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US2650310A - X-ray image intensification and method - Google Patents

X-ray image intensification and method Download PDF

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Publication number
US2650310A
US2650310A US31406952A US2650310A US 2650310 A US2650310 A US 2650310A US 31406952 A US31406952 A US 31406952A US 2650310 A US2650310 A US 2650310A
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ray
material
electroluminescent
electric
layer
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William C White
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General Electric Co
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General Electric Co
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J31/00Cathode ray tubes; Electron beam tubes
    • H01J31/08Cathode ray tubes; Electron beam tubes having a screen on or from which an image or pattern is formed, picked up, converted, or stored
    • H01J31/50Image-conversion or image-amplification tubes, i.e. having optical, X-ray, or analogous input, and optical output
    • H01J31/505Image-conversion or image-amplification tubes, i.e. having optical, X-ray, or analogous input, and optical output flat tubes, e.g. proximity focusing tubes

Description

Aug. 25, 1953 W. C. WHITE X-RAY IMAGE INTENSIFICATION AND METHOD Filed Oct. 10, 1952 Fig. I.

Viewin Side X-Ra s Inventor: William C. White,

His AttIOYnQH.

Patented Aug. 25. 1953 MET William 0. White, Schenectady, N. Y., assignor to General Electric Company, a corporation of New York Application October 10, 1952, Serial No. 314,069

' Claims. (01. 250-71 The present invention relates to the visual intensification of images produced by X-rays. It has been desired for many years to produce brighter X-ray images without operating at higher X-ray intensity. The patient being examined, the examining doctor, the X-ray technician and others dealing with X-ray examinations would be endangered by X-ray exposure if brighter images were to be obtained by increase of X-ray intensity.

Heretofore visual images of an X-ray beam have been produced bythe fluorescence of phosphors when bombarded by X-rays, for example, calcium tungstate.

It is the object of my invention to provide a method and means for producing X-ray images or greater luminosity than is possible by fluorescence of phosphors while at the same time keeping down the X-ray intensity to a level that is not dangerous to those exposed to X-ray radiation.

In accordance with my invention visual images corresponding to an invisible X-ray pattern are produced by an electroluminescent material through the intermediary effect of a medium, the electrical impedance of which is subject to variations by the passage of X-ray therethrough.

In the accompanying drawing Fig. 1 shows in perspective a framed X-ray intensifier and Fig. 2 is a cross-section taken on the lines 2-2 of Fig. l (in the direction of the arrows) and shows an assembly of elements for carrying out my invention.

Referring to Fig. 2, a plate I of a light-transparent material, such as glass, is provided with a light-transparent electrically conducting coating 2 on the inside surface of the glass. Glasses provided with a light-transparent conducting coating are commercially available utilizing, for example, of conducting tin oxide. On this conducting film 2 is deposited a thin layer or stratum 3 of electroluminescent phosphor material bonded by a resinous dielectric material, or otherwise applied as a. thin layer over the surface of the conducting film 2. Electroluminescent phosphors are described in scientific literature and consist of a material which becomes luminescent in an electric field. For example, U. S. patent application, Serial No. 245,696, Jerome S. Prener, filed September 8, 1951, which is assigned to the same assignee as the present application, describes a phosphor of this type which consists of a fired mixture of about 60 parts zinc sulfide, 15 parts zinc selenide and about 0.5 part copper. If zinc oxide is present as an impurity in such mixture it should be dissolved from the product by treatment with acetic acid or other mild acid which may be followed by washing with a dilute solution of an alkali cyanide. The resulting powder is suspended in a dielectric material of high dielectric constant. An electroluminescent phosphor is described in Mager U. S. Patent 2,566,349.

Contiguous with the stratum of electroluminescent material is a material, the electric impedence of which is subject to change due to the X-rays passing therethrough, as exemplified by a stratum 4 of closely packed cadmium sul fide crystals. In the absence of X-ray excitation the impedance of the stratum is higher than the impedance of the electroluminescent stratum Electric contact is made to the stratum 3 at the exposed side (opposite contact between strata 3 and 4) with a yielding material which conforms with surface inequalities of the exposed side of stratum 4. For example, desired contact may be made with a very thin sheet 5 of aluminum backed by a sheet 6 of soft elastomer, such as rubber, so that by a gentle application of pressure, contact will be madeover the extent of the stratum 4 even though such stratum should have an uneven surface as will be the case if it consists of particles of varying size. The soft pressure-exerting sheet 6 is backed by a stiff sheet I of non-conducting material which is transparent to X-rays. It may consist of a suitable glass or a hard resin.

The described cooperating members are held in desired relation by a frame 8. Electrical contacts to the conducting coating 2 and to the backing sheet of aluminum 5 are made respectively by the conductors 9 and It]. To these conductors is connected a source of alternating current having a frequency and voltage suitable for the electroluminescent material that is employed. Assuming a, source of alternating current of suitable frequency (as, for example, 1 to 5 kilocycles) to be connected to the conductors 9, l0 and X-rays impinging on the screen as indicated by the arrow, the impedance of the sulfide crystals is lowered to a degree depending on the intensity of the X-rays.

When X-rays (as indicated by an arrow) strike the stratum 4 of cadmium sulfide crystals the impedance of this material is lowered. The resulting Variation of electric field will produce a corresponding variable pattern of the light genrated by the electroluminescent material. For example, a spot of high X-ray intensity will result in a correspondingly bright spot of the electroluminescence layer 3. Another spot of low X-ray intensity which may be due to interception of X-rays by a dense object (for example, a bullet imbedded in tissue) will result in little or no change of resistance in a corresponding adjacent spot of the layer 3. The result will be a shadow in the picture corresponding to the outline of the bullet.

By means of the arrangement described, a luminous image will be produced in the layer of electroluminescent material 3 and visible through the glass I looking from the left side of Fig. 2',- as indicated. This image will be brighter than that obtained by the use of a Well-known ma terials that fiuoresce directly due to X-ray impingement. The crystals whose conductivity is sensitive to X-rays introduce an element of amplification. A brighter image thus results than could be obtained from any known X-raiy-respon sive phosphor because the power to supply this increase comes from an independent electrical source. This introduces a degree of intensifica tion, the X-rays having what may be called a triggering effect on the electroluminescence of the material which is energized from the indepedent source.

What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

l. The method of producing an intensified optically visible image corresponding to an optically invisible X-ray image comprising the following steps: (a) arranging particlesof crystalline material which will change in electrical resistivity when irradiated with X-rays as a panel of desired spatial confi uration and closely adjacent to one another (b) arranging a second panel of an electroluminescent phosphor substantially coextensive with and in close proximity to said first panel particles setting up an electric field between said panels, and (d) subjecting said first-mentioned panel to X-ray radiation to be identified, whereby resulting changes in electric field distribution therein will produce an optically 'visible image in said second-mentioned panel.

2. The method of reproducing, a visual image,

variations of an X-ray beam which consists in causing said variations to initiate corresponding variations of electric impedance in a body of cadmium sulfide crystals, impressing a high frequency electric field on said crystals, and exposing an electroluminescent material to the resulting pattern of electric field variations whereby a corresponding and intensified visual pattern is produced.

3. An X-ray image intensifier comprising the combination of a stratum of material, the electric impedance of which is subject to change by X-ray excitation, a stratum of electroluminescent material, means for supporting said respective strata in contiguous position, means for impressing an electric field on said strata.

4. An X-ray screen comprising the combination of a layer of cadmium sulfide, a contiguous layer of electroluminescent material, circuit means connecting said layers electrically in series, the impedance of said cadmium sulfide layer in the absence of Xray excitation being higher than the impedance of said electroluminescent material, and means for impressing on said cadmium sulfide layer an X-ray beam having a contrasting' pattern of intensity capable of being reproduced visually by said electroluminescent layer.

5. X-ray image intensifier comprising a film of luminescent phosphor, a transparent support therefor, a layer of crystalline cadmium sulfide adjacent to and substantially coextensive with said phosphor, means for making electrical contact respectively with said phosphor film and said sulfide layer and means for impressing an electric field upon said electric contacts.

WILLIAM C. WHITE.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,523,132 Mason et al. Sept. 19, 1950 2,555,545 Hunter et a1. June 5, 1951 2,566,349 Mager Sept. 4, 1951

US2650310A 1952-10-10 1952-10-10 X-ray image intensification and method Expired - Lifetime US2650310A (en)

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US2650310A US2650310A (en) 1952-10-10 1952-10-10 X-ray image intensification and method

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2650310A US2650310A (en) 1952-10-10 1952-10-10 X-ray image intensification and method
GB2742953A GB760587A (en) 1952-10-10 1953-10-06 Improvements relating to x-ray image intensification
FR1090167A FR1090167A (en) 1952-10-10 1953-10-08 Method and apparatus for obtaining high brightness of X-ray images

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US2650310A true US2650310A (en) 1953-08-25

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FR (1) FR1090167A (en)
GB (1) GB760587A (en)

Cited By (50)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2773992A (en) * 1953-06-17 1956-12-11 Itt Display amplifier and method of making same
US2792447A (en) * 1955-04-21 1957-05-14 Rca Corp Electroluminescent color image reproduction
US2798959A (en) * 1953-10-01 1957-07-09 Rca Corp Photoconductive thermography
US2818531A (en) * 1954-06-24 1957-12-31 Sylvania Electric Prod Electroluminescent image device
US2818511A (en) * 1953-10-13 1957-12-31 Itt Radiation detector
US2824986A (en) * 1954-04-19 1958-02-25 Westinghouse Electric Corp Increasing contrast of the image intensifier
US2835822A (en) * 1955-09-12 1958-05-20 Gen Electric X-ray fluoroscopic screen
US2837660A (en) * 1958-06-03 Glass -
DE1038668B (en) * 1955-08-22 1958-09-11 Siemens Reiniger Werke Ag Imager using an insulating, photoconductive layer
US2853621A (en) * 1953-07-16 1958-09-23 Isomet Corp Mounting of fluorescent and phosphorescent elements
US2853383A (en) * 1953-10-02 1958-09-23 Paul H Keck Method and apparatus for amplifying photoelectric currents
US2856553A (en) * 1956-04-24 1958-10-14 Sylvania Electric Prod Electroluminescent display device
US2858363A (en) * 1952-10-20 1958-10-28 Rca Corp Electroluminescent image reproduction
US2863084A (en) * 1955-06-27 1958-12-02 Westinghouse Electric Corp Cathode-ray device
US2863061A (en) * 1954-05-28 1958-12-02 Westinghouse Electric Corp X-ray fluoroscopic device
US2870342A (en) * 1955-05-26 1959-01-20 British Thomson Houston Co Ltd Devices for amplifying or converting radiation
US2873380A (en) * 1952-10-20 1959-02-10 Rca Corp Electroluminescent device
US2880346A (en) * 1954-09-30 1959-03-31 Rca Corp Electroluminescent device
US2884541A (en) * 1955-10-10 1959-04-28 Rca Corp Electroluminescent image device
US2884528A (en) * 1956-03-05 1959-04-28 Rca Corp Stereoscopic x-ray intensification
US2894145A (en) * 1952-11-18 1959-07-07 Lehovec Kurt Double modulator utilizing photo emissive material
US2899560A (en) * 1956-03-19 1959-08-11 Philips Corp Radiation detector.
US2908824A (en) * 1954-09-17 1959-10-13 Rca Corp Radiant energy translating device
US2909667A (en) * 1955-08-16 1959-10-20 Itt Image device
US2916630A (en) * 1958-11-28 1959-12-08 Westinghouse Electric Corp Electroluminescent device
US2920232A (en) * 1958-08-18 1960-01-05 Gen Electric Display device with storage
US2924732A (en) * 1957-07-05 1960-02-09 Westinghouse Electric Corp Area-type light source
US2925525A (en) * 1954-04-26 1960-02-16 Itt Image reproducing device
US2926263A (en) * 1955-12-01 1960-02-23 Rca Corp Picture storage device
US2929935A (en) * 1954-07-23 1960-03-22 Westinghouse Electric Corp Image amplifier
US2932770A (en) * 1958-04-29 1960-04-12 Sylvania Electric Prod Electroluminescent device
US2936379A (en) * 1954-02-12 1960-05-10 Itt Radiation-amplifying device
US2943205A (en) * 1957-10-31 1960-06-28 Rca Corp Radiant energy control apparatus
US2949537A (en) * 1954-12-30 1960-08-16 Rca Corp Radiant energy sensitive device
US2974369A (en) * 1953-06-17 1961-03-14 Itt Method of making display amplifier
US3003869A (en) * 1957-02-11 1961-10-10 Xerox Corp Xerographic plate of high quantum efficiency
US3015731A (en) * 1954-08-21 1962-01-02 Philips Corp Radiation indicating device
DE1135109B (en) * 1955-07-26 1962-08-23 Philips Nv Device used to amplify electrical voltages
US3054900A (en) * 1954-07-06 1962-09-18 Itt Solid-state radiation amplifier
US3112404A (en) * 1953-06-17 1963-11-26 Rauland Corp Photosensitive radiant-energy transducers
US3152222A (en) * 1955-03-24 1964-10-06 Sylvania Electric Prod Electroluminescent color image device
US3155324A (en) * 1961-08-23 1964-11-03 Westinghouse Electric Corp Ceiling lighting fixtures
US3189786A (en) * 1960-08-10 1965-06-15 Westinghouse Electric Corp Lighting device and electrical connection therefor
US3210551A (en) * 1952-04-18 1965-10-05 Westinghouse Electric Corp Electroluminescent image amplifier
US3215847A (en) * 1959-08-06 1965-11-02 Thorn Electrical Ind Ltd Electroluminescent imageproducing device
US3244891A (en) * 1953-01-22 1966-04-05 Itt Variable intensity electroluminescent radiation amplifier
US3247389A (en) * 1952-10-20 1966-04-19 Rca Corp Electroluminescent device for producing images
US3264479A (en) * 1955-01-31 1966-08-02 Sylvania Electric Prod Electroluminescent light amplifier
US3500101A (en) * 1955-02-02 1970-03-10 Sylvania Electric Prod Photocapacitive electroluminescent light amplifier
US4023039A (en) * 1974-01-29 1977-05-10 Thomson-Csf Luminescent screen and image-converter tubes utilizing such a screen

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2523132A (en) * 1949-08-10 1950-09-19 Westinghouse Electric Corp Photosensitive apparatus
US2555545A (en) * 1947-08-28 1951-06-05 Westinghouse Electric Corp Image intensifier
US2566349A (en) * 1950-01-28 1951-09-04 Sylvania Electric Prod Electroluminescent lamp

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2555545A (en) * 1947-08-28 1951-06-05 Westinghouse Electric Corp Image intensifier
US2523132A (en) * 1949-08-10 1950-09-19 Westinghouse Electric Corp Photosensitive apparatus
US2566349A (en) * 1950-01-28 1951-09-04 Sylvania Electric Prod Electroluminescent lamp

Cited By (50)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2837660A (en) * 1958-06-03 Glass -
US3210551A (en) * 1952-04-18 1965-10-05 Westinghouse Electric Corp Electroluminescent image amplifier
US3247389A (en) * 1952-10-20 1966-04-19 Rca Corp Electroluminescent device for producing images
US2873380A (en) * 1952-10-20 1959-02-10 Rca Corp Electroluminescent device
US2858363A (en) * 1952-10-20 1958-10-28 Rca Corp Electroluminescent image reproduction
US2894145A (en) * 1952-11-18 1959-07-07 Lehovec Kurt Double modulator utilizing photo emissive material
US3244891A (en) * 1953-01-22 1966-04-05 Itt Variable intensity electroluminescent radiation amplifier
US2974369A (en) * 1953-06-17 1961-03-14 Itt Method of making display amplifier
US3112404A (en) * 1953-06-17 1963-11-26 Rauland Corp Photosensitive radiant-energy transducers
US2773992A (en) * 1953-06-17 1956-12-11 Itt Display amplifier and method of making same
US2853621A (en) * 1953-07-16 1958-09-23 Isomet Corp Mounting of fluorescent and phosphorescent elements
US2798959A (en) * 1953-10-01 1957-07-09 Rca Corp Photoconductive thermography
US2853383A (en) * 1953-10-02 1958-09-23 Paul H Keck Method and apparatus for amplifying photoelectric currents
US2818511A (en) * 1953-10-13 1957-12-31 Itt Radiation detector
US2936379A (en) * 1954-02-12 1960-05-10 Itt Radiation-amplifying device
US2824986A (en) * 1954-04-19 1958-02-25 Westinghouse Electric Corp Increasing contrast of the image intensifier
US2925525A (en) * 1954-04-26 1960-02-16 Itt Image reproducing device
US2863061A (en) * 1954-05-28 1958-12-02 Westinghouse Electric Corp X-ray fluoroscopic device
US2818531A (en) * 1954-06-24 1957-12-31 Sylvania Electric Prod Electroluminescent image device
US3054900A (en) * 1954-07-06 1962-09-18 Itt Solid-state radiation amplifier
US2929935A (en) * 1954-07-23 1960-03-22 Westinghouse Electric Corp Image amplifier
US3015731A (en) * 1954-08-21 1962-01-02 Philips Corp Radiation indicating device
US2908824A (en) * 1954-09-17 1959-10-13 Rca Corp Radiant energy translating device
US2880346A (en) * 1954-09-30 1959-03-31 Rca Corp Electroluminescent device
US2949537A (en) * 1954-12-30 1960-08-16 Rca Corp Radiant energy sensitive device
US3264479A (en) * 1955-01-31 1966-08-02 Sylvania Electric Prod Electroluminescent light amplifier
US3500101A (en) * 1955-02-02 1970-03-10 Sylvania Electric Prod Photocapacitive electroluminescent light amplifier
US3152222A (en) * 1955-03-24 1964-10-06 Sylvania Electric Prod Electroluminescent color image device
US2792447A (en) * 1955-04-21 1957-05-14 Rca Corp Electroluminescent color image reproduction
US2870342A (en) * 1955-05-26 1959-01-20 British Thomson Houston Co Ltd Devices for amplifying or converting radiation
US2863084A (en) * 1955-06-27 1958-12-02 Westinghouse Electric Corp Cathode-ray device
DE1135109B (en) * 1955-07-26 1962-08-23 Philips Nv Device used to amplify electrical voltages
US2909667A (en) * 1955-08-16 1959-10-20 Itt Image device
DE1038668B (en) * 1955-08-22 1958-09-11 Siemens Reiniger Werke Ag Imager using an insulating, photoconductive layer
US2835822A (en) * 1955-09-12 1958-05-20 Gen Electric X-ray fluoroscopic screen
US2884541A (en) * 1955-10-10 1959-04-28 Rca Corp Electroluminescent image device
US2926263A (en) * 1955-12-01 1960-02-23 Rca Corp Picture storage device
US2884528A (en) * 1956-03-05 1959-04-28 Rca Corp Stereoscopic x-ray intensification
US2899560A (en) * 1956-03-19 1959-08-11 Philips Corp Radiation detector.
US2856553A (en) * 1956-04-24 1958-10-14 Sylvania Electric Prod Electroluminescent display device
US3003869A (en) * 1957-02-11 1961-10-10 Xerox Corp Xerographic plate of high quantum efficiency
US2924732A (en) * 1957-07-05 1960-02-09 Westinghouse Electric Corp Area-type light source
US2943205A (en) * 1957-10-31 1960-06-28 Rca Corp Radiant energy control apparatus
US2932770A (en) * 1958-04-29 1960-04-12 Sylvania Electric Prod Electroluminescent device
US2920232A (en) * 1958-08-18 1960-01-05 Gen Electric Display device with storage
US2916630A (en) * 1958-11-28 1959-12-08 Westinghouse Electric Corp Electroluminescent device
US3215847A (en) * 1959-08-06 1965-11-02 Thorn Electrical Ind Ltd Electroluminescent imageproducing device
US3189786A (en) * 1960-08-10 1965-06-15 Westinghouse Electric Corp Lighting device and electrical connection therefor
US3155324A (en) * 1961-08-23 1964-11-03 Westinghouse Electric Corp Ceiling lighting fixtures
US4023039A (en) * 1974-01-29 1977-05-10 Thomson-Csf Luminescent screen and image-converter tubes utilizing such a screen

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
GB760587A (en) 1956-11-07 application
FR1090167A (en) 1955-03-28 grant

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