion engines - Google Patents

Vapor pressure starter for internal-combustion engines Download PDF

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Publication number
US2664710A
US2664710A US80543A US8054349A US2664710A US 2664710 A US2664710 A US 2664710A US 80543 A US80543 A US 80543A US 8054349 A US8054349 A US 8054349A US 2664710 A US2664710 A US 2664710A
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temperature
starter
switch
steam
engine
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Expired - Lifetime
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US80543A
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Jr Walter D Teague
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Bendix Aviation Corp
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Bendix Aviation Corp
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C7/00Features, components parts, details or accessories, not provided for in, or of interest apart form groups F02C1/00 - F02C6/00; Air intakes for jet-propulsion plants
    • F02C7/26Starting; Ignition
    • F02C7/268Starting drives for the rotor, acting directly on the rotor of the gas turbine to be started
    • F02C7/275Mechanical drives

Description

w. D. TEAGUE, JR
2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. WALTER D TEAGUE JR.
ATTOQ/VE) Jan. 5, 1954 VAPOR PRESSURE STARTER FOR INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed March 9. 1949 mwmszxo FEMOSEUIP r P l Om w xmm 6323 W. D. TEAGUE, JR
Jan. 5, 1954 VAPOR PRESSURE STARTER FOR INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed March 9. 1949 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG; 2
CUT OFF SWITCH "'7 FAN C ENTRIFUGA L SWITCH FIGQB R m ME, Q w m N r Patented Jan. 5, 1954 MEIER-memen- NAL-COMBUSTION 'ENGINES Walter-1). Teague, UL, Alp'in'e, N. 'J-., assignbr *to Bendix Aviation Corporation; Teterboro, N. J a'-eorpora,tion ofDelaware 3'Cla'im's- (01.60 106) "other "than itlieeonvritionefheleetrie storage bat- 'fteiis has 'hecdme appafreht.
I Staifte Systems have been prppdsjea iitili'zing fa, fixed charge 0f problems "involved in *s'ai fely harnessing the 'suddienly released jm'oti've pow'ei i'iito susita'ined 'craiikmg of the aji rcfziftengine have necessitated the construdtiondf ruggeli anaulkmqmpmems antl extensive "safety gifeeautions inftitdeir to safegtfalrtl the plane zind o'cdupants. Furthermore, the "stored 'en'ergy charge must be 'Su'fiiient to "start the engine under "the inost ailv'er'se conditi'ons which will *eiit'ail e wa'ste of s'ur'blfis energy under normal and fqtvor'elble c'ofnditighs including of course the "problem "0T "Safely discharging stitch surplus energy Without "permitting jthe 'etaiter mechanism to "attain tiri's'g'fe *Sped's after being disengaged from the eiirdraift engine.
one o'bie'ctfof the present irix' eriti'dn is to provide an effective simple, inexpenfsive and novel 'sta-rtersys't'em for internal combustion engines.
Another object 'of the presen invention is to :.r "v'itle, mean for Stafiting ihtrjn'a-l cdmbustio'n engines requiring sustaineq high-speed gre'nking and to "do 'so *by no'w'i'el, Safe effective means.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a simple no'vei Stfzt'fter iifiliziflg ge'i'ierajted steam for operating the st-arter 11101701". I A
The abbove a'hdotherdbfi e'cts and features of the invention ap ear T11113 hei'eiil'after from "ai'considerati'cin of the following desCri-ptiph taken in connection ith the accompanyin drawings wherein "one embodiment bf the invention is il- Tlustrate'd by Way of example. I
In the drawings, in which like mimei al's are used to designate the same elements oi the several figures:
, Fig. 1 shows a schematic viewfof the novel starter system of the present invention.
Fig. 2 show an ehla rg'e'cl view of fan and fuel nozzle'assemhly'o'f Fig.1. 4
Fig. 3 shows a 'wirih qiag'r'am for eqntrbllifi'g the operation of the starter system =of 1.
:"In Fig. 1 the sta'rter systein is shown as chm-'- prising "in general a steam generate? It, a source of fuel I? and means for transferring fuel from fuel ij ufiib F4, a st in dfierable stertei engine is e eracea frdin steam geh'erated m the steam generator, means in the stfltn generator fo'r =11;-
ana means fo'r "directihgthe biirn'ihg g'ses over the steam generator heating surfaces'hhownes a 'fah' 't lL- ihcl-iifdiiig iiieihs fdicontrolling thepfiiper ope a'tioh {of the various eomlionerits er the s'ta i tr such as the thermostat chamber 22 @118 control 505; "2'4.
latoi as anaehecktalveim'sre cdmicteafini i 3'9. The 'etear'm='gerfe'rsito'i' or boiler F0 comprises --a boiler hb u'sihg "42 'zliid s'fiirallydoiled "Water tubes '4'4 'airil W6. sli-i fbtmiiing the *w'aifier *tubes 'are wall portions 48 and 50 forming a. tempering water tank "or iaioket '52 aria air preheat chamber "54, r e'iqbti ileiy. water tank 15 filled bh'ifiugh 'a liner idipe 53 which is provided with a safety pliesSi-life a h'd yaetrizm relief valve -55. Mounted on top of the boiler is a fan motor "55 'dri'vingra fan or blower 20 through the hollow fan shaft 2'8 acleyj otehl to rotate Within a tubular sleeve '58 farmed integrally with or Welded to boiler housifing 42. sleeve $8 is provided with a bore adapted to connect with fuel pip'eisn and fuel passes from the pi fie into the 'sle'eve, through openings $0 the Wall of the hollow Shaft 28 to f-uel nozzle 2% which is the 'foiin of a disc having "circumfer'ehtially spaced redial outlet holes 61. With the "fan hunter ifiinning at constant speed and the 'fi'iel pfSSl:'1i'C0IfSfafit, the force with which-the fuel reeves tliffliel 'no'zzle outlets will depend on the 't'er "of the nozzle dish. The disc is rein'oi ahh fnollhtd on the fan shaft Mi d maLy-reafi il'j he 'ch'anged to ?suit the requirements of the haltihhiffiel used. The fan shaft 28 is Sealed ieleti'fe to the sleeve '60 on both sides of the fuel inlet in (Di deli to prevent fuel from escaping be and "s fg ed into the ebmhustiefi member 51 by the 2'11 ail-emitted with the fuel flowing f fom zle 5B "and the fuel mixture is ignited from 523 hat; T8. The "co'riibu'stion takes plbe in the chamber 04 and the burning gases are forced in between and in close contact with the water tubes on their way out through the exhaust flue 66. The water tube boiler shown is of a semiflash type in which a single pass tube received fluid at the bottom thereof from the water pump 68 and passes it through the spirally arranged coils 44 to the superheater coils 46 which form a coil closely adjacent to the inner surface of the wall of the combustion chamber, before it passes the superheated steam through pipe I leading to thermostat chamber 22. From the thermostat chamber the steam passes through a pressure safety valve I2 to a starter motor I0 which is shown as a vane-type engine but may of course be of any suitable type such as a steam turbine or reciprocating engine. The vane-type engine shown is lubricated from oiler I4 placed in the steam line and which passes off sufiicient lubrication to keep the engine properly lubricated. Mounted on the motor shaft is a normally closed centrifugal switch I0 which opens when the engine reaches a certain predetermined speed, in this type of installation usually approximately 5000 R. P. M. at which speed it is safe to assume that the aircraft engine has fired and is able to continue under its own power.
Water is stored in the water jacket 52 and is pumped into the boiler by the water pump 68. A by-pass valve 80 actuated by and connected to a bulb located in the thermostat chamber 22 by a tube 82 and by means of fluid expansion in the bulb it opens or closes the valve in response to steam outlet temperature. With the valve in closed position the water pump 69 is pumping water directly into the boiler tubing and in fully open position it allows the pump outlet to bypass back to the inlet thus merely circulating water through the pump. A check valve built integrally with the by-pass valve prevents boiler pressure from forcing boiler water back to the tank when the latter valve is fully open.
A cool-off switch 34 is mounted on the exhaust flue and connected to the blower fan motor, the purpose of which will be apparent as the description proceeds.
High temperature switch 80 is controlled by another bulb in thermostat chamber 22 and connected thereto by a tubing 08. The high temperature switch is normally closed and connected in series with centrifugal switch "I6.
The operation of the system will be better understood by referring to Fig. 3 in which the electrical control of the system is schematically outlined. A source of electromotive force 90 such as a storage battery is shown as being connected to one terminal of main switch 92 shown as a simple toggle switch in closed position. The other terminal of switch 02 is connected to one side of a push button switch 94 and to a bus 06 connected to one common side of multiple contact switch 08 arranged to be closed by relay I00, contact I02 serving to hold the relay I00 in closed position after starter button is released. The relay I00 is connected to ground through high temperature switch 00 and centrifugal switch I6. Contact I03 actuated with contact I02 connects water pump 68, fuel pump I4, fan 20 and through booster coil I04 spark plug I8 to the source 00. Cool-off switch 84 is normally open but is closed when the exhaust gases reach a predetermined temperature and opens up again as the temperature sinks below this value and is connected between bu 96 and the input to fan 20. The water pump 08, the fuel pump the fan 20 and the booster coil I04 are shown as being connected to the same contact I03 but it may be found advantageous to connect some or all of them to separate contacts.
The operation of the starter system is as fol lows:
The main switch 02 is closedand starter button 94 is depressed to close relay I00 and thereby close contacts I02 and I03. When the starter button is released the relay will remain closed by the holding contact I02 which permits urrent to fiow through the relay coil I00, the normally closed high temperature switch 80 and centrifugal switch I6 to ground. The closing of the relay I00 will also close contact I03 and energize water pump 68, fuel pump I4, fan 20 and spark plug I0. The fuel pump I4 will pump fuel from the fuel tank I2 through pipe 30, pressure regulator 38, check valve 40 and hollow fan shaft I0 to the rotating nozzle 26. The fuel entering through the nozzle outlet holes 6| i mixed with air drawn from the air preheat chamber 54 by the rotating fan 20. The fuel-air mixture is ignited by spark plug I8 and the burning gases are forced over the water coils 44 and 40 through the exhaust outlet 06. While the boiler is building up steam pressure water pump 68 is merely circulating water by the action of the by-pass valve 80. The generated steam is supplied to the starter engine It which begins to crank the aircraft engine as soon as the steam pressure builds up to a value sufficient to overcome the resistance of the engine to turning. The starter engine shown for the sake of illustration is a vane-type engine permanently engaged to the aircraft engine although piston or turbine steam engines, in and of themselves well known in the art, may of course be used, in which case it may be necessary to provide means for disengaging the starter from the aircraft engine such as by a jaw ad vancing-retracting mechanism or by an overrunning clutch. The system is protected against excessive steam pressure as by a safety valve '12 in the steam supply line and against excessive temperatures of the steam which may arise under abnormal operating conditions such as failure of the water supply, by high temperature switch 80. The high temperature switch 80 is normally closed but will open in response to a temperature responsive element such as a fluid filled bulb exposed to the steam in thermostat chamber 22. When this switch 06 opens, the holding circuit for relay I00 Will be interrupted and the system will shut off with the opening of contacts I02 and I03.
When the steam temperature approaches a certain value, indicating that the water in the boiler tubes is getting low, by-pass valve 80 will admit water to the boiler in an amount depending on the temperature of the steam. Thus. when the steam temperature reaches a certain predetermined value, the by-pass valve will gradually open thereby permitting water pump 68 which up to this time has merely been circulating water from its output to its input through the by-pass Valve, to force water into the boiler from the water tempering tank 52. If the steam tem perature continues to rise, the by-pass valve will continue to open until the pump is pumping water into the boiler at full capacity. A drop in temperature will cause a corresponding decrease of water supplied to the boiler. If the steam temperature for some reason continues to rise, this indicates a fault in the system and will cause a shut down thereof by the action of high temperature switch 86 as previously explained. Pressure relief valve I2 will prevent dangerous steam pressure from building up in the system if the aircraft engine should abnormally resist cranking.
When the starter engine has attained a speed at which it is safe to assume that the aircraft engine has fired and is able to continue under its own power, the centrifugal switch 16 opens and thereby interrupts the holding circuit'for relay I00 which causes contacts I02 and I03 to open thereby shutting off the system, In order to expel all the burning gases, there is provided a cool-off switch 84 which is adapted to close when the exhaust temperature reaches a predetermined value, and thereby connects the fan motor directly to the main bus 98. When the system is shut oil" and contacts I02 and I03 have opened, the fan will continue to run until the exhaust temperature falls to a temperature sufficiently low to open the cool-01f switch 84 thereby shutting the fan oil.
In the illustration of the preferred embodi ment of this invention, the system is shown as operating a single starter engine while of course the system may be located anywhere in the plane and may be used to start all the engines in a multi-engine plane. In the system described, water is used but, of course, any suitable fluid may be used to produce the pressure necessary 1 to operate the starter engine and other suitable means for producing such .pressure well known in the art may be utilized without departing from the scope of my invention.
Although only one embodiment of the invention has been illustrated and described, various changes in the form and relative arrangements of the parts may be made to suit requirements.
What is claimed is:
1. A starter system for internal combustion engines comprising, a starter motor, a vapor generator for producing vapor under pressure to drive said motor including a. combustion chamber and exhaust means therefor and fluid containing means having inlet and outlet means and having surfaces in heat exchanging relationship with said combustion chamber, means supplying fluid to said fluid containing means, means for introducing a combustible mixture into said combustion chamber, means for igniting said combustible mixture, means for forcing the combustion products over said heat exchanging surfaces and out said exhaust means, temperature responsive switch means adjacent said exhaust means, control circuit including circuit closing means energizing said combustible mixture introducing means, ignition means, forcing means and supply means, means for deenergizing said circuit if vapor attains a predetermined temperature, and means for 'deenergizing said circuit upon said motor reaching a predetermined speed, and said temperature responsive switching means being adjacent said exhaust means for maintaining said forcing means in operation after the deenergiza-tion of said circuit until the temperature of said exhaust means has droppedto a predetermined safe temperature.
2. In a starter system for an internal combustion engine comprising a starter engine, a vapor generator for driving said engine and having a combustion chamber including exhaust means, and fluid containing means having inlet and outlet and having surfaces in heat-exchanging relationship with said combustion chamber means for supplying fluid to said inlet of said fluid containing means, means for introducing a combustible mixture into said combustion chamber, means for igniting said mixture, and means for forcing the combustion products over and between said heat-exchanging surfaces and out said exhaust means; the combination of a control circuit for said system comprising a circuit closing means setting in operation said means for supplying fluid to said inlet of said fluid containing means, said means for introducing a combustible mixture into said combustion chamber, said combustion product forcing means, and said ignition means; and means for opening said circuit closing means when the starter engine to be started reaches a predetermined speed; and means responsive to the temperature of said exhaust gases for maintaining said means for forcing said combustion products in operation until the temperature of said exhaust gases has fallen to a relatively low value.
3. For use in a vapor pressure motor starting system for internal combustion engines; a vapor generator for producing vapor under pressure to drive said motor comprising a combustion chamber and exhaust means therefor, fluid containing means having inlet and outlet means and having surfaces in heat exchanging relationship with said combustion chamber, means to supply fluid to said fluid containing means, means for introducing a combustible mixture into said combustion chamber, means for igniting said mixture, fan means for forcing the combustion products over said heat exchanging surfaces and out said exhaust means, temperature responsive switch means adjacent said exhaust means, a control circuit including circuit closing means for energizing said combustible mixture introducing means, ignition means, fan means and supply means, means for deenergizing said circuit upon said vapor attaining a predetermined temperature, means for deenergizing said circuit upon said motor reaching a predetermined speed, and temperature responsive switching means adjacent said exhaust means for maintaining said fan means in operation after deenergization of said circuit until the temperature of said exhaust means has dropped below a predetermined temperature.
WALTER D. TEAGUE, JR.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,008,358 Newcomb Nov. 14, 1911 1,732,796 Doble Oct. 22, 1929 1,927,204 Doble Sept. 19, 1933 1,927,205 Doble Sept. 19, 1933 2,092,630 Bailey Sept. 7, 1937 2,192,759 Stubbs Mar. 5, 1940 2,235,541 Warren Mar. 18, 1941 2,339,185 Nettel l Jan. 11, 1944 2,372,064 Esarey Mar. 20, 1945 2,421,213 Moody May 27, 1947 2,477,734 Gehrke Aug. 2, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 568,685 Great Britain Apr. 16, 1945
US80543A 1949-03-09 1949-03-09 Vapor pressure starter for internal-combustion engines Expired - Lifetime US2664710A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4110974A (en) * 1976-12-22 1978-09-05 Williams Research Corporation Governor
WO2006015857A1 (en) * 2004-08-11 2006-02-16 Airbus Deutschland Gmbh Compressed-air generating system

Citations (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1008358A (en) * 1900-06-26 1911-11-14 Philip Van Volkenburgh Apparatus for heating fluids.
US1732796A (en) * 1924-11-19 1929-10-22 Doble Steam Motors Corp Steam-boiler-control system
US1927204A (en) * 1930-04-18 1933-09-19 Doble Warren Steam power plant
US1927205A (en) * 1933-09-19 Steam generator control
US2092630A (en) * 1934-06-29 1937-09-07 Gen Electric Humidifying apparatus for air conditioning
US2192759A (en) * 1938-06-03 1940-03-05 Gen Electric Elastic fluid power plant
US2235541A (en) * 1938-07-01 1941-03-18 Gen Electric Turbine power plant arrangement
US2339185A (en) * 1941-06-13 1944-01-11 Nettel Friedrich Combustion turbine
US2372064A (en) * 1942-10-28 1945-03-20 Westinghouse Electric & Mfg Co Centrifugal device
GB568685A (en) * 1943-10-11 1945-04-16 Spirito Mario Viale Improvements relating to the starting of internal-combustion engines
US2421213A (en) * 1944-04-05 1947-05-27 Friden Calculating Machine Co Centrifugal operated switch
US2477734A (en) * 1947-02-27 1949-08-02 Henry M E Gehrke Heating and humidifying apparatus

Patent Citations (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1927205A (en) * 1933-09-19 Steam generator control
US1008358A (en) * 1900-06-26 1911-11-14 Philip Van Volkenburgh Apparatus for heating fluids.
US1732796A (en) * 1924-11-19 1929-10-22 Doble Steam Motors Corp Steam-boiler-control system
US1927204A (en) * 1930-04-18 1933-09-19 Doble Warren Steam power plant
US2092630A (en) * 1934-06-29 1937-09-07 Gen Electric Humidifying apparatus for air conditioning
US2192759A (en) * 1938-06-03 1940-03-05 Gen Electric Elastic fluid power plant
US2235541A (en) * 1938-07-01 1941-03-18 Gen Electric Turbine power plant arrangement
US2339185A (en) * 1941-06-13 1944-01-11 Nettel Friedrich Combustion turbine
US2372064A (en) * 1942-10-28 1945-03-20 Westinghouse Electric & Mfg Co Centrifugal device
GB568685A (en) * 1943-10-11 1945-04-16 Spirito Mario Viale Improvements relating to the starting of internal-combustion engines
US2421213A (en) * 1944-04-05 1947-05-27 Friden Calculating Machine Co Centrifugal operated switch
US2477734A (en) * 1947-02-27 1949-08-02 Henry M E Gehrke Heating and humidifying apparatus

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4110974A (en) * 1976-12-22 1978-09-05 Williams Research Corporation Governor
WO2006015857A1 (en) * 2004-08-11 2006-02-16 Airbus Deutschland Gmbh Compressed-air generating system
US20070289285A1 (en) * 2004-08-11 2007-12-20 Airbus Deutschland Gmbh Compressed-Air Generating System
CN101014760B (en) * 2004-08-11 2012-04-04 空中客车德国运营有限责任公司 Compressed-air generating system

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