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Optical system for image intensifiers

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US2648776A
US2648776A US21696551A US2648776A US 2648776 A US2648776 A US 2648776A US 21696551 A US21696551 A US 21696551A US 2648776 A US2648776 A US 2648776A
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image
screen
axis
lens
optical
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Jr William W Eitel
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Westinghouse Electric Corp
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Westinghouse Electric Corp
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/02Viewing or reading apparatus
    • G02B27/022Viewing apparatus
    • G02B27/023Viewing apparatus for viewing X-ray images using image converters, e.g. radioscopes

Description

Aug. 11, 1953 w. w. ElTEL, JR 2,548,776

OPTICAL SYSTEM FOR IMAGE INTENSIFIERS Filed March 22, 1951 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fig].

WITNESSES! INVENTOR William w. Ei1el,Jr.

ATTORNEY Aug. 1953 w. w. EITEL, JR 2,648,776

OPTICAL SYSTEM FOR IMAGE INTENSIFIERS Filed March 22, 1951 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 P I L, .1 I I 1 I l I l I I 4 1 I I l I M T\ l- H2 ,1 .9 I LJ WITNESSES: INVENTOR Willign w. Eire|,Jr.

A TTORNEY Patented Aug. 11, 1953 'OBTICAL SYSTEM FOR IMAGE IN [EN SIFIERS William W. Eitel, Jr., Baltimore. Md, assignor to. W s in h useE ec r c Corpo i East Pitts: bur Pa, a rpor ion. of Benn v vania Application March 22, 1951, Serial No. 216,965

20,Cla ims.- 1v

My invention relates to X rav ap aratus. and. n. particular, r at to Kiev apparatus embodying; an electronic image intensifier of the type described and claimed in Mason and Coltman Pat ent 2,523,132, issued September 19, 1950, for an Image Intensifier and assigned to the assignee of this present application. More specifically, my inventionv comprises an optical system for producing a magnified view of the image appearing on the output screen ofv an intensifier of the type disclosed in the above-mentioned patent.

As is more fully described in Longini and Hunter application Serial No. 771,112 for an Image Intensifier, filed August 28, 1947, now Patent 412,555,545, and assigned to the assignee of this application, a very great increase in brightness intensification of the image can be produced in an, electronic intensifier by producing on the output screen of an intensifier tube suchv as is shown in the, above-mentioned patent an image having dimensions considerably smaller than those of its input fluorescent screen, and then magnifying. this image by a suitable light-optical system. The light-image produced on the output screen of the tube shown in the above-mentioned patent is. a reversed and inverted replica of that which the operator would normally ee on the fluorescent screen of an X-ray apparatus. My present invention is an optical system which reinverts and reverses the image on the output screen so that the observer will see the picture of the patient or object under X-ray examination in its true position, While at the same time it is magnified to any desired size and greatly intensified in brightness.

The output screen of the image intensifier of the above-mentioned patent is positioned in the direct path of the X-rays which have been used to irradiate the patient and its fluorescent input screen. My optical system likewise has the valuable property of producing an image which is viewed from a point at one side of the line of this X-ray stream so that an observer employing the apparatus for repeated or successive observations of diiferent patients is not exposed to repeated dosages of X-rays, but is in a safe and remote position. The observers position is likewise such that he is within easy reach of the patient and so can manually palpate the latter and adjust his positions during observation, a practice which is found highly desirable by roentgenologists.

Even were it safe for the observer to expose himself to the X-ray stream, the position of the output screen of the image intensifier shown'in the above-mentioned patent would likewise be such that observation of it would be difficult or impossib many pos t ons; in. h ch; he ta l up ortine he pa i n has- 0 urne nm ine observations generally. My optical system has the furtheradvantage that the position, of the patient may be changed through wide ranges while the observer remains stationary and has the image presented to his view without altering his own position. My optical system has the further advantage of being readily adjustable to accommodate observers of different, heights, or who may wish to take dififerent positions relativeto the patient and intensifier.

An application Serial No. 38,586 of Richard L. Longini, filed July 14, 1948, for an Optical System for X-ray Screen Image, Intensifiers, assigned to my presentassignee, describ s and, claims an optical system having some. of the objects which my present system is designed to. accomplish. However, my. system, is an improvement and in some respects an alternative to that described in theLongini application.

One object. of my invention is. accordingly to provide an improved form of optical; system for use with electronic image intensifiers for X-ray views.

Another object of my invention is to, provide an improved type of X-ray system to, be used in observations. made by X-rays of extremely high penetrating power.

Another object. of my invention is to, provide an, improved form of X-ray system which maybe readily adjusted o, enable observers of difierent heights, to easily view the fluorescent output screen of an X-ray apparatus.

Still another object of my invention is to provide an arrangement, which can be adjusted to enable observers to view the fluorescent screen of an X-ray apparatus from widely difierent positions outside the stream-line of the X-ray beam.

Still, anoth object o my n on s t provide an improved optical system for furnishing a magnified, reversed and inverted view of the. image on the, output screen oi an electron image intensifier of the type described in Mason and Coltman Patent 2,523,132.

A still further object of my invention to pro.- vide an optical system to be used in combination with an electronic image intensifier which produces, a reversed and, inverted image on its output screen.

Another object of my invention is to provide an optical system making possible binocular vision for an ima e in en fier f the type ment oned in the preceding paragraph,

Still another object of my invention is to produce an optical system for effecting certain of the purposes of that shown in Longini application Serial No. 38,586, filed July 14, 1948, but which is much simpler and more economical to manufacture, and in its general construction and mounting.

Other objects of my invention will become apparent upon reading the following description taken in connection with the drawing, in which:

Figure 1 is a general view of an X-ray table supporting an image intensifier and optical system in accordance with my invention;

Fig. 2 is a general prospective view of an image intensifier of the type shown in Mason and Coltman Patent 2,523,132 provided with an, opti-- cal system embodying the principles of my invention; and

Fig. 3 is a schematic diagram showing the posi-,

is slidably positioned an annular plate !5 having a central opening 16 through which the lens it projects. On the plate [5 are two upright side plates [1 having bearings for a horizontal shaft [8. Supported on the shaft i3 substantially midway between the side plate ii is a device which may be referred to as a roof-mirror i9 comprising a pair of fiat plates at right angles to each other and somewhat resembling the pitch-roof of a house. The inner surfaces of these two plates are made highly reflective by any means wellknown in the art so that they are good mirrors. The side plates of the roof-mirror it; are so at- .tached to the shaft I8 that the plane bisecting tions of the components of my optical system and of the images which it produces.

Referring in detail to Fig. 1 of the drawings, an X-ray table I on which a patient to be observed reclines has beneath its level upper surface an X-ray tube 2 of conventional type producing a beam of X-rays 3 which strikes a fluorescent layer 4 on the inner end surface of an image intensifier tube 5 of the type described and claimed in the above-mentioned Mason and Coltman patent and the above-mentioned Longini and Hunter application. The image intensifier tube 5 is supported in a housing 6 which, in turn, is held on a pair of curved bracket arms 1 from a pedestal 8 attached to the X-ray table I. The table I may be arranged in ways well known in the X-ray art so that it can be tilted at any desired angle to the horizontal, the pedestal 8 and the elements so far mentioned moving with it. The X-ray tube and other elements so far mentioned may likewise be provided with supports so that they can be moved either laterally or longitudinally of the table I to observe different portions of the patients body.

The light image produced by the X-rays on the fluorescent screen 4 generates an electron image corresponding in intensity to it point by point on a photo-electric surface closely adjacent to the fluorescent screen inside the tube 5, and this electron image is accelerated and contracted so that it impinges on an electron phosphor output screen 9 at the opposite end of the tube 5. As is more fully described in the above-mentioned Mason and Coltman patent and Hunter and Longini application, the electrons thus produce on the output screen 9 a light image which is a replica, except for contracted dimensions and greatly increased brightness, of the light image produced on the fluorescent screen 4.

In accordance with my invention, I support above the output screen 9 in housing ll anoptical system of the type disclosed in more detail in Figs. 2 and 3. The observer who wishes to view the X-ray image looks into the lens at the window l2 in the housing II where he sees a virtual image of high intensity, and any degree of magnification desired of the View appearing on the phosphor input screen 4.

Turning in detail to Fig. 2, the housing 6 has a fiat upper end having an opening in which the electron phosphor output screen 9 is positioned. Supported on this flat end of housing 6 is a circular base plate l3 having an opening aligned with the screen 9 and an aplanatic lens I positioned thereon to magnify the light image appearing on the screen 9. The base plate l3 has an annular recess in its upper surface in which the angle between the mirrors is normal to the axis of shaft IS. The shaft is normally occupies such a position that the line of intersection of the two roof-mirrors is approximately 'at 45 to the horizon, although as will be explained below, this angle is adjustable through a moderate amount.

The shaft it is provided with a pair of spur gears 21 and 22, of which 24 is connected to the shaft it and so is integrally connected to the roof-mirror l9. On the other hand, the spur gear 22 is loose on the shaft it but is connected by a pair of arms 23 (broken away in Fig. 2 to allow the gears 2i and 22 to show more plainly) to lens-plate 2a which normally stands substantially vertical and Contains the window [2 already mentioned and described in Fig. l. The lens-plate 2t is positioned far enough in front of the edges of the side plates ll so that it can swing on its support arms 23 through a moderate angle about the shaft it moving the spur gear 22 with it, of course. The window l2 supports a lens 25 which further magnifies the view seen by the observer who looks into it.

Meshing with the gears 21 and 22 are two other gears 26 and 2? which are connected t0- gether to an idler shaft which is journalled in one of the end plates H. A moments consideration will show that when the lens-plate 25 is turned about its axis on the shaft I8, the a train comprising the four members 2!, 22, 26

and 21 impart a turning movement in the same direction about shaft 18 to the roof-mirror It. The gear ratios are made such that the angular movement about the shaft 18 of roof-mirror i9 is one-half that of the lens-plate as about the same center. Since the beam reflected by the mirror from any fixed source turns through twice any angle through which the mirror is turned, it will be seen that by this arrangement the beam reflected through the lens 25 as the roof-mirror l9 and lens-plate 2 5 are turned about shaft IB is always maintained in alignment with the optical axis of the lens 25.

It will be seen that with the above-described arrangement, the lens 25 can be moved about the shaft l8 to a point above the horizontal to accommodate a tall observer and below the horizontal to accommodate a short observer when the table I is in its horizontal position. On the other hand, when the table I is laced in a vertical position, the shaft 18. will likewise be vertical and the lens 25 will turn about it by movement in a horizontal direction. This permits the observer to change his position in a lateral direction and adjust the optical system to maintain an easy view of the image of the patent.

The optical properties of the mirrors and lenses thus described are such that the observer looking into the lens 25 sees a reversed and inverted picture of the image generated by the incident electrons on the output screen 9 of the image intensifier tube 5. Since, as has been previously stated, the latter image is itself a reversed and inverted picture of the mage p oduced by the X-rays on the input screen 4, it will be seen that the observer looking through the lens 25 sees the image produced by the X- rays on the fluorescent input screen in its true position. However, as has previously been stated, this image has been magnified by the lenses l4 and 25 to any desireddegree and is many times brighter than that appearing on the input screen 4.

It has already been stated that the plate is seated in the recess in stationary plate [3 in such a way that it can be turned about thevertical axis of the image intensifier tube 5. When the tabletop is horizontal, this permits the observer to take any desired position relative to the head and feet of the patient, turning the entire optical system supported on the plate 15 about the central axis of the tube 5 so that the axes of the lens reach his eyes.

When, on the other hand, the table i is turned to a vertical position, rotation of the plate l5 about the said axis permits the optical axis of the lens 25 to be tilted upward or downward as necessary to accommodate a tall or short observer. Suitable binding means are provided to clamp the lens-plate 24 in any desired angular position about the shaft I 8 and to clamp the base plate IS in any desired position relative to the support plate IS.

The schematic diagram of Fig. 3 is provided to show the relative positions of the output screen 9, the lenses M and 25, and the roofmirror l9, and also the virtual image seen by the eye of the observer looking along the optical axis of the lens 25. The large exit pupil of the optical system permits the observer to see the picture in the mirror 9 with both eyes. All the lenses have a low-reflecting coating of a type well known in the optical art. The light efficiency of this system is very high inasmuch as the light is transmitted through only two lenses and from a reflector which can be given an extremely high reflecting power.

I claim as my invention:

1. In combination with a source of X-rays, an image intensifier tube comprising a fluorescent screen and an electron optical system energized by light from said screen and projecting an electron image of the light-field of said screen to produce a reversed and inverted light-image on an output screen, an optical system comprising a pair of plates intersecting each other substantially at right angles and reflecting on their adjacent faces, a magnifying lens system, and

means for supporting said plates and said lenses in position to project an image of said output screen to one side of the axis along which said X-rays are projected.

2. In combination with an image intensifier tube comprising a fluorescent screen and an electron optical system energized by light from said screen and projecting an electron image of the light-field of said screen to produce a reversed and inverted light-image on an output screen, an optical system comprising a pair of plates intersecting each other substantially at right angles and reflecting on their adjacent .faces, a magnifying lens system, and means for supporting said plates and said lenses in position to project an image of said output screen to one side of the axis along which said electron image is projected.

3. In combination with a source of X-rays, an image intensifier tube comprising a fluorescent screen and an electron optical system energized by light from said screen and projecting an electron image of the light-field of said screen to produce a contracted reversed and inverted light image on an output screen, an optical system comprising a pair of plates intersecting each other substantially at right angles and reflecting on their adjacent faces, a magnifying lens system, means for supporting said plates and said lenses in position to project an image of said output screen to one side of the axis along which said X-ray image is projected, and means for adjustably clamping said lens system to fix the angle of the rays reflected by said mirror relative to the axis of projection of said X-rays.

4. In combination with an image intensifier tube comprising a fluorescent screen and an electron optical system energized by lightfrom said screen and projecting an electron image of the light-field of said screen to produce a contracted reversed and inverted light image on an output screen, an optical system comprising a pair of plates intersecting each other substantially at right angles and reflecting on their adjacent faces, a magnifying lens system, means for supporting said plates and said lenses in position to project an image of said output screen to one side of the axis along which said electron image is projected, and means for adjustably clamping said lens system to fix the angle of the rays reflected by said mirror relative to the axis of projection of said electron image.

5. In combination with a source of X-rays, an image intensifier tube comprising a fluorescent screen and an electron optical system energized by light from said screen and projecting an electron image of the light-field of said screen to produce a contracted reversed and inverted lightimage on an output screen, a roof-mirror, means for supporting said roof-mirror with the plane bisecting the angle between its reflecting surfaces containing the optical axis of said electron optical system, a magnifying lens, means for supporting said magnifying lens so that its optical axis lies in said plane, and means for turning the axis of said magnifying lens about an axis normal to said plane.

6. In combination with a source of Y-rays producing a light-image on a fluorescent screen, an

optical system comprising a pair of plates intersecting each other substantially at right angles and reflecting on their adjacent faces, a magnifying lens system, means for supporting said plates and said lenses in position to project an image of said screen to one side of the axis along which said X-rays are projected, and means for adjustably clamping said lens system to fix the angle of the rays reflected by said mirror relative to the axis of projection of said electron image.

7. In combination with a source of X-rays, an image intensifier tube comprising a fluorescent screen and an electron optical system energized by light from said screen, a roof-mirror, means for supporting said roof-mirror with the plane which bisects the dihedral angle between its mirror-surfaces containing the optical axis of said electron optical system, a magnifying lens, means for supporting said magnifying lens so that its optical axis lies in said plane, means for turning the axis of said magnifying lens about an axis normal to said plane, and means for turning said roof mirror about said normal axis through an angle always one-half as great as that through which the axis of said magnifying lens is turned.

8. In combination with a source of X-rays, producing a light-image on a fluorescent screen, a magnifying lens, a roof-mirror, means for supporting said roof-mirror with the plane which bisects the dihedral angle between its mirrorsurfaces containing the optical axis of said magnifying lens, means for turning the axis of said magnifying lens about an axis normal to said plane, and means for turning said roof mirror about said normal axis through an angle always one-half as great as that through which the axis of said magnifying lens is turned.

9. In combination with a source of X-rays, producing a light-image on a fluorescent screen, a magnifying lens, a roof-mirror, means for supporting said roof-mirror with the plane which bisects the dihedral angle between its mirrorsurfaces containing the optical axis of said magnifying lens, means for turning the axis of said magnifying lens about an axis normal to said plane, and means for turning said roof mirror about said normal axis through an angle always one-half as great as that through which the axis of said magnifying lens is turned and clamping its position relative to said fluorescent screen.

10. In combination with a source of X-rays, an image intensifier tube comprising a fluorescent screen and an electron optical system energized by light from said screen, a roof-mirror, means for supporting said roof-mirror with the plane which bisects its dihedral angle containing the optical axis of said electron optical system, a magnifying lens, means for supporting said magnifying lens so that its optical axis lies in said plane and intersects the common point of the ridge-line of said roof-mirror and the axis of said electron optical system, means for turning said ridge-line and the axis of said magnifying lens about a normal axis to said dihedral plane which passes through said intersection point, and means for turning said roof-mirror about said normal axis through an angle always one-half as great as that through which the axis of said magnifying lens is turned about said normal axis, means being provided for clamping said magnifying lens in fixed relation relative to said support means.

11. In combination with a source of X-rays, an image intensifier tube having a fluorescent screen at one end on which X-rays from said source impinge, a photo-electric layer positioned so that light from said fluorescent screen generates an electron image, means for projecting said electron image into incidence with an electronphospher screen, the last said image having dimensions smaller than those on said fluorescent screen, means for supporting said image intensifier tube with the direction along which said electron image is projected aligned with the direction of propagation of said X-rays, a base plate having an opening supported in a plane substantially normal to the aforesaid direction, a member supported on said base plate for rotation about said direction as an axis, a roof-mirror supported on said member on an axle which intersects said axis at right angles, the plane bisecting the dihedral angle between the reflecting surfaces of said roof-mirror also containing said axis, a magnifying lens having an optical axis lying in said plane and passing through said axle means for supporting said magnifying lens for rotational movement about said axle, and mechanism interconnecting said magnifying lens and said roofmirror to ensure that angular movement of said magnifying lens about said axle relative to said bearing plate is twice as great as angular movement of said roof-mirror relative to said bearing plate.

12. In combination with an image intensifier tube having a fluorescent screen at one end, a photo-electric layer positioned so that light from said fluorescent screen generates an electron image, means for projecting said electron image into incidence with an electron-phosphor screen, the last said image having dimensions smaller than those on said fluorescent screen, means for supporting said image intensifier tube with the di rection along which said electron image is projected aligned with the direction of propagation of said X-rays, a, base plate having an opening supported in a plane substantially normal to the aforesaid direction, a member supported on said base plate for rotation about said direction as an axis, a roof-mirror supported on said member on an axle which intersects said axis at right angles, the plane bisecting the dihedral angle between the reflecting surfaces of said roof-mirror also containing said axis, a magnifying lens having an optical axis lying in said plane and passing through said axle, means for supporting said magnifying lens for rotational movement about said axle, and mechanism interconnecting said magnifying lens and said roof-mirror to ensure that angular movement of said magnifying lens about said axle relative to said bearing plate is twice as great as angular movement of said roofmirror relative to said bearing plate.

13. In combination with a source of X-rays, a fluorescent screen irradiated by X-rays from said source, a base plate having an opening supported in a plane substantially normal to the projection direction of said X-rays, a member supported on said base plate for rotation about said direction as an axis, a roof-mirror supported on said member on an axle which intersects said axis at right angles, the plane bisecting the dihedral angle between the reflecting surfaces of said roofmirror also containing said axis, a magnifying lens having an optical axis lying in said plane and passing through said axle, means for supporting said magnifying lens for rotational movement about said axle, and mechanism interconnecting said magnifying lens and said roofmirror to ensure that angular movement of said magnifying lens about said axle relative to said bearing plate is twice as great as angular move- D'ieilt of said roof-mirror relative to said bearing p a e.

14. In combination with a source of X-rays, an image intensifier tube having a fluorescent screen at one end, a photo-electric layer positioned so that light from said fluorescent screen generates an electron image, means for projecting said electron image into incidence with an electron phosphor screen, the last said image having dimensions smaller than those on said fluorescent screen, means for supporting said image intensifier tube with the direction along which said electron image is projected aligned with the direction of propagation of said X-rays, a base plate having an opening supported in a plane substantially normal to the aforesaid direction, a member supported on said base plate for rotation about said axis, a roof-mirror supported on an axle on said member in a position intersecting said axis at right angles, the ridge of said 9 roof-mirror intersecting said axis and the plane bisecting the dihedral angle between the reflecting surfaces of said roof-mirror also containing said axis, a, magnifying lens having an optical axis lying in said plane and passing through said axle, a first spur gear fastened to said axle, a second spur gear supported on said axle but free to rotate relative thereto, means for supporting said magnifying lens in a fixed position relative to said second spur gear, an idler shaft journalled in said support and a pair of spur gears on said idler shaft respectively meshing with said first spur gear and said second spur gear, the ratio of said gears being such that angular movements of said magnifying lens relative to said support means are twice any angular movements of said roof-mirror relative to said support means.

15. In combination with a source of X-rays, an image intensifier tube having a fluorescent screen at one end, a photo-electric layer positioned so that light from said fluorescent screen generates an electron image, means for projecting said electron image into incidence with an electron phosphor screen, the last said image having dimensions smaller than those on said fluorescent screen, mean for supporting said image intensifier tube with the direction along which said electron image is projected aligned with the direction of propagation of said X-rays, a base plate having an opening supported in a plane substantially normal to the aforesaid direction, an aplanatic magnifying lens supported adjacent said base plate with its axis coincident to the direction of projection of said electron image, a member supported on said base plate for rotation about said axis, a roof-mirror supported on said member on an axle which is normal to the plane bisecting the dihedral angle between the reflecting surfaces of said roofmirror, a magnifying lens having an optical axis lying in said plane and passing through said axle, means for supporting said magnifying lens for rotational movement about said axle, and mechanism interconnecting said magnifying lens and said roof-mirror to ensure that angular movement of said magnifying lens about said axle relative to said bearing plate is twice as great as angular movement of said roof-mirror relative to said bearing plate.

16. In combination with a source of X-rays, an image intensifier tube having a fluorescent screen at one end, a photo-electric layer positioned so that light from said fluorescent screen generates an electron image, means for projecting said electron image into incidence with an electron phosphor screen, the last said image having dimensions smaller than those on said fluorescent screen, means for supporting said image intensifier tube with the direction along which said electron image is projected aligned with the direction of propagation of said X-rays, a base plate having an opening supported in a plane substantially normal to the aforesaid direction, an aplanatic magnifying lens supported adjacent said base plate with its axis coincident the direction of projection of said electron image, a member supported on said base plate for rotation about said axis, a roof-mirror supported on an axle on said member in a position intersecting said axis at right angles, the ridge of said roof-mirror intersecting said axis and the plane bisecting the dihedral angle between the reflecting surfaces of said roof-mirror also containing said axis, a magnifying lens having an optical gear, the ratio of said gears being such thatangular movements of said magnifying lens relative to said support means are twice any angular movements of said roof-mirror relative to sai support means.

17. In combination with an image intensifier tube comprising a fluorescent screen and an electron optical system energized by light from said screen and projecting an electron image of the light-field of said screen to produce a contracted reversed and inverted light-image on an output screen, a roof-mirror, means for supporting said roof-mirror with the plane bisecting the angle between its reflecting surfaces containing the optical axis of said electron optical system, a magnifying lens, means for supporting said magnifying lens so that its optical axis lies in said plane, and means for turning the axis of said magnifying lens about an axis normal to said plane.

18. In combination with an image intensifier tube comprising a fluorescent screen and an electron optical system energized by light from said screen, a roof-mirror, means for supporting said roof-mirror with the plane which bisects its dihedral angle containing the optical axis of said electron optical system, a magnifying lens, means for supporting said magnifying lens so that its optical axis lies in said plane and intersects the common point of the ridge-line of said roofmirror and the axis of said electron optical system, means for turning said ridge-line and the axis of said magnifying lens about a normal axis to said dihedral plane which passes through said intersection point, and means for turning said roof-mirror about said normal axis through an angle always one-half as great as that through which the axis of said magnifying lens is turned about said normal axis, means being provided for clamping said magnifying lens in fixed relation relative to said support means.

19. In combination with an image intensifier tube having a fluorescent screen at one end, a photoelectric layer positioned so that light from said fluorescent screen generates an electron image, means for projecting said electron image into incidence with an electron phosphor screen, means for supporting said image intensifier tube with the direction along which said electron image is projected aligned with the direction of propagation of said X-rays, a base plate having an opening supported in a plane substantially normal to the aforesaid direction, an aplanatic magnifying lens supported adjacent said base plate with its axis coincident the direction of projection of said electron image, a member supported on said base plate for rotation about said axis, a roof-mirror supported on an axle on said member in a position intersecting said axis at right angles, the ridge of said roof-mirror intersecting said axis and the plane bisecting the dihedral angle between the reflecting surfaces of said roof-mirror also containing said axis, a magnifying lens having an optical axis lying in said plane and passing through said axle, a first spur gear fastened to said axle, a second spur gear supported on said axle but free to rotate relative thereto, means for supporting said magnifying lens in a fixed position relative to said second spur gear, an idler shaft journaled in said support and. a pair of spur gears on said idler shaft respectively meshing with said first spur gear and said second spur gear, the ratio of said gears being such that angular movements of said magnifying lens relative to said support means are twice any angular movements of said roofmirror relative to said support means.

20. In combination with a source of X-rays, an image intensifier tube comprising a fluorescent screen and an electron optical system energized by light from said screen and projecting an electron image of the light-field of said screen to produce a reversed and inverted light-image on an output screen, an optical system comprising a pair of plates intersecting each other and reflecting on their adjacent faces, a magnifying 12 lenssystem, and means forsupporting said plates and said lenses in position to project an image of said output screen to one side of and rotatably about the axis along which said X-rays are projected.

WILLIAM W. EITEL, in.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,093,288 Ogloblinsky Sept. 14, 1937 2,158,853 Coolidge May 16, 1939 2,363,600 Lawlor Nov. 28, 1944 2,401,191 Rosett May 28, 1946 2,523,132 Mason et al. Sept. 19, 1950 2,555,423 Sheldon June 5, 1951 2,555,545 Hunter et a1 June 5, 1951

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Cited By (2)

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US2769918A (en) * 1952-10-02 1956-11-06 Gulf Research Development Co Epithermal neutron logging method using collimation
US2922336A (en) * 1953-11-12 1960-01-26 Philips Corp X-ray image intensifying and viewing device

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